popular culture by KfCsH9A

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									———By Group 6
Background
Questionnaire
   Chart Analysis (sample:50)



100%
 90%
 80%
 70%
 60%                                           Not sure
 50%                                           No
 40%                                           Yes
 30%
 20%
 10%
  0%
       Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4   Q5   Q6   Q7   Q8
   We have invited 50 online
friends to do the questionnaire
for us,after we analyze the
results, we find that not so
many people know “metaphor” or
the details of it clearly,such as
its definition,classification and
its functions. Therefore, we
choose this topic for our
research.
 History of metaphors
      The idea of metaphor can be traced back to
Aristotle who, in his “Poetics” (around 335 BC),
defines “metaphor” as follows: “Metaphor is the
application of a strange term either transferred from
the genus and applied to the species or from the
species and applied to the genus, or from one species
to another or else by analogy.” For the sake of clarity
and comprehension it might additionally be useful to
quote the following two alternative translations:
“Metaphor is the application of an alien name by
transference either from genus to species, or from
species to genus, or from species to species, or by
analogy, that is, proportion.” Or, as Halliwell puts it in
his translation: “Metaphor is the application of a word
that belongs to another thing: either from genus to
species, species to genus, species to species, or by
analogy.”
 Our Group Members’ Assignments
• Liu Fowa:1.Search for the definition of metaphors.
• 2.Make the questionnaire and analyze the results at
  last.
• Qiu Xi:1.Find some examples of metaphors.2.Deliver
  the presentation.
• Lu Xiaoke: 1.Divide the examples we’ve found into
  groups according to some standards. 2.Deliver the
  presentation.
• Yang Lizhu:1.Search for the functions of metaphors.
  2.Put all the materials we’ve found together ,make the
  final PPT and write the written paper.
---------By Liu Fowa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
  A metaphor is an analogy between two objects
     or ideas; the analogy is conveyed by the use
   of a metaphorical word in place of some other
  word.
From Eaglestone :
  Metaphor roughly means “to transfer”. They
  transfer meaning by using a term to describe
  something else .
From English Collins Dictionary:
  A metaphor is an imaginative way of
  describing something by referring to
  something else which is the same in a
  particular way.
From linguist George Lakoff and philosopher
Mark Johnson :
The essence of metaphor is understanding and
experiencing one kind of thing in terms of
another.

From Lakoff and Johnson:
 In all aspects of life, ... we define our reality
in terms of metaphors and then proceed to
act on the basis of the metaphors. We draw
inferences, set goals, make commitments, and
execute plans, all on the basis of how we in
part structure our experience, consciously
and unconsciously, by means of metaphor
Examples we’ve
    found
   ---By Qiu Xi
        Examples we’ve found
• You're looking pretty rabbit -- what's up?(You’re looking so
  fretful—what’s up?)
• 'Metrosexual' is a modern word for an urban heterosexual male
  who is overly concerned with appearance.('Metrosexual' is used
  to describe male who is overly concerned with appearance.)
• That lends weight to the argument.(That makes the argument
  more important.)
• They stood alone, frozen statues on the plain.(They stood alone,
  keeping unmoved)
• The ball happily danced into the net.(The goal was scored.)
• I was lost in thought. (I was in deep thought.)
• She flew at him. (She was angry with him.)
• He was rattled. (He was terrified.)
• New era business is a whole different ball game.(New era
  business is a whole different situation.)
• We were drinking the white.(We were drinking coffee with milk
  in it.)
        Examples we’ve found
• I am the dog end of every day.(I’m tired end of every day.)
• That is worth less than a dead didgeridoo.(That is worth
  nothing.)
• We faced a scallywag of tasks.(We faced hard tasks.)
• Let me compare thee to an artic day, sharp and bright, forever
  light...(You are wonderful.)
• It's been a purple dinosaur of a day.(It is a stupid moment of a
  day.)
• I'll chew on it. (I’ll think about it.)
• Her thoughts were on the wing. (She is thinking about it.)
• Fabulous was something worthy of fable. Like many other
  superlatives, it has lost its original edge and now just means
  'good'. (Fabulous has lost its original meaning,now it just means
  'good ‘.)
• Roasting today! (It’s so hot today!)
         Examples we’ve found
• He legged it.( Here “leg” means walk by foot).
• A photon struck him; bolts were for greater men. (Here “photon”
  means small idea; “bolts” means big ideas).
• I like your wheels, man! (“wheels” means car).
• Nice bit of skirt. (Here “skirt” young girl,”bit of skirt” is a
  slang).
• Try this nib. (Here “nib” means pen).
• She danced, a wild and gothic fairy. ( Here “gothic fairy” means
  a kind of fairy that have gothic characteristics).
• Thick, primal, blind fog descended before his eyes. (Here ‘blind”
  describes fog in order to express the thickness of fog).
• The car screeched in hated anguish, its flesh laid bare in the
  raucous collision. (Originally,anguish is a kind of feeling of human
  beings, but here it describes the car).
• He is the pointing gun, we are the bullets of his desire. ( Here
  “he” is compared to the pointing gun and “we” are compared to the
  bullets).
         Examples we’ve found
• The origin of ‘the whole nine yards’(all of it completely) seems unknown,
  even to an expert word website.
• The President has his hand firmly on the tiller of government and it is now
  plain sailing (smooth /easy sailing).
• He's a loose cannon (somebody that is out of control) who always goes off
  the deep end (makes bad choice and their lives become crazy).
• Footloose (who is carefree) and fancy-pants (people who think they are
  better than others).
• He often shot his mouth off in the dark (speaks before listening).
• A rolling stone gathers no bird in the hand. (somebody keeps moving and
  dose not have a place to call home)
• It was playing with fire in the belly. (doing something dangerous)
           Examples we’ve found
•   Thanks -- that‘s just the ticket, old chap. I’m over the moon about it(
    “over the moon”means “very happy or delighted”).
•   All the world‘s a stage and men and women merely players. ( Life is like
    a play - we merely go through the stages of our life acting it out).
•   Panting hard, he hand-braked the corner, power-sliding into the
    doorway. [running as driving]
•   Noisy twinkling in the night, the shares blew hypnotic shards of
    brilliance down on the hopeful investors. [Share price movement as a
    sky-rocket firework]
•   Winning the argument. (argument as war)
•   Time is money.
•   Life as journey.
•   Cool down! [Cool = temperature]
•   He was mad. [mad = anger]
The examples we’ve found can be
divided into 15 different groups. They
are:
Absolute metaphor , Active metaphor ,
Complex metaphor , Compound
metaphor, Dead metaphor , Dormant
metaphor, Dying metaphor ,Extended
metaphor, Implicit metaphor ,Pataphor,
Root metaphor, Simple metaphor ,
Submerged metaphor ,
Synechdochic metaphor
 Absolute metaphor 绝对暗喻
Examples
• I am the dog end of every day.
• That is worth less than a dead
  digeridoo.
• We faced a scallywag of tasks.
• Description
• An absolute metaphor is one where
  there is absolutely no connection
  between the subject and the metaphor.
    Active metaphor 积极暗喻
• Examples
• Let me compare thee to an artic day, sharp and
  bright, forever light...
• It's been a purple dinosaur of a day.
• You're looking pretty rabbit -- what's up?
• 'Metrosexual' is a modern word for an urban
  heterosexual male who is overly concerned with
  appearance.
• Description
• An active metaphor is one which is relatively new and
  hence is not necessarily apparent to all listeners,
  although if the metaphor is well-selected, it will be
  easy enough to understand.
 Complex metaphor 复杂暗喻
• Examples
• That lends weight to the argument.
• They stood alone, frozen statues on the
  plain.
• The ball happily danced into the net.
• Description
• A complex metaphor happens where a
  simple metaphor is base on a secondary
  metaphoric element.
Compound metaphor复合暗喻
• Examples
• She danced, a wild and gothic fairy.
• Thick, primal, blind fog descended before his eyes.
• The car screeched in hated anguish, its flesh laid
  bare in the raucous collision.
• Description
• A compound metaphor is one where there are multiple
  elements in the metaphor that are used to snag the
  listener. These elements may be enhancement words
  such as adverbs, adjectives, etc.
• Each element in the compound metaphor may be used
  to signify an additional item of meaning.
       Dead metaphor 死暗喻
• Examples
• Fabulous was something worthy of fable. Like many
  other superlatives, it has lost its original edge and
  now just means 'good'.
• Money was so called because it was first minted at
  the temple Juno Moneta.
• The origin of 'the whole nine yards' seems unknown,
  even to an expert word website.
• Description
• A dead metaphor occurs where the once-evocative
  transferred image is no longer effective or even
  understood, perhaps being lost in the aeons of time.
    Dormant metaphor休眠暗喻
•   Examples
•   I was lost in thought. [How?]
•   She flew at him. [Why? In anger? Love?]
•   He was rattled. [Why? By what or whom?]
•   Description
•   A dormant metaphor is one where the
    connection between the vehicle and the
    subject is not clear.
    Dying metaphor 垂死暗喻
• Examples
• New era business is a whole different ball
  game.
• The President has his hand firmly on the tiller
  of government and it is now plain sailing.
• Thanks -- that's just the ticket, old chap. I'm
  over the moon about it.
• Description
• A dying metaphor is one which has become so
  over-used, it is considered unfashionable or
  lacking in eloquence to use it. In effect, it is a
  cliché.
 Extended metaphor 扩展暗喻
• Examples
• He is the pointing gun, we are the bullets of his
  desire.
• All the world's a stage and men and women merely
  players.
• Let me count my loves of thee, my rose garden, my
  heart, my fixed mark, my beginning and my end.
• Description
• An extended metaphor is one where there is a single
  main subject to which additional subjects and
  metaphors are applied.
• The extended metaphor may act as a central theme,
  for example where it is used as the primary vehicle of
  a poem and is used repeatedly and in different forms.
    Implicit metaphor 隐含暗喻
•   Examples
•   Roasting today!
•   She had the screaming.
•   We were drinking the white.
•   Description
•   In an implicit metaphor, the full subject
    is not explained, but is implied from the
    context of the sentence.
    Mixed metaphor 混合暗喻
• Examples
• He's a loose cannon who always goes off the deep
  end.
• Footloose and fancy-pants.
• He often shot his mouth off in the dark.
• A rolling stone gathers no bird in the hand.
• It was playing with fire in the belly.
• Description
• A mixed metaphor is one where the metaphor is
  internally inconsistent, for example where multiple
  metaphors are used which do not align with one
  another.
• The metaphors used often have some connection,
  although this is often tenuous or inappropriate.
           Pataphor 荒诞暗喻
• Examples
• Panting hard, he hand-braked the corner, power-
  sliding into the doorway. [running as driving]
• Noisy twinkling in the night, the shares blew hypnotic
  shards of brilliance down on the hopeful investors.
  [Share price movement as a sky-rocket firework]
• Description
• The pataphor is an extreme form of metaphor, taking
  the principle to its limit, where the basic metaphor is
  typically not mentioned but extensions to it are used
  without reference.
     Root metaphor根的暗喻
• Examples
• Winning the argument. (argument as
  war)
• Time is money.
• Life as journey.
• Description
• A root metaphor is one which is so
  embedded within a language or culture
  that it is often not realized as being a
  metaphor.
     Simple metaphor 简单暗喻
•   Examples
•   Cool down!
•   He was mad.
•   I'll chew on it.
•   Description
•   A simple metaphor has a single link between
    the subject and the metaphoric vehicle. The
    vehicle thus has a single meaning which is
    transferred directly to the subject.
Synechdochic metaphor提喻暗喻
•   Examples
•   I like your wheels, man! [wheels = car]
•   Nice bit of skirt. [skirt = woman]
•   Try this nib. [nib = pen]
•   Description
•   The synechdochic metaphor is one
    where a small part or element of
    something is used to represent the
    whole.
Submerged metaphor深层暗喻
• Examples
• Her thoughts were on the wing.
• He legged it.
• A photon struck him; bolts were for greater
  men.
• Description
• A Submerged metaphor is one in which the
  metaphoric vehicle is indicated by one part of
  it.
• Typically, the element selected to be the
  metaphor has particular significance for the
  intended meaning.
   Functions of metaphors
• 1. They can add ornamental (装饰的)or poetic
  flourish to language--as when William
  Shakespeare refers to the sun as the eye of
  heaven and writes of variations in sunny days
  in terms of the state of the sun‘s gold
  complexion(颜色); in a certain context, one
  can conceive of the sun in the sky shining its
  light to see the Earth, the sun god keeping an
  eye on its territory, sometimes making it hot
  for us.
    Functions of metaphors
• 2. They can give new meanings to
  words — as when a virus has infected
  one‘s computer system, infected not by
  a biological virus but by an encoded
  algorithm (算法)that behaves like one;
• 3. They can reduce overload in mental
  storage of units of knowledge, thereby
  facilitating(使容易) discourse(谈话).
    Functions of metaphors
• 4. They can express our experiences in
  rich and vivid language, which, through
  the emotional impact that accompanies a
  rich and vivid reconceptualization(再概
  念化) of domains(领域), often fosters
  a communicative and/or explanatory role
  of metaphor.
    Functions of metaphors
• Aristotle (亚里士多德)says something to
  that effect in his Rhetoric:"Liveliness is
 specially conveyed by metaphor, and by
 the further power of surprising the
 hearer; because the hearer expected
 something different, his acquisition of
 the new idea impresses him all the more.
 His mind seems to say, 'Yes, to be sure;
 I never thought of that'."
     Functions of metaphors
• 5. They can spark creativity;When we
 experience radical(激进的) metaphor, we
 can be aware of an initial double-focus effect,
 a blur (模糊)produced when images from
 different realms(界,领域) of experience
 are suddenly superimposed (附加)on each
 other. In successful metaphor, such confusion
 quickly resolves itself into a startling new
 perception of reality. By bringing together
 images not previously combined, metaphor can
 spark a conflagration of thought that is the
 essence of creativity.
    Functions of metaphors
• 6. They can underpin(加固,支撑) the
  cognitive(认知的) function of
  conceptualizing also by aggregating(聚
  集) with other conceptual metaphors in
  the unconscious mind, where most
  thinking and remembering occurs,
  thereby constructing a conceptual
  system for an individual, or for social,
  political, commercial or professional
  groups, as manifested(显示) in the
  discourse of those groups.
     Functions of metaphors
• 7. They can generate(产生) new metaphors
  through their generation of insight into a
  phenomenon, which can generate additional
  insight leading to new metaphors, continuation
  of the process resulting in a network of
  metaphors offering fuller insight into the
  phenomenon through development of a
  conceptual system--as when: ....the metaphor
  of “the genetic code” kicked off (开始)
  several related metaphors such as "genetic
  translation," "words," "genetic reading,"
  "transcription," "making sense," "making
  nonsense," "dictionaries," "libraries“.....
     Functions of metaphors
• 8. They can accomplish metaphor-related pedagogical
  (教学的)goals using a constructed fictional,
  sometimes fantastical(奇异的), novel concept — as
  when Kosslyn and Koenig, in their book, Wet Mind:The
  New Cognitive Neuroscience(神经科学),construct a
  fictional scenario(剧情说明书) of rows of octopi
  (八爪鱼)unknowingly generating information output
  about local fish density to overhead seagulls through
  interactions of their tentacles(动物触角), a
  metaphor they constructed to explain the nature and
  operation of a connectionist neural network;
    Functions of metaphors
• 9. They can influence the frame or cast
  of mind of the listener/reader
  regarding an issue, perhaps leading to
  action — as when politicians use
  expressions such as right to life(生存权),
  war on terror(反恐战争), and surge
  ( 增兵计划 ,这个策略有效的结束了伊拉
  克战争).
     Functions of metaphors
• 10. They can, by diffusion(传播,散布) from
  one domain of discourse (e.g., science) to
  another (e.g., economics, popular culture),
  each of which have their own codes or
  conventions of discourse, acquire new variants
  of meaning, potentially producing new
  knowledge in the invaded domain or even
  changing the domain's perspective of
  reality — a creative or innovative role of
  metaphor.
    Functions of metaphors
• 11. They can occupy the minds of mind-
  scholars, from many different
  intellectual fields of study, in the study
  of the nature of metaphor and its
  relevance to understanding the nature
  of the mind.
References:
• http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Metaphor#Fu
  nctions_of_metaphor
• http://literaryzone.com/?p=99
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaphor
• English Collins Dictionary

								
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