Preliminary Results of the Ukraine Willingness and Ability to Pay

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					   Preliminary Results of the Ukraine
     Willingness and Ability to Pay
                Survey
                               November, 2004

Conducted by The State Statistical Committee of Ukraine
In cooperation with The Ministry of Health of Ukraine and StatInform Consulting
Funding support provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development

Technical Assistance provided by the U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center
Administrative support provided by The Futures Group International, The Policy Project

* DO NOT CITE. These results are preliminary and have not yet been subjected to the careful
               review and analysis required for public dissemination.
The Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey - WAPS Overview

• WAPS is designed to measure current contraceptive practices
     in Ukraine and to monitor changes over time.

• Though similar to the Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey
      (URHS), WAPS is not directly comparable due to
      differences in survey design, sample selection, and
      questionnaire construction.

• The focus of the WAPS survey is on knowledge, use, cost, and
       willingness and ability to pay for contraceptive methods.

• Interviews were conducted with both men and women ages
        15-49 in selected households
The Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey - WAPS Overview
                       (continued)

• WAPS was conducted as a “rider survey” attached to
     Ukraine’s Labor Force Survey (LFS), of the State
     Statistical Committee.

• Advantages and Disadvantages of Rider Surveys:
   + Cost Effective, incurs only incremental expense.
   + Utilizes local expertise for sampling, fieldwork, and data processing.
   + Respondent recognition of established, legitimate survey improves
       response rates and cooperation.
   - Rider questions may have lower priority for agency conducting the host
       survey
   - Scheduling is tied to the calendar of hosting agency
   - Respondent fatigue may be a factor, respondents may not be willing to
       answer additional questions after completing initial survey.
      The Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey - WAPS
                   Overview (continued)

• Potential disadvantages of Rider survey (above) were not a
      major factor, due to high level of local interest in the topic.
• Overall response rate was about 85%.
• Major urban centers had substantially lower participation
• Item response rates were also very high. Preliminary analysis
      suggests that respondents were highly cooperative.
• Some enumerator instructions may not have been followed.
     Partners in the same household were to be questioned
     separately to ensure confidentiality of responses. Close
     correlation of partner’s responses suggests that
     enumerators were either unwilling or unable to follow
     the confidentiality guidelines.
                           WAPS Response Rates
Table 1. Number of Selected Households in Sample for the 2004 WAPS
         by Region, Oblast and Residence
                                                                 Response
Region                           Ukraine    Urban       Rural        Rate

West                                2861     1453        1408        85.9%
 Rivnenska oblast                    325      178         147        93.7%
 Lvivska oblast                      575      319         256        83.7%
 Volynska oblast                     272      153         119        63.6%
 Chernovtsy oblast                   343      157         186        96.3%
 Ivano-Frankivska oblast             352      146         206        85.9%
 Ternopilska oblast                  256      116         140        88.0%
 Zakarpatska oblast                  404      192         212        98.3%
 Khelminitska oblast                 334      192         142        83.3%

North                               1578      981         597        79.0%
 Zhitomirska oblast                  352      186         166        91.7%
 Kiev City                           259      259                    52.7%
 Kievska oblast                      355      193         162        84.3%
 Chernigivska oblast                 364      204         160        94.3%
 Sumska oblast                       248      139         109        78.7%

Central                             2058     1222         836        88.0%
 Poltavska oblast                    410      219         191        96.7%
 Dnipropetrovska oblast              699      562         137        86.9%
 Cherkassky oblast                   308      166         142        91.1%
 Kirovogradska oblast                276      164         112        89.3%
 Vinnitska oblast                    365      111         254        78.7%
                                  WAPS Response Rates, Continued
             Table 1. Number of Selected Households in Sample for the 2004 WAPS
                      by Region, Oblast and Residence

                                                                                                            Response
             Region                                           Ukraine            Urban              Rural       Rate

             South                                                1947             1154               793      82.5%
              Zaporizska oblast                                    383              239               144      71.1%
              Khersonska oblast                                    342              168               174      94.0%
              Mickolaivska oblast                                  275              147               128      72.0%
              Odesska oblast                                       491              284               207      83.8%
              Crimean Autonomous Republic                          399              269               130      94.3%
              Sebastopol City                                       57               47                10      87.7%

             East                                                 1861             1471               390      87.7%
              Kharkivska oblast                                    544              410               134      84.1%
              Donetska oblast                                      825              734                91      85.8%
              Luganska oblast                                      492              327               165      95.7%


             Ukraine                                          10305              6281              4024      84.8%




Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                              WAPS, Characteristics of Respondents
    Table 3. Respondent characteristics

                                    Unweighted percentages                                                   Unweighted percentages
   Characteristic                        Males     Females             Characteristic                              Males     Females

   Residence                                                           Marital status
    Urban                                    58.8         62.8          Currently married                           57.7        60.0
    Rural                                    41.2         37.2          Single                                      36.0        24.5
                                                                        Divorced, separated, widowed                 6.2        15.4
   Region
    West                                     28.7         27.0         Education (highest level completed)
    North                                    15.4         15.3          Less than secondary                         20.1        15.7
    Central                                  20.2         19.7          Secondary                                   50.0        41.3
    South                                    17.9         19.7          More than secondary                         29.9        43.0
    East                                     17.8         18.3
                                                                       Income
   Age group                                                             Less than 400 Hrivna                       25.0        26.8
    15 to 19                                 15.9         13.1           From 400 to 599 Hrivna                     24.0        24.2
    20 to 24                                 13.0         12.6           From 600 to 899 Hrivna                     26.7        26.4
    25 to 29                                 13.3         13.8           More than 900 Hrivna                       24.3        22.6
    30 to 34                                 14.2         14.1           Income not reported
    35 to 39                                 13.6         14.0
    40 to 44                                 15.9         16.3         Employment status
    45 to 49                                 14.1         16.1          Employed                                    62.9        54.8
                                                                        Unemployed                                  18.5        23.9
                                                                        On Maternity Leave                           0.0         6.0
                                                                        Other                                       18.5        15.2

   Number of respondents                    4751          5554




Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                                       WAPS, Characteristics of Respondents – Age and Sex
                                              Proportional Distributions of Population of Ukraine, ages 15 to 49
                                 0.2


                                                        National Population Male         Survey Population Male
                                                        National Population Female       Survey Population Female


                                0.15
    Distribution within 15-49




                                 0.1




                                0.05




                                  0
                                         15 to 19     20 to 24       25 to 29        30 to 34       35 to 39        40 to 44   45 to 49

                                                                                 Age Group
Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                                 WAPS, Characteristics of Respondents – Residence
                                          Urban and Rural Population Distribution
                               100%



                               80%

                                                                                                                  Rural
        Percent Distribution




                               60%

                                                                                                                  Urban

                               40%




                               20%



                                0%
                                            Census 2001                                       WAPS (unweighted)
                                                                    Data Source

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                    WAPS, Characteristics of Respondents – Education
                                         Educational Attainment, by Age Group
          100%



            80%



            60%



            40%



            20%



             0%
                      15-19

                              20-24

                                      25-29

                                              30-34

                                                      35-39

                                                              40-44

                                                                       45-49




                                                                                  15-19

                                                                                          20-24

                                                                                                  25-29

                                                                                                           30-34

                                                                                                                   35-39

                                                                                                                           40-44

                                                                                                                                   45-49
                                  Census 2001                           Age Group                      WAPS Survey
                                   Less than Secondary                Complete Secondary             Beyond Secondary


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
        WAPS, Characteristics of Respondents – Compared to URHS
      Table 4. Comparison of Distribution of WAPS Respondents with 1999 Reproductive
               Health Survey and 2001 Census Results

                                    Unweighted percentages, WAPS                   1999 URHS                    2001 Census

      Characteristic      Females 15-44      Males 15-49 Females 15-49           Females 15-44             Males 15-49 Females 15-49

      Residence
      Urban                          62.9            58.8            62.8                   72.7                 66.8           67.1
      Rural                          37.1            41.2            37.2                   27.3                 33.2           32.9

      Region
      West                           27.7            28.7            27.0                   16.3                 23.0           22.3
      North                          15.1            15.4            15.3                   12.0                 17.4           17.5
      Central                        19.2            20.2            19.7                    8.7                 18.9           19.1
      South                          19.9            17.9            19.7                   25.6                 19.3           19.5
      East                           18.1            17.8            18.3                   37.4                 21.4           21.6

      Age group
      15 to 19                       15.6            15.9            13.1                   16.6                 16.4           15.2
      20 to 24                       15.0            13.0            12.6                   16.4                 14.5           13.7
      25 to 29                       16.4            13.3            13.8                   16.6                 14.0           13.6
      30 to 34                       16.8            14.2            14.1                   16.5                 13.0           12.9
      35 to 39                       16.7            13.6            14.0                   17.3                 13.7           14.0
      40 to 44                       19.4            15.9            16.3                   16.5                 15.1           15.9
      45 to 49                        n/a            14.1            16.1                    n/a                 13.3           14.7



Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                 The Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey - WAPS
                        Summary of Demographic Results

      • There are some substantial differences between the WAPS
            survey and the URHS. However, the WAPS sampling
            design is thought to be superior because of improvements
            in methodology employed for the LFS survey and the
            availability of the recent national population census.
      • We remain confident that the survey will be nationally
            representative, pending construction of weights.
      • Lower response rates in key urban areas is an area of concern,
           but even in these areas overall response was higher than
           in typical socio-demographic surveys conducted in the
           United States.

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
              Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods

• Minor variations in question wording between WAPS and
      URHS
   • WAPS: “Now please, what methods for avoiding pregnancy do you know of,
       among those listed in the card?”

   • URHS: “For each of the following methods of preventing pregnancy, please tell
       me: Have you ever heard of it? (Yes/No)”

• Each of the methods listed in the WAPS is followed by a short
       definition. The URHS questionnaire does not provide
       descriptions of each method.

• Due to differences in methodology and questionnaire design,
       respondents to the WAPS may have understood
       ‘knowledge’ to imply a deeper understanding than did
       respondents to the URHS.
        Knowledge of Contraception – Differences from RHS
             Percentage of respondents who have heard of specific methods of contraception,
             all women ages 15-44 based on the 1999 URHS and the 2004 WAPS

                                                                             1999               2004
                                                    Method                  URHS               WAPS

                                       Oral Hormonals                          90.1                70.1
                                                    IUD                        95.9                86.1
                                            Injectables                          48                13.8
                                                Implant                          18                 6.7
                                               Condom                          98.7                97.8
                                Other barrier methods                          57.8                34.6
                                           Spermicides                         60.2                47.1
                    Female Sterlization: Tubal Ligation                        67.2                42.6
                        Male Sterilization: Vasectomy                          45.4                19.1
                                                   LAM                          NA                 30.9
                                            Withdrawal                         88.2                73.7
                 Calendar method, periodic abstinence                          81.9                67.9
                                              Douching                          NA                 59.9

                                             Any method                        99.6                99.8
                                   Any modern method                           99.6                99.2
                                 Any traditional method                        92.3                89.0

                                         Sample Population                    7128                4658
Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods, Married Women ages 15-49
 WAPS - Modern Methods
                                                                                                 Other                    Female            Male      Sample
                                 Any         Oral           Hormonal     Hormonal               Barrier   Sperm-    sterilization: sterilization:   Population
 Characteristic              methods    Hormonals    IUD     injection     Implant   Condom    Methods     icides     tubectomy     vasectomy             N=


 Married women ages 15-49        99.8        70.7    90.6        14.0          7.1      97.6      38.0      48.0            48.3            20.2         3336

 Residence
 Urban                          100.0        77.6    91.8        17.2          8.4      98.1      45.5      55.7            53.1            26.2         1980
 Rural                           99.6        60.8    88.8         9.3          5.2      96.8      27.1      36.9            41.3            11.4         1356

 Region
 West                           100.0        67.2    88.4        11.7         7.1       97.2      31.0      39.2            42.8            14.8          942
 North                          100.0        65.3    88.1        11.9         4.4       97.4      39.0      43.8            44.6            18.4          505
 Central                         99.1        72.2    92.3        14.9        10.4       98.4      39.1      52.5            52.5            22.4          673
 South                          100.0        72.7    90.6        15.1         6.3       96.9      38.5      51.9            48.4            19.6          649
 East                           100.0        77.4    94.4        17.3         6.5       98.1      46.9      56.8            55.7            28.7          567

 Age
 15-49                          100.0        60.5    78.9         7.9        10.5      100.0      23.7      44.7            21.1            10.5           38
 20-24                          100.0        73.1    90.5        13.1         7.1       97.5      35.7      49.1            43.8            18.7          283
 25-29                           99.4        72.8    88.5        16.7        11.1       97.8      40.2      52.4            46.5            22.0          540
 30-34                           99.8        74.2    92.5        13.3         5.9       97.9      39.2      51.6            51.5            22.5          577
 35-39                           99.8        71.8    90.1        15.6         7.0       97.8      37.3      49.9            52.0            19.1          585
 40-44                          100.0        69.6    91.9        12.5         5.8       97.7      37.0      44.2            45.9            19.1          690
 45-49                           99.8        65.7    90.4        13.2         6.1       96.6      38.8      43.0            49.8            19.7          623

 Education
 Less than secondary             99.9        60.3    89.4         7.2         3.8       96.9      29.7      35.0            39.7            10.6          320
 Secondary                       99.7        66.4    88.7         9.8         4.7       97.1      32.3      42.6            43.7            15.1         1450
 More than secondary            100.0        76.9    92.6        19.2        10.0       98.1      45.0      55.7            54.3            26.8         1568

 Income
   Less than 400 Hrivna          99.6        60.4    87.0         8.6         4.1       96.0      26.3      34.1            38.5            10.6          725
   From 400 to 599 Hrivna       100.0        68.7    90.8        12.3         5.4       98.4      35.2      46.4            47.0            19.1          802
   From 600 to 899 Hrivna       100.0        71.9    91.4        14.7         7.7       97.4      40.5      49.2            50.7            20.7          947
   More than 900 Hrivna          99.8        80.2    92.6        19.4        10.6       98.5      48.0      60.2            55.3            28.8          857


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
           Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods, all Women ages 15-49
           WAPS - Modern Methods
                                                                                                Other                    Female            Male      Sample
                                 Any         Oral           Hormonal     Hormonal              Barrier   Sperm-    sterilization: sterilization:   Population
 Characteristic              methods    Hormonals    IUD     injection     Implant   Condom   Methods     icides     tubectomy     vasectomy             N=

 All women ages 15-49            99.8        69.7    86.8        13.5          6.4     97.6      35.0      46.5            43.7            19.2         5554

 Residence
 Urban                           99.9        75.2    87.5        16.2          7.6     98.1      41.2      52.5            47.5            24.0         3489
 Rural                           99.5        60.4    85.6         9.0          4.6     96.8      24.6      36.2            37.2            10.9         2065

 Region
 West                            99.9        64.5    83.3        10.9          6.1     96.8      27.8      36.9            36.9            12.6         1499
 North                          100.0        68.5    87.5        12.7          5.2     98.2      38.7      45.8            42.1            18.9          848
 Central                         99.3        70.9    89.4        14.2          9.1     98.0      37.7      51.2            48.8            22.2         1096
 South                           99.8        71.1    85.2        14.2          5.8     97.4      32.8      49.6            43.6            18.2         1096
 East                           100.0        75.7    90.4        16.4          5.7     98.3      42.0      52.7            49.8            26.9         1015

 Age
 15-49                           99.7        59.0    66.0         6.3         2.8      97.8      16.7      33.1            19.0             9.1          726
 20-24                           99.9        72.3    87.3        14.4         6.4      97.4      32.7      49.5            37.1            17.8          701
 25-29                           99.5        73.6    87.7        17.2        10.6      98.2      40.2      52.6            47.1            23.0          766
 30-34                           99.9        74.6    92.1        14.7         6.6      97.7      40.0      52.7            51.6            23.8          783
 35-39                           99.7        71.1    89.8        17.1         8.4      97.6      38.6      50.8            52.1            20.6          778
 40-44                          100.0        69.7    91.6        12.7         5.2      97.9      37.6      43.9            46.2            19.4          904
 45-49                           99.8        67.6    90.5        12.1         5.4      97.0      37.1      43.1            49.3            19.6          896

 Education
 Less than secondary             99.8        57.2    74.1         6.1          2.9     96.7      20.5      31.3            27.6             8.7          872
 Secondary                       99.8        67.6    87.5        10.1          4.2     97.5      31.1      43.1            41.5            15.6         2296
 More than secondary             99.8        76.4    90.8        19.5          9.9     98.1      44.0      55.2            51.8            26.4         2386

 Income
   Less than 400 Hrivna          99.5        61.6    83.2         9.5         3.6      96.3      25.7      36.0            35.9            11.6         1488
   From 400 to 599 Hrivna        99.9        67.8    87.0        11.9         4.9      98.1      31.8      44.7            43.2            18.1         1341
   From 600 to 899 Hrivna       100.0        71.9    87.9        14.1         7.4      97.8      38.8      48.3            45.9            20.4         1461
   More than 900 Hrivna          99.8        78.9    89.9        19.4        10.5      98.6      45.0      59.1            51.3            27.9         1253


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
           Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods, all Men ages 15-49
           WAPS - Modern Methods
                                                                                                Other                    Female            Male      Sample
                                 Any         Oral           Hormonal     Hormonal              Barrier   Sperm-    sterilization: sterilization:   Population
 Characteristic              methods    Hormonals    IUD     injection     Implant   Condom   Methods     icides     tubectomy     vasectomy             N=

 Men ages 15-49                  99.9        53.1    64.9         6.4          3.1     99.1      17.7      27.9            21.4            16.7         4751

 Residence
 Urban                          100.0        58.8    67.2         8.1          4.1     99.3      21.3      32.8            24.7            21.0         2792
 Rural                           99.7        45.0    61.5         4.1          1.6     98.8      12.6      21.0            16.7            10.7         1959

 Region
 West                            99.9        49.6    59.0         6.2          2.5     99.1      15.5      22.2            16.4            11.0         1362
 North                           99.9        51.2    66.8         7.0          4.0     99.0      19.5      30.5            22.1            19.3          730
 Central                         99.6        52.7    68.4         6.2          2.8     98.3      16.9      29.1            23.7            16.9          962
 South                          100.0        57.0    63.1         7.4          3.9     99.3      16.3      30.6            20.7            18.0          851
 East                           100.0        57.0    70.3         5.7          2.7     99.8      22.0      31.0            26.8            22.2          846

 Age
 15-49                           99.9        45.8    37.5         3.3          1.2     99.3       8.2      20.9            10.0             8.7          757
 20-24                           99.8        56.3    57.5         8.0          3.7     99.0      17.5      32.3            17.0            17.5          616
 25-29                          100.0        58.0    67.4         6.7          3.6     99.4      20.0      32.0            22.5            20.8          631
 30-34                           99.9        59.4    75.9         9.3          4.7     98.7      21.0      32.0            26.5            18.2          675
 35-39                           99.7        55.3    72.7         6.7          2.8     98.3      18.4      29.8            25.4            18.1          645
 40-44                          100.0        51.4    74.8         6.1          2.6     99.9      20.7      27.7            24.0            17.4          757
 45-49                           99.9        47.3    70.4         5.7          3.1     99.0      19.0      22.4            25.1            17.6          670

 Education
 Less than secondary             99.9        43.4    45.4         3.3          1.3     98.7      11.1      21.7            13.0            10.1          953
 Secondary                       99.8        52.5    66.1         5.3          1.9     99.3      15.7      25.2            20.5            14.6         2376
 More than secondary             99.9        60.7    75.8        10.5          6.3     98.9      25.5      36.7            28.6            24.7         1422

 Income
   Less than 400 Hrivna          99.8        42.3    56.5         4.1          1.7     99.1      10.5      20.4            14.4             9.7         1182
   From 400 to 599 Hrivna       100.0        51.3    63.1         6.0          2.2     99.3      16.1      26.6            20.5            16.1         1135
   From 600 to 899 Hrivna        99.9        54.7    67.2         6.5          3.3     99.0      18.8      27.3            22.9            17.9         1266
   More than 900 Hrivna          99.7        64.1    72.9         9.2          5.0     99.0      25.5      37.6            28.0            23.4         1152


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods, Married Women ages 15-49
 WAPS - Traditional Methods                                                                                           Any     Sample
                                         Any    Lactational                   Calendar                              Other   Population
  Characteristic                     methods    Amenorrhia    Withdrawal       method    Douching    Abstinence   Methods         N=


  Married women ages 15-49               99.8          37.4          81.1         73.1       65.9          48.4       1.8        3336

  Residence
  Urban                                 100.0          40.4          82.8         78.0       70.5          50.7       2.3        1980
  Rural                                  99.6          33.2          78.6         65.9       59.2          45.0       1.0        1356

  Region
  West                                  100.0          29.0          78.0         67.3       58.5          48.1       1.7         942
  North                                 100.0          37.6          87.1         74.5       65.9          52.1       1.8         505
  Central                                99.1          47.1          86.3         75.6       67.0          52.9       1.0         673
  South                                 100.0          40.1          76.7         69.8       70.3          41.4       1.5         649
  East                                  100.0          36.9          79.5         82.2       72.0          48.1       3.2         567

  Age
  15-49                                 100.0          13.2          68.4         57.9       55.3          28.9       2.6          38
  20-24                                 100.0          36.7          80.9         72.1       59.7          51.2       1.4         283
  25-29                                  99.4          38.1          81.3         73.7       64.6          47.6       1.3         540
  30-34                                  99.8          40.2          82.1         76.4       69.7          47.8       1.9         577
  35-39                                  99.8          34.5          82.2         72.3       68.7          49.1       1.5         585
  40-44                                 100.0          38.1          80.1         72.2       63.9          47.1       1.6         690
  45-49                                  99.8          38.0          80.7         72.6       66.6          50.2       2.7         623

  Education
  Less than secondary                    99.9          41.6          83.3         78.4       70.3          52.4       2.2         320
  Secondary                              99.7          34.7          79.7         69.7       63.0          45.2       1.4        1450
  More than secondary                   100.0          29.7          76.6         62.5       57.5          43.4       1.6        1568

  Income
    Less than 400 Hrivna                 99.6          32.0          78.1         63.7       58.9          40.3       0.7         725
    From 400 to 599 Hrivna              100.0          34.9          78.9         73.1       64.3          47.8       1.5         802
    From 600 to 899 Hrivna              100.0          38.8          81.2         75.9       66.9          48.3       2.0         947
    More than 900 Hrivna                 99.8          43.1          85.6         78.1       72.5          56.0       2.8         857

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
          Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods, all Women ages 15-49
          WAPS - Traditional Methods                                                                                  Any     Sample
                                         Any Lactational                    Calendar                                Other   Population
  Characteristic                     methods Amenorrhia      Withdrawal      method     Douching   Abstinence     Methods         N=

  All women ages 15-49                   99.8        31.8          74.7          68.6       61.1           47.9       1.6        5554

  Residence
  Urban                                  99.9        34.0          75.6          72.1       64.4           50.0       1.8        3489
  Rural                                  99.5        28.1          73.1          62.7       55.4           44.3       1.3        2065

  Region
  West                                   99.9        24.0          70.8          62.8       51.0           46.6       1.4        1499
  North                                 100.0        34.2          82.2          71.7       64.4           53.1       1.3         848
  Central                                99.3        41.1          80.1          71.5       64.9           51.6       1.2        1096
  South                                  99.8        32.3          69.7          64.0       63.9           40.6       1.6        1096
  East                                  100.0        30.8          73.5          76.5       66.1           49.3       2.6        1015

  Age
  15-49                                  99.7         8.0          46.0          42.6       34.7           34.8       0.6         726
  20-24                                  99.9        27.4          71.9          67.8       55.2           49.1       1.4         701
  25-29                                  99.5        35.6          79.1          72.8       64.1           50.0       1.3         766
  30-34                                  99.9        39.7          82.6          76.5       70.2           52.0       1.9         783
  35-39                                  99.7        36.2          80.7          71.6       68.3           50.1       2.2         778
  40-44                                 100.0        35.8          78.9          73.6       63.9           48.1       1.7         904
  45-49                                  99.8        36.5          79.8          72.2       67.3           50.0       2.0         896

  Education
  Less than secondary                    99.8        17.9          57.3          50.8       45.0           39.7       1.4         872
  Secondary                              99.8        30.4          75.8          67.4       59.6           45.8       1.3        2296
  More than secondary                    99.8        38.2          79.9          76.3       68.4           52.9       2.0        2386

  Income
    Less than 400 Hrivna                 99.5        26.3          71.2          61.2       55.0           40.5       0.8        1488
    From 400 to 599 Hrivna               99.9        30.5          72.8          67.9       60.3           46.9       1.5        1341
    From 600 to 899 Hrivna              100.0        33.3          75.2          72.0       62.3           48.4       2.0        1461
    More than 900 Hrivna                 99.8        38.1          80.4          74.5       68.0           57.1       2.2        1253

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
        Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods, all Men ages 15-49
        WAPS - Traditional Methods                                                                             Any     Sample
                                             Any                     Calendar                                Other   Population
     Characteristic                      methods     Withdrawal       method     Douching    Abstinence    Methods         N=

     Men ages 15-49                          99.9           78.3          39.0        28.4          45.7       1.0        4751

     Residence
     Urban                                  100.0           79.9          41.1        30.8          49.2       1.3        2792
     Rural                                   99.7           76.0          36.0        24.8          40.6       0.6        1959

     Region
     West                                    99.9           78.3          38.2        21.9          44.3       1.1        1362
     North                                   99.9           83.0          44.1        34.1          51.1       1.0         730
     Central                                 99.6           79.3          37.0        29.1          47.0       0.3         962
     South                                  100.0           74.6          35.1        29.7          40.9       0.8         851
     East                                   100.0           76.8          42.2        31.6          46.5       2.0         846

     Age
     15-49                                   99.9           56.0          18.8        12.8          36.2       0.4         757
     20-24                                   99.8           77.8          34.4        23.2          44.3       1.5         616
     25-29                                  100.0           80.7          42.3        30.6          48.3       1.3         631
     30-34                                   99.9           84.4          44.6        35.0          47.7       0.7         675
     35-39                                   99.7           83.1          45.0        31.0          47.4       0.9         645
     40-44                                  100.0           85.3          45.4        35.4          47.6       1.2         757
     45-49                                   99.9           83.0          44.5        31.3          49.1       1.3         670

     Education
     Less than secondary                     99.9           65.3          24.0        17.7          38.3       0.7         953
     Secondary                               99.8           80.6          39.5        28.2          46.2       0.8        2376
     More than secondary                     99.9           83.3          48.3        35.7          49.7       1.6        1422

     Income
       Less than 400 Hrivna                  99.8           74.1          29.9        23.4          37.8       0.7        1182
       From 400 to 599 Hrivna               100.0           76.5          40.1        27.8          43.3       1.1        1135
       From 600 to 899 Hrivna                99.9           80.3          42.1        29.5          46.0       0.9        1266
       More than 900 Hrivna                  99.7           82.9          44.2        33.0          55.8       1.5        1152

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                The Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey - WAPS
                Summary of Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods

      • Respondents appear to have broad knowledge contraceptive
            methods. More than 99% of all respondents reported
            knowledge of at least 1 method. Most respondents
            reported knowledge of multiple methods.
      • Men reported substantially lower knowledge of specific
           methods than women.
      • Although access to some methods is virtually non-existent
            (hormonal injections, implants, and male sterilization),
            some respondents still reported knowledge of them.
      • Reported knowledge continues to reflect the legacy of the
            Soviet health care system, particularly in respect to IUDs.
Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                 The Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey - WAPS
                         Source of Counseling by Method
      • The following slides tabulate the sources of contraceptive
             counseling for married women, all women, and all men,
             by current method used. The first slide compares all
             three groups by their reported most useful source.
      • The next three slides detail each sub-group individually. For
             example, the second slide looks at the 1,528 married
             women who are current users of contraception, and
             66.8% of them report some source(s) of counseling.
      • Respondents could report multiple sources of counseling. That
            is, 32.5% received counseling at a public women’s
            consultation center and 10.7% received counseling at a
            public polyclinic. A smaller percentage of respondents
            within these categories may have received counseling
            through both sources.
Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
         Source of Knowledge of Contraception – most useful source
                  Table 12. Most Useful Source of Information
                  Percentage of respondents by sources of information about contraception

                                                                        Married women         All women        All men
                                Type or source of information               ages 15-49       ages 15-49     ages 15-49


                  Teachers at school                                                 0.5              1.9          2.0

                  Friends                                                            9.0             12.0         27.3

                  Parents                                                            5.2              7.3          2.9

                  Other relatives                                                    1.4              1.9          1.9

                  Sexual partner                                                    11.1              8.7         20.4

                  Health workers                                                    51.6             44.3         12.3

                  Advertising, booklets, leaflets, etc.                              2.6              2.9          4.7

                  Periodicals, newspapers, magazines                                 5.8              6.6          9.8

                  Popular scientific and reference literature                       10.8             11.3         12.4

                  TV programs                                                        1.2              1.5          3.2

                  Broad-casting                                                      0.0              0.0          0.0

                  Internet                                                           0.1              0.2          0.8

                  Other sources                                                      0.3              0.4          0.6

                  Do not know, difficult to answer                                   0.2              1.2          1.7


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
         Source of Counseling on Contraception, by Method Currently
                      Used, Married Women ages 15-49
Percentage of respondents who received counseling for current method, bymethod and source(s) of counseling
Respondents could identify multiple sources, or none - sum of columns may differ from total.
                                                                                                      Other                    Any     Sample
                                                             Any       Oral                          Barrier     Sperm-      Other   Population
                                                       Counseling Hormonals       IUD    Condom     Methods       icides   Methods         N=

Married women ages 15-49 - any source                       66.8       94.7       97.8      20.9       66.7        85.7          -        1528

Public source
Women's consultation center - public                        32.5       70.7       73.3      13.7       33.3        49.2          -
Maternity hospital or obstetric department - public          4.5        6.4       11.2       2.3          -         1.6          -
Family planning and human reproduction center                0.3          -        0.1       0.8          -           -          -
Public clinic                                                1.1        2.7        2.2       0.7          -         1.6          -
Public policlinic gynecological office                      10.7       15.4       26.4       4.9       33.3        11.1          -
Rural ambulatory                                             0.6          -        1.3       0.7          -           -          -
Rural Feldsher-obstetrician point                            2.1        2.1        5.0       1.7          -         1.6          -
Public doctor                                                0.1          -        0.1       0.3          -           -          -
Youth friendly clinics                                       0.1        1.1          -         -          -           -          -

Private source
Women's consultation center - private                        2.1        5.9        3.4       1.7             -      7.9          -
Maternity hospital or obstetric department - private         0.3        0.5        0.7         -             -      1.6          -
Private clinic/physician                                     0.4        2.7        0.4         -             -      3.2          -
Private doctor                                               0.1          -        0.1       0.1             -        -          -
Pharmacy, pharmaceutical kiosk                               2.5        8.0        1.9       2.7             -     19.0          -

Other source                                                 0.1          -        0.3          -            -         -         -

Don't Know, Difficult to Answer                              0.1          -          -       0.3             -         -         -


 Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
         Do Not Cite
   Source of Counseling on Contraceptive Use, by Method Currently
                      Used, All Women ages 15-49
Percentage of respondents who received counseling for current method, bymethod and source(s) of counseling
Respondents could identify multiple sources, or none - sum of columns may differ from total.
                                                                                                     Other                     Any     Sample
                                                             Any       Oral                         Barrier      Sperm-      Other   Population
                                                       Counseling Hormonals       IUD    Condom    Methods        icides   Methods         N=

All women ages 15-49 - any source                           62.3       89.6       97.6      21.4       75.0        86.3          -        2089

Public source
Women's consultation center - public                        30.7       65.1       72.2      11.6       50.0        51.6          -
Maternity hospital or obstetric department - public          3.9        4.3       10.7       1.7          -         2.1          -
Family planning and human reproduction center                0.3        0.7        0.1       0.8          -           -          -
Public clinic                                                1.1        2.2        2.4       0.8          -         2.1          -
Public policlinic gynecological office                      10.0       14.7       26.4       4.0       25.0        10.5          -
Rural ambulatory                                             0.5          -        1.4       0.5          -           -          -
Rural Feldsher-obstetrician point                            1.9        2.5        4.6       1.1          -         2.1          -
Public doctor                                                0.1          -        0.1       0.2          -         1.1          -
Youth friendly clinics                                       0.1        0.7        0.1         -          -           -          -

Private source
Women's consultation center - private                        2.9        6.1        3.4       3.9             -      7.4          -
Maternity hospital or obstetric department - private         0.2        0.4        0.6         -             -      1.1          -
Private clinic/physician                                     0.5        2.5        0.5       0.1             -      0.3          -
Private doctor                                               0.1          -        0.3       0.2             -        -          -
Pharmacy, pharmaceutical kiosk                               2.6        7.9        2.0       2.4             -     16.8          -

Other source                                                 0.2          -        0.3       0.3             -      1.1          -

Don't Know, Difficult to Answer                              0.1          -          -       0.2             -         -         -


 Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
         Do Not Cite
               Source of Counseling on Contraceptive Use, by Method
                         Currently Used, All Men ages 15-49
Percentage of respondents who received counseling for current method, bymethod and source(s) of counseling
Respondents could identify multiple sources, or none - sum of columns may differ from total.
                                                                                                     Other                     Any     Sample
                                                             Any       Oral                         Barrier      Sperm-      Other   Population
                                                       Counseling Hormonals       IUD    Condom    Methods        icides   Methods         N=

Men ages 15-49 - any source                                 39.1       87.8       96.2      12.5             -     84.6       40.0        2249

Public source
Women's consultation center - public                        19.2       63.4       69.2       4.4             -      3.8          -
Maternity hospital or obstetric department - public          1.8        3.7        6.9       0.5             -      1.9          -
Family planning and human reproduction center                0.3          -        0.6       0.5             -        -          -
Public clinic                                                0.9        2.4        2.1       0.7             -        -          -
Public policlinic gynecological office                       6.1       12.2       25.9       1.1             -      7.7          -
Rural ambulatory                                             0.4          -        1.0       0.4             -        -          -
Rural Feldsher-obstetrician point                            1.6        1.8        4.6       1.2             -      3.8          -
Public doctor                                                0.2          -        0.2       0.3             -        -          -
Youth friendly clinics                                       0.1        1.2          -       0.1             -        -          -

Private source
Women's consultation center - Private                        1.5        5.5        4.8       0.5             -      3.8          -
Maternity hospital or obstetric department - private         0.2          -        0.8       0.1             -      1.9          -
Private clinic/physician                                     0.3        2.4                  0.3             -      1.9          -
Private doctor                                               0.1                   0.2       0.2             -                   -
Pharmacy, pharmaceutical kiosk                               3.4        7.9        2.1       3.9             -     25.0          -

Other source                                                 0.5          -          -       0.9             -         -         -

Don't Know, Difficult to Answer                              0.2        1.2        0.4       0.2             -         -         -


 Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
         Do Not Cite
The Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey - WAPS Summary
                      of Unmet Need
• Unmet need is defined as the condition when women are at risk
     of pregnancy, but do not want children and are not
     practicing any method to avoid pregnancy.
• Unmet need may be specified as a need for modern family
     planning for respondents who report using traditional
     methods. Unmet need for any family planning occurs
     when no contraceptive methods are used.
• Although the WAPS survey was not designed to assess
       unmet need, it is possible to calculate an estimate similar
       to that described in the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health
       Survey.
• The inability of WAPS to assess fecundity is reflected in very
       high calculated levels of unmet need for older women.
                  Need for Modern Contraceptive Methods
           Note: this is a non-standard calculation for Unmet Need
             Percent distribution of respondents who need access to a modern family planning method
                                                    All Women            Married Women                  All Men
             Characteristic                         ages 15-49                ages 15-49              ages 15-49

             Ukraine                                         20.0                        29.9               16.8

             Residence
             Urban                                           17.0                        26.5               14.4
             Rural                                           25.0                        34.8               20.3

             Region
             West                                            23.5                        34.9               20.0
             North                                           24.4                        35.6               19.6
             Central                                         17.9                        26.3               16.6
             South                                           18.7                        28.0               14.5
             East                                            14.8                        22.6               11.7

             Age
             15-49                                            0.7                        10.5                0.7
             20-24                                            4.9                         9.5                1.6
             25-29                                           12.4                        15.6                7.1
             30-34                                           17.9                        22.2               14.1
             35-39                                           26.0                        32.1               21.2
             40-44                                           34.3                        40.9               33.4
             45-49                                           36.2                        45.4               37.8

             Income
             Less than 400 Hrivna                            21.4                        36.8               20.3
             From 400 to 599 Hrivna                          21.9                        33.4               18.5
             From 600 to 899 Hrivna                          19.2                        26.8               15.6
             More than 900 Hrivna                            17.2                        24.0               13.0

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                     Need for Any Contraceptive Methods
           Note: this is a non-standard calculation for Unmet Need
                Percent distribution of respondents who need access to any family planning method

                                                     All Women          Married Women                  All Men
                Characteristic                       ages 15-49              ages 15-49              ages 15-49

                Ukraine                                        9.2                   13.3                   8.1
                Residence
                Urban                                         8.3                    12.7                   7.4
                Rural                                        10.7                    14.2                   9.1
                Region
                West                                         12.3                    17.8                  10.6
                North                                        10.0                    13.9                   9.0
                Central                                       8.0                    11.3                   7.7
                South                                         7.5                    10.8                   5.9
                East                                          7.1                    10.6                   6.1
                Age
                15-49                                         0.6                     7.9                   0.5
                20-24                                         1.7                     2.8                   1.3
                25-29                                         4.7                     5.2                   2.4
                30-34                                         6.5                     7.5                   6.1
                35-39                                        10.2                    12.6                   8.4
                40-44                                        15.8                    18.1                  15.3
                45-49                                        20.8                    26.2                  22.1
                Income
                  Less than 400 Hrivna                       10.6                    16.6                   9.4
                  From 400 to 599 Hrivna                      9.6                    14.3                   9.3
                  From 600 to 899 Hrivna                      8.2                    11.8                   7.6
                  More than 900 Hrivna                        8.4                    11.3                   6.3

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
The Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey - WAPS Summary
                  of Contraception Usage
• The following slides tabulate the percentage distribution of
       respondents who reported that they have ever used, or
       currently use a contraceptive method.
• Again, direct comparisons to the 1999 URHS are not possible
       due to differences in survey design and sampling. The
       contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) from the URHS on
       he following page is provided only for reference.
• The next three slides provide additional detail for married
       women 15-49, all women 15-49, and all men 15-49,
       respectively.
• In the detailed tables, summing along a row should equal the
        total in the first column. Within each column, the average
        for each sub-group should equal the total in the first row.
   Contraception Ever Used, for Men, Women, and Married Women


        Percentage of respondents reporting ever using any method of contraception by age and sex


        Respondent group                                                                % ever used
        Married women ages 15-49                                                                  88.2
        All women ages 15-49                                                                      76.8
        Men, ages 15-49                                                                           78.0
        All women ages 15-44                                                                      74.6

        URHS 1999, Women ages 15-44                                                               74.2




Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
    Contraception Ever Used by Method, Married Women ages 15-49
Percentage of respondents who currently using specific methods of contraception by residence, age, education, and household income
                                                      Modern Methods                                             Traditional Methods
                                                                Other                                                                                      Any   Sample
                               Any      Oral                   Barrier   Sperm-        Female      Lactational           Calendar                        Other     Size
Characteristic             methods Hormonals   IUD Condom     Methods     icides   sterilization   Amenorrhia Withdrawal  method Douching Abstinence   Methods      N=

Married women ages 15-49      68.4       5.5   20.3    17.9        0.1      1.9             0.7          0.3       10.5      7.6       3.1       0.3       0.2    3,338

Residence
Urban                         68.4       6.8   19.4    18.7        0.1      2.5             0.6          0.4        8.3      7.6       3.2       0.2       0.2    2,010
Rural                         67.9       3.6   21.7    16.6        0.1      0.9             0.8          0.2       14.1      7.6       3.0       0.5       0.2    1,328

Region
West                          69.2       4.3   15.2    16.0        0.1      1.4             0.4          0.2       13.6      7.3       1.5       0.5       0.1      943
North                         60.4       4.8   12.9    21.0        0.0      1.2             0.8          0.2       14.7      9.1       3.6       0.4       0.4      505
Central                       68.9       3.8   29.3    17.9        0.1      2.2             0.9          0.4        9.0      4.7       3.6       0.3       0.1      676
South                         72.4       9.4   21.3    15.3        0.0      2.8             0.8          0.6        8.5      9.0       5.2       0.0       0.2      648
East                          73.0       5.8   23.7    21.2        0.2      1.9             0.7          0.2        6.2      8.5       2.5       0.4       0.2      566

Age
15-19                         71.4       7.9    2.6    26.3        0.0      0.0             0.0          0.0        7.9      2.6       5.3       0.0       0.0       38
20-24                         57.6       5.6   11.6    21.8        0.0      1.4             0.0          1.4        9.2      5.3       1.1       0.0       0.4      284
25-29                         71.9       8.5   18.1    22.2        0.2      3.1             0.4          1.1       10.0      5.7       2.0       0.2       0.2      540
30-34                         77.1       7.1   26.0    20.5        0.0      1.9             1.2          0.0       10.2      7.1       2.8       0.3       0.3      577
35-39                         76.8       6.7   24.7    19.5        0.0      1.5             0.9          0.2        9.7     10.1       2.9       0.5       0.2      586
40-44                         69.7       4.2   22.0    14.2        0.1      2.0             0.7          0.0       13.7      8.0       4.6       0.1       0.0      691
45-49                         54.1       1.8   15.9    12.1        0.2      1.3             0.6          0.0        9.5      8.2       3.7       0.6       0.2      622

Education
Less than secondary           67.3       2.5   21.6    18.8        0.0      0.9             0.6          0.3       14.1      5.6       1.6       0.3       0.3      320
Secondary                     69.9       4.3   20.6    17.3        0.0      1.7             0.8          0.3       11.8      6.6       3.4       0.5       0.1    1,450
More than secondary           66.6       7.3   19.8    18.2        0.2      2.2             0.6          0.3        8.7      8.9       3.1       0.2       0.2    1,568

Income
  Less than 400 Hrivna        65.0       2.6   18.8    15.9        0.1      1.1             0.7          0.3       15.3      7.6       2.6       0.1       0.0      724
  From 400 to 599 Hrivna      69.0       4.9   19.6    17.6        0.1      1.1             0.9          0.4       12.0      7.9       3.7       0.5       0.0      802
  From 600 to 899 Hrivna      71.3       6.7   21.8    20.0        0.1      2.1             0.4          0.2        8.5      7.4       3.3       0.5       0.1      949
  More than 900 Hrivna        68.3       7.3   20.7    17.5        0.0      3.0             0.8          0.5        7.5      7.6       2.8       0.1       0.6      858

 Note: there are no current users of hormonal implants, injectables, or male sterilization
 Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
          Do Not Cite
    Contraception Ever Used by Method, All Women ages 15-49
Percentage of respondents who currently using specific methods of contraception by residence, age, education, and household income
                                                      Modern Methods                                             Traditional Methods
                                                                Other                                                                                      Any   Sample
                               Any      Oral                   Barrier   Sperm-        Female      Lactational           Calendar                        Other     Size
Characteristic             methods Hormonals   IUD Condom     Methods     icides   sterilization   Amenorrhia Withdrawal  method Douching Abstinence   Methods      N=

All women ages 15-49          53.3       4.8   14.2    16.7        0.1      1.7             0.5          0.2        7.3      5.2       2.2       0.2       0.2    5,553

Residence
Urban                         52.7       5.8   13.2    17.5        0.1      2.2             0.4          0.2        5.7      5.1       2.1       0.1       0.2    3,538
Rural                         54.2       3.1   15.8    15.2        0.0      0.8             0.5          0.1       10.1      5.4       2.3       0.4       0.2    2,015

Region
West                          45.5       3.9   11.0    13.1        0.1      1.1             0.3          0.1        9.4      5.0       1.0       0.5       0.1    1,499
North                         54.7       4.2    9.0    19.2                 1.4             0.6          0.1       10.1      7.0       2.2       0.2       0.6      847
Central                       54.7       3.6   20.0    16.2        0.2      1.8             0.5          0.3        6.3      3.1       2.5       0.2       0.1    1,101
South                         57.5       7.4   14.3    17.0                 2.2             0.5          0.4        5.7      5.9       3.9                 0.2    1,093
East                          57.3       5.3   16.8    19.8        0.1      2.3             0.5          0.1        4.6      5.5       1.9       0.2       0.2    1,013

Age
15-19                         20.4       1.7    0.3    15.0                 0.1                                     2.1      0.8       0.4                 0.0      727
20-24                         48.2       5.7    6.3    24.4                 1.9                          0.6        5.7      2.9       0.6                 0.3      701
25-29                         63.6       8.7   14.4    21.1        0.3      3.3             0.3          0.8        8.1      4.8       1.4       0.1       0.3      765
30-34                         67.0       6.5   22.2    18.1                 1.8             0.9                     8.2      6.1       2.4       0.4       0.4      784
35-39                         67.0       5.4   22.2    17.1                 2.2             0.8          0.1        7.8      8.1       2.6       0.4       0.3      779
40-44                         60.6       4.5   19.1    13.2        0.1      1.8             0.7                    10.7      6.5       3.7       0.2       0.1      902
45-49                         43.6       1.8   12.5     9.8        0.1      1.0             0.4                     7.5      6.3       3.7       0.4       0.1      895

Education
Less than secondary           34.6       1.4   10.2    12.2                 0.6             0.2          0.1        6.2      2.9       0.7       0.1       0.1      871
Secondary                     54.5       4.1   14.6    17.0                 1.6             0.6          0.2        8.6      4.5       2.7       0.4       0.1    2,294
More than secondary           58.9       6.8   15.3    17.9        0.2      2.2             0.4          0.2        6.5      6.7       2.3       0.1       0.3    2,388

Income
  Less than 400 Hrivna        46.7       2.7   12.4    15.5        0.1      1.1             0.3          0.1        8.3      4.3       1.6       0.1       0.1    1,486
  From 400 to 599 Hrivna      52.8       4.5   13.9    15.6        0.1      1.3             0.6          0.2        8.2      5.1       2.7       0.4       0.1    1,339
  From 600 to 899 Hrivna      56.9       6.0   15.5    17.8        0.1      1.8             0.3          0.1        6.6      5.8       2.5       0.3       0.2    1,462
  More than 900 Hrivna        57.5       6.5   15.3    17.9                 2.8             0.6          0.3        5.9      5.7       2.2       0.1       0.3    1,255
 Note: there are no current users of hormonal implants, injectables, or male sterilization
 Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
          Do Not Cite
    Contraception Ever Used by Method, All Men ages 15-49
Percentage of respondents who currently using specific methods of contraception by residence, age, education, and household income
                                                      Modern Methods                                             Traditional Methods
                                                                Other                                                                                      Any   Sample
                               Any      Oral                   Barrier   Sperm-        Female      Lactational           Calendar                        Other     Size
Characteristic             methods Hormonals   IUD Condom     Methods     icides   sterilization   Amenorrhia Withdrawal  method Douching Abstinence   Methods      N=

All Men Ages 15-49            60.7       3.4   11.0    31.7                 1.1             0.3          0.2        8.1      3.4       1.1       0.2       0.1    4,746

Residence
Urban                         61.8       4.5   10.9    33.8                 1.4             0.3          0.3        6.1      3.4       1.1       0.1       0.1    2,820
Rural                         59.2       1.9   11.2    28.7                 0.7             0.4          0.1       10.9      3.5       1.2       0.3       0.1    1,926

Region
West                          50.5       2.3    7.9    24.5                 0.9             0.1          0.1       10.1      3.5       0.7       0.3              1,360
North                         60.4       2.9    7.8    32.5                 0.7             0.3          0.1       11.9      3.0       1.0       0.1       0.1      731
Central                       64.3       2.9   16.1    31.2                 1.5             0.5          0.2        7.5      2.7       1.5       0.1                957
South                         67.0       5.8   11.0    36.2                 1.4             0.2          0.2        5.6      4.5       1.8       0.2                850
East                          66.9       4.0   12.9    38.7                 1.1             0.4          0.2        4.6      3.5       1.1       0.1       0.4      848

Age
15-19                         25.8       0.3    0.4    24.0                 0.1                                     0.3      0.3       0.1                 0.1      756
20-24                         65.3       2.4    2.8    54.2                 0.8                                     4.1      0.3       0.3       0.2                616
25-29                         63.5       3.5    6.7    40.1                 1.0             0.2          1.0        6.7      3.6       0.8                 0.2      629
30-34                         74.8       6.5   15.7    34.2                 1.3             0.7          0.3       11.9      3.0       1.0                          674
35-39                         73.0       5.7   21.1    27.9                 1.2                          0.2        9.0      5.4       2.3       0.2                644
40-44                         68.7       3.8   15.7    24.3                 2.2             0.7                    13.5      6.5       1.3       0.3       0.1      757
45-49                         58.2       2.1   14.8    21.2                 0.9             0.4                    11.0      4.8       2.1       0.7       0.1      670

Education
Less than secondary           39.7       1.8    4.9    24.8                 0.2             0.1                     5.2      2.1       0.4                          954
Secondary                     63.4       2.9   11.5    32.4                 1.1             0.3          0.2        9.7      3.4       1.3       0.3       0.1    2,372
More than secondary           70.3       5.4   14.1    35.1                 1.6             0.5          0.3        7.2      4.4       1.3       0.2       0.1    1,420

Income
  Less than 400 Hrivna        54.4       1.8    7.6    28.8                 0.6             0.3          0.2       10.6      3.4       0.8       0.2              1,182
  From 400 to 599 Hrivna      60.0       2.6   10.7    31.5                 1.0             0.2          0.2        8.7      3.2       1.3       0.4       0.1    1,135
  From 600 to 899 Hrivna      62.6       4.4   12.6    31.0                 1.4             0.3          0.2        7.1      3.5       1.5       0.2       0.2    1,263
  More than 900 Hrivna        66.2       4.9   13.0    35.6                 1.4             0.4          0.2        5.9      3.7       0.9       0.1       0.1    1,150
 Note: there are no current users of hormonal implants, injectables, or male sterilization
 Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
          Do Not Cite
The Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey - WAPS Summary
         of Current Cost for Contraceptive Methods
• The following slides graph the distribution of current users of
       condoms, oral hormonals, and IUDs, respectively, by the
       price (in Hryvna) they currently pay for the method.
• In conjunction, each graph also includes a Willingness to Pay
       Curve, which is the distribution of current users according
       to the maximum price they will pay for each method.
• For example, approximately 80% of current users of condoms
       reported that they pay 2 hryvna or less for a 3-pack of
       condoms. The line denoting willingness to pay, however,
       suggests that 80% of current uses would pay up between
       3 and 3.5 hryvna for a 3-pack of condoms.
• The final 2 slides in this section show willingness to pay curves
       for respondents who would consider using hormonal
       implants or injectables (currently not used in Ukraine).
                                                          Willingness to Pay vs. Current Cost,
                                                     3-pack of Condoms (Current Users, N = 3,116)
                                       100
                                                                                                           Condom WTP Price Curve
                                                                                                           Condom Cost, Males
    Percent of Sample at Given Price




                                       80                                                                  Condom Cost, Females


                                       60



                                       40



                                       20



                                        0
                                             0   2             4              6               8                   10                12
                                                                       Price (in Hryvna)


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                                                                Willingness to Pay vs. Current Cost,
                                                 1 Cycle of Oral Hormonal Contraceptives (Current Users, N = 956)
                                       100
                                                                                                           Pill WTP Price Curve
    Percent of Sample at Given Price




                                                                                                           Pill Cost, Males
                                       80
                                                                                                           Pill Cost, Females


                                       60



                                       40



                                       20



                                        0
                                             0             15             30                 45            60                     75
                                                                            Price (in Hryvna)


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                                                        Willingness to Pay vs. Current Cost,
                                                 IUD Device plus Insertion (Current Users, N = 2,016)
                                       100
                                                                                                           IUD WTP Price Curve
    Percent of Sample at Given Price




                                       80                                                                  IUD Cost, Males
                                                                                                           IUD Cost, Females

                                       60



                                       40



                                       20



                                        0
                                             0   25           50             75             100               125              150
                                                                     Price (in Hryvna)


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                                                       Willingness to Pay, Hormonal Injection Good for 3 Months (N = 1,291)
                                             100
     Percent Willing to Pay at Price Point




                                             80



                                             60



                                             40



                                             20



                                              0
                                                   0                    25                   50               75              100
                                                                                     Price (in Hryvna)


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                                                      Willingness to Pay, Hormonal Implant Good for 5 Years (N = 1,264)
                                            100
    Percent Willing to Pay at Price Point




                                            80



                                            60



                                            40



                                            20



                                             0
                                                  0          50          100            150          200        250       300
                                                                                 Price (in Hryvna)


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
      Summary of Cost and Willingness to Pay Results

• There appears to be some flexibility in the willingness to pay
       for condoms.
• The current costs for contraception closely follows
       respondents stated willingness to pay for oral hormonal
       pills and IUDs.
• A sizable proportion of the sampled population expressed an
       interest in previously unavailable methods, with over
       1,000 responses to the items on willingness to pay for
       contraceptive injections or implants.
            WAPS – Additional Preliminary Tables


• Source of contraceptive supply (public, private, or other) for
       married women, all women, and men, by method used
       and by residence.


• Time to access contraception for married women, all women,
      and men, by method used and by residence.
         Source of contraceptive supply, Married Women ages 15-49
     Percent distribution of users of modern methods of contraception by source of supply and residence
                                                                                                   Other                    Female
                                         All Modern             Oral                              Barrier             sterilization:
                                           Methods         Hormonals         IUD     Condom      Methods Spermicides tubal ligation

     Married women ages 15-49                  68.4                5.5       20.3        17.9          0.1         1.9           0.7

     Ukraine    Public                         62.8               96.8       96.9        88.6       100.0         96.8
                Private                         3.9                3.2        3.1        10.6                      3.2
                Other                           0.1                                       0.3
                Not stated                     33.1                                                                           100.0
                Don't know                      0.2                                      0.5
                Total                         100.0              100.0      100.0      100.0        100.0        100.0        100.0


     Urban      Public                         65.8               96.1       96.1        88.7       100.0         96.1
                Private                         4.4                3.9        3.9        10.8                      3.9
                Other                           0.1                                       0.3
                Not stated                     29.6                                                                           100.0
                Don't know                      0.1                                      0.3
                Total                         100.0              100.0      100.0      100.0        100.0        100.0        100.0


     Rural      Public                         58.5              100.0       97.9        88.5       100.0        100.0
                Private                         3.1                           2.1        10.2
                Other                           0.1                                       0.4
                Not stated                     38.1                                                                           100.0
                Don't know                      0.2                                      0.9
                Total                         100.0              100.0      100.0      100.0        100.0        100.0        100.0


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
         Source of contraceptive supply, All Women ages 15-49
     Percent distribution of users of modern methods of contraception by source of supply and residence

                                                                                                   Other                    Female
                                         All Modern             Oral                              Barrier             sterilization:
                                           Methods         Hormonals         IUD     Condom      Methods Spermicides tubal ligation

     All women ages 15-49                      53.3                4.8       14.2        16.7          0.1         1.7           0.5

     Ukraine    Public                         64.8               93.7       96.6        85.6       100.0         93.7
                Private                         5.1                4.2        3.4        12.4                      4.2
                Other                           0.5                2.1                    1.3                      2.1
                Not stated                     29.4                                                                           100.0
                Don't know                      0.2                                      0.6
                Total                         100.0              100.0      100.0      100.0        100.0        100.0        100.0


     Urban      Public                         67.8               93.6       95.7        85.9       100.0         93.6
                Private                         5.5                3.8        4.3        12.1                      3.8
                Other                           0.5                2.6                    1.3                      2.6
                Not stated                     25.9                                                                           100.0
                Don't know                      0.3                                      0.7
                Total                         100.0              100.0      100.0      100.0        100.0        100.0        100.0


     Rural      Public                         60.0               94.1       97.9        85.0       100.0         94.1
                Private                         4.4                5.9        2.1        13.1                      5.9
                Other                           0.4                                       1.3
                Not stated                     35.1                                                                           100.0
                Don't know                      0.2                                      0.6
                Total                         100.0              100.0      100.0      100.0        100.0        100.0        100.0


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
                Source of contraceptive supply, All Men ages 15-49
      Percent distribution of users of modern methods of contraception by source of supply and residence

                                                                                                   Other                    Female
                                          All Modern             Oral                             Barrier             sterilization:
                                            Methods         Hormonals         IUD    Condom      Methods Spermicides tubal ligation

      All Men Ages 15-49                        60.7                3.4      11.0        31.7                      1.1           0.3

      Ukraine    Public                         64.8               94.2      98.2        81.6         98.1        94.2
                 Private                         5.1                3.9       0.6        17.6          1.9         3.9
                 Other                           0.5                0.4                   0.8                      0.4
                 Not stated                     29.4                                                                          100.0
                 Don't know                      0.2               1.5        1.2                                  1.5
                 Total                         100.0             100.0      100.0       100.0       100.0        100.0        100.0


      Urban      Public                         67.8               92.4      98.4        82.3         97.4        92.4
                 Private                         5.5                5.3       0.8        16.9          2.6         5.3
                 Other                           0.5                0.3                   0.8                      0.3
                 Not stated                     25.9                                                                          100.0
                 Don't know                      0.3               2.0        0.8                                  2.0
                 Total                         100.0             100.0      100.0       100.0       100.0        100.0        100.0


      Rural      Public                         60.0               96.8      97.4        80.5       100.0         96.8
                 Private                         4.4                1.8                  18.8                      1.8
                 Other                           0.4                0.5                   0.7                      0.5
                 Not stated                     35.1                                                                          100.0
                 Don't know                      0.2               0.9        2.6                                  0.9
                 Total                         100.0             100.0      100.0       100.0       100.0        100.0        100.0


Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
      Length of Wait for Current Users, Married Women ages 15-49
           Percent distribution of respondents by time required to wait to receive contraception

                                                                 Oral                                   Other Barrier
                 Time required (min.)     Any methods       Hormonals             IUD        Condom        Methods      Spermicides

           Married women ages 15-49                68.4            5.5           20.3            17.9            0.1            1.9

           Ukraine
           Under 15                                68.9           85.4           42.6           91.8           100.0           84.1
           15-29                                   14.6           11.9           23.1            6.0                           14.3
           30-59                                    9.3            1.6           20.0            0.5                            1.6
           60 or more                               6.3            0.5           14.1            0.2
           Don't know/non-response                  0.9            0.5            0.3            1.5
           Total                                  100.0          100.0          100.0          100.0           100.0          100.0

           Urban
           Under 15                                70.7           86.0           43.1            91.6          100.0           84.3
           15-29                                   14.5           11.8           23.9             5.9                          13.7
           30-59                                    9.5            1.5           21.8             0.8                           2.0
           60 or more                               4.4                          10.9
           Don't know/non-response                                 0.7            0.3            1.6
           Total                                   99.1          100.0          100.0          100.0           100.0          100.0

           Rural
           Under 15                                66.0           83.7           41.9            92.0          100.0           83.3
           15-29                                   14.8           12.2           22.0             6.2                          16.7
           30-59                                    9.0            2.0           17.5
           60 or more                               9.5            2.0           18.2            0.4
           Don't know/non-response                  0.7                           0.3            1.3
           Total                                  100.0          100.0          100.0          100.0           100.0          100.0

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
         Length of Wait for Current Users, All Women ages 15-49
           Percent distribution of respondents by time required to wait to receive contraception

                                                                 Oral                                      Other Barrier
                 Time required (min.)     Any methods       Hormonals             IUD        Condom           Methods      Spermicides

           All women ages 15-49                    53.3             4.8           14.2           16.7               0.1            1.7

           Ukraine
           Under 15                                72.4           85.5           42.9            92.2             100.0           83.2
           15-29                                   13.1           11.5           22.4             5.7                             13.7
           30-59                                    8.1            1.9           20.1             0.5                              2.1
           60 or more                               5.6            0.7           14.2             0.1                              1.1
           Don't know/non-response                  0.9            0.4            0.4             1.4
           Total                                  100.0          100.0          100.0           100.0             100.0          100.0

           Urban
           Under 15                                73.8           86.3           42.4            91.8             100.0           83.3
           15-29                                   13.1           10.8           23.5             6.1                             14.1
           30-59                                    8.2            2.0           22.2             0.7                              2.6
           60 or more                               4.0            0.5           11.7
           Don't know/non-response                  0.9            0.5            0.2             1.5
           Total                                  100.0          100.0          100.0           100.0             100.0          100.0

           Rural
           Under 15                                69.7           83.1           43.6            93.0             100.0           82.4
           15-29                                   13.1           13.8           20.9             5.1                             11.8
           30-59                                    8.0            1.5           17.2             0.3
           60 or more                               8.4            1.5           17.8             0.3                              5.9
           Don't know/non-response                  0.8                           0.6             1.3
           Total                                  100.0          100.0          100.0           100.0             100.0          100.0

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
           Length of Wait for Current Users, All Men ages 15-49
           Percent distribution of respondents by time required to wait to receive contraception

                                                                 Oral                                   Other Barrier
                 Time required (min.)     Any methods       Hormonals             IUD        Condom        Methods      Spermicides

           All Men Ages 15-49                      60.7            3.4           11.0            31.7                           1.1

           Ukraine
           Under 15                                79.0           84.0           38.6           92.4                           82.7
           15-29                                   10.7           12.3           23.2            6.4                            5.8
           30-59                                    4.7            0.6           17.8            0.6                            3.8
           60 or more                               3.3            0.6           13.5            0.1                            1.9
           Don't know/non-response                  2.3            2.5            6.9            0.4                            5.8
           Total                                  100.0          100.0          100.0          100.0                          100.0

           Urban
           Under 15                                80.2           86.4           38.3            92.7                          84.6
           15-29                                   10.1           11.2           22.0             6.5                           2.6
           30-59                                    4.8            0.8           20.7             0.4                           2.6
           60 or more                               2.4                          11.0                                           2.6
           Don't know/non-response                  2.5            1.6            8.0            0.4                            7.7
           Total                                  100.0          100.0          100.0          100.0                          100.0

           Rural
           Under 15                                77.1           76.3           39.0           92.0                           76.9
           15-29                                   11.7           15.8           24.8            6.4                           15.4
           30-59                                    4.4                          13.8            0.9                            7.7
           60 or more                               4.8            2.6           17.0            0.4
           Don't know/non-response                  2.0            5.3            5.5            0.4
           Total                                  100.0          100.0          100.0          100.0                          100.0

Source: Preliminary Results of the Willingness and Ability to Pay Survey (WAPS), all data are unweighted
        Do Not Cite
Complete tables with weighted data are forthcoming.

				
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