DEMAND AND FORECASTING by AsadJilani

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									AN ANALYSIS ON DEMAND AND FORECASTING
OF PLASTIC PRODUCT IN PUDUCHERRY WITH
   REFERENCE TO ACT PLASTIC PVT (LTD)
              SUMMER PROJECT REPORT

                         Submitted by
                   C.GANESH KUMAR
                  REGISTER NO:27348309


                    Under the Guidance of
              Ms. G.VIDHYA, M.B.A,M.Phil.
      Faculty in the Department Of Management Studies


        In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree
                               Of




       MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

     DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

            PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

                 PUDUCHERRY, INDIA

                     SEPTEMBER 2007


                                                            1
 SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

                      PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

           DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES



                          BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE



        This to certify that the project work entitled “AN ANALYSIS ON DEMAND AND
FORECASTING OF PLASTIC PRODUCT IN PUDUCHERRYWITH REFERENCE
TO ACT PLASTIC PVT (LTD).” Is a bonafide work done by C.GANESH KUMAR
[REGISTER NO: 27348309] in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Master
of Business Administration by Pondicherry University during the academic year 2007 –
2008.




HEAD OF DEPARTMENT                                                      GUIDE




Viva-Voce Examination held on




EXTERNAL EXAMINER




                                                                                      2
                 TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER                            TITLE     PAGE NO


          ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                       ii

          ABSTRACT                             iii

          LIST OF TABLES                       iv

          LIST OF CHARTS                        v



          INTRODUCTION
   I                                            1
          1.1 Profile of Organization
          1.2 Corporation Vision


   II     NEED FOR THE STUDY                    7

  III     REVIEW OF LITERATURE                  8

  IV      OBJECTIVES                           25

  IV      RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                 26

  VI      DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION     28

  VII     FINDINGS OF THE STUDY                42

  VIII    SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS       44

  IX      CONCLUSIONS                          45

   X      LIMITATIONS                          46

  XI      SCOPE FOR THE FUTHER STUDY           47

          ANNEXURE                             48




                                                       3
                                 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful completion of any task would be incomplete without mentioning the names of
persons who help to make it possible. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude in few
words and respect to all those who helped me in the completion of this summer project.

I   express     my   heartiest   and    deep    gratitude   to   Mr.N.Kesavan,   Chairman     ,
Mr.M.Dhanasekaran ,Managing Director and Mr.S.V.Sugumaran , vice-chairman of Sri
Manakula Vinayakar Engineerning College.

I am extremely grateful to Our Principal Dr. V.S.K. VENGATACHALAPATHY to provide
necessary and essential facilities to do this project report.

I express our sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to our Head of Department
Mr. S. JAYAKUMAR, Department of Management Studies for providing me with an
opportunity to study and to do this report

I express a deep sense of gratitude to my Guide Ms. K.VIDHYA, Lecturer, Department of
Management Studies, his encouragement, support and guidance to complete this project work
successfully.

I convey my heartiest thanks to, Mr.V.A..MANIMARAN Chief Operating Officer, ACT
Plastic Private Ltd, Puducherry, who kindly granted permission to do this project report in his
esteemed organization,

I express our sincere thanks to Mr. S.A.GANESH, Manger-Admin., ACT Plastic Private
Ltd, Puducherry, for guiding me in all the ways to do the project

        I express our sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to My best friends, S.RAJA ,
and R. PADMARAJ encouraged from time to time all possible ways

Finally, I thank my beloved PARENTS without those supports this project report would not
have been completed in a successful.




                                                                  - C.GANESH KUMAR



                                                                                             4
                                          ABSTRACT

Demands are wants for specific products backed by an ability to pay. Many people want a
Mercedes; only a few are willing and able to buy one. Companies must measure not only how
many people want their product but also how many would actually be willing and able to buy
it

Forecasting is the process of estimation in unknown situations. Prediction is a similar, but
more general term, and usually refers to estimation of time series, cross-sectional or
longitudinal data. In more recent years, Forecasting has evolved into the practice of Demand
Planning in every day business forecasting for manufacturing companies. The discipline of
demand planning, also sometimes referred to as supply chain forecasting, embraces both
statistical forecasting and consensus process.

       This is the project about an analysis on demand and forecasting of plastic product in
Puducherry with reference to ACT Plastic Private Ltd, Mettupalayam. This may helpful to
identify the demand of the plastic product in Puducherry areas.

This projects has following objectives.

To identify potential demand for the plastic product at different areas in Puducherry.
To estimate demand of plastic product in near future.
To find out the consumption rate of plastic product in Puducherry.
To study and understand the quality needs of plastic product by the customer.
To identify competitor market demand.


     The Research design of this project, it contains 50 samples which were taken from
plastic related company in Puducherry locations. This project analysed on the basis of two
statistical tools such as percentage and weighted average tools. Finally the result of the study
concluded that there is huge need of plastics will be demanded after two years in plastic
sectors. Once the demands are identified, it would be possible for the management to take the
necessary action to improve in getting highly sophisticated markets.




                                                                                              5
                                 LIST OF TABLES



Sl.
                                    Table Name                   Page no.
No


01    Respondent on type of industry                               28


02    Respondent on business period                                29


03    Respondent on preference to the place the order              30


04    Respondent on quantity needed per month                      31


05    Respondent on supplier rating                                32


06    Respondent on specification needed of plastic products.      33


07    Respondent on types of raw material using                    34


08    Respondent on quantity needed per month ( Blow moulding)     35


09    Respondent on demand after 2 years in injection moulding     36


10    Respondents on satisfaction                                  37


11    Respondent on major suppliers                                38


12    Respondents on satisfaction level                            39


13    Respondent on factors influence to purchase                  40


14    Weighted average table 1                                     41


15    Weighted average table 2                                     41




                                                                        6
                               LIST OF CHARTS


Sl.
                                    Table Name                   Page no.
No


01    Respondent on type of industry                               28


02    Respondent on business period                                29


03    Respondent on preference to the place the order              30


04    Respondent on quantity needed per month                      31


05    Respondent on supplier rating                                32


06    Respondent on specification needed of plastic products.      33


07    Respondent on types of raw material using                    34


08    Respondent on quantity needed per month ( Blow moulding)     35


09    Respondent on demand after 2 years in injection moulding     36


10    Respondents on satisfaction                                  37


11    Respondent on major suppliers                                38


12    Respondents on satisfaction level                            39


13    Respondent on factors influence to purchase                  40




                                                                        7
                                      CHAPTER-1

                             INTRODUCTION – COMPANY




1.1.1 COMPANY MILESTONES:

    June 2003 : ACT Commissioned with Two Injection Molding Machines

    October 2004 : Installed 5 more machines in 2004

    January 2005: Commissioned Paint Unit in Chennai

    March 2005 : Achieved the Target of 1 Crore Turnover

    June 2005: Machine service and mold service facility installed

    January 2006: Fabrication of Plastic Chairs

    February 2007: Got ISO 9001:2001 Certificate



1.1.2 COMPANY PROFILE:

       ACT is prestigious manufacturer and supplier of industrial mouldings, commodity
mouldings, automotive mouldings, machine parts painting, single point source for spares, etc.
Initially started in Pondicherry, ACT soon expanded our operations to Chennai.



         ACT are one of the leading manufacturers and exporters of industrial moulding,
commodity moulding, automotive moulding, machine parts painting, single point source for
spares, etc. Established in July 2003 in Pondicherry, ACT soon expanded our operations and
set up office in Chennai in March 2006.



       An ISO 9001: 2000 certified company for quality management system, ACT produce
premium quality products for our distinguished customers. ACT has the technical expertise to
produce innovative products. ACT has the caliber to deliver small batches for a large variety
of application. Within a short span of time ACT have earned a strong foothold in the market.




                                                                                               8
1.1.3 TEAM

       ACT has a team of expert professionals who strive to achieve customer satisfaction.
ACT use the famous ‘5S methodology’ in our work culture. Our quality control department
strives hard to sustain the same standards of high quality of the products.




1.2.1 CORPORATE VISION

    ACT envisage becoming a single source supplier of molding, painting requirements
       and any other outsourcing requirements”



1.2.2 MISION

    Building up high quality of performance with team spirit
    Meeting Customer Requirements by Zero defects
    Continual Improvement



1.2.3 CLIENTELE

    GM Pens International Private Ltd., (Reynolds,)
    Nilkamal Plastics
    Brite Brothers Private Ltd.
    Supreme Industries Private Ltd,
    TVS Sundaram Fasteners Limited, etc.



1.3. ACT – PRODUCTION




1.3.1 Manufacturing Capability

       ACT have total building area of 4500 sq. feet. ACT has the capability to store raw
materials. Our manufacturing unit is designed in such a way that it has the capacity of
processing plastic of 30 tons per month.




                                                                                        9
1.3.2 About Injection Molding Machine

       The Injection molding machine converts granule are pelleted raw plastic into final
molded parts via a melt inject and pack and cool cycle. A typical injection molding machine
consist of the following major components

        Injection System
        Hydraulic system
        Mold system
        Clamping Control System

1.3.3 Industrial Molding

        Molded articles, like PPHP, PPCP, HIPS, ABS, PC, and NYLON. ( OEM )

1.3.4 Machine parts Coating

       ACT offer a heterogeneous variety of coating techniques to serve our clients needs in
economical and artistic manner. ACT apply finishes on products from phosphates, oil, paint,
lacquer, and rust preventatives, to color coding by either bulk or other methods.
1.3.5 Bulk Coating

       This is a cost-effective method of applying decorative and protective paint finishes to
small parts, which lend themselves to one of these processes

1.3.6 Spray Coating:

       Spray coating is a method through which can select the coating from a broad varity of
colours and textures.

1.3.7 Power Coating

       It is the direct application of powdered paint on to a metallic part by charging the
paint particles with electrostatic electricity, which is applied by a powder spray gun. These
particles are attracted to the grounded part. The coated part is then heated to a degree, which
when the paint particles melt, flow and are fused into a high quality uniform protective finish
that is aesthetically pleasing any highly durable. Finishes utilizing this method are available
in variety of colors and textures. Powder coatings offer Urethanes, Epoxies, Polyesters, Hi-
Brids, Full range of colors, glosses and textures.


                                                                                            10
1.3.8 Electrostatic Power Spray Conveyor System

       This system uses a powder spray booth and a curing oven connected by an overhead
conveyor. The parts are suspended on racks on the overhead conveyor. These parts are then
carried by conveyor to the powder booth for coating either manually or automatically and
then to the oven for curing. The conveyor chain speed for is variable from 1 to 16 feet per
minute to accommodate part size, mass and powder curing.

1.3.9 Single Point Source for Spares

       ACT supply single point source for spares such as hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical &
electronic spares with in 48 hrs.



1.3.10 Hydraulic and pneumatic

       ACT supply components for horizontal pumps, vertical pumps, submersible pumps,
submerged pumps (pump body, impellers, housing for the electric parts, command panels,
venturi pipes, diffusers), filters for compressors, filter casings, non-return valves,
thermometers for oil circuit manufacturing machines. Furthermore ACTsupply the folloing
products mentions below.




    Lock – Tide
    Ring Core
    Bearing Industrial & Automotive
    Oil Seals
    V- Belts
    Pulleys
    Sprockets
    Tapes and Couplings
    Hydraulic Hoses & fittings and repairs to valves, pumps and cylinders




                                                                                        11
   ACT also stock hydraulic spares, which comprises of
    Seal kits
    Seals (Individual)
    Pumps (complete)
    Pump Cartridges
    Pump Seal Kits
    Pump Shafts
    Pump Couplings
    Pump Valves (Proportional)
    Valves (Directional)
    Motors
    Check Valves
    Flow Control Valves
    Lubrication Parts
    Pressure Gauges
    Temperature Gauges



1.3.11 Pneumatic spares

            ACT supply jack hammer / hand held rock drills in India. Our hand held drill
   machines are carefully designed and used for marble mines and construction sites in
   rocks. These machines drill vertically and horizontally.




1.3.12 Electrical & electronic spares

          ACT also deal with diverse kinds of electrical and electronic spares such as
   EAPL, OMRON, PLA, LAKSHMI, SALZER, EMCO, PCB and Sensors.




                                                                                     12
   1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL CHART




                               Managing Director




                                Chief Operating
                                    Officer




  Admin.&        Production       Maintenance      Store &          Executive- QA
   Account        Engineer          Executive      Dispatch         & Customer
   Manager                                         Executive        Service



HR- Assistant     Supervisor        Electricians         Store         QA-Inspectors
                  Production                            Assistant



                 Operators




                                                                          13
                                   CHAPTER-2


                                NEED FOR THE STUDY


   This analysis helps to pre estimate the demand about the plastic products.

   This analysis helps concern to get the decision about the market and devise suitable
    strategies for expansion.

   Since forecasting considers being backbone of the Company sales, this progression
    will lead to the success of the Company’s expansions strategy.

. This analysis help to know the opportunities and threats of plastic product demand
                                         CHAPTER-3

                                 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

DEFINITIONS:

        Demands are wants for specific products backed by an ability to pay. Many people
want a Mercedes; only a few are willing and able to buy one. Companies must measure not
only how many people want their product but also how many would actually be willing and
able to buy it

        Forecasting the art of anticipating what buyers are likely to do under a given set of
conditions

MEANING:

        Forecasting is the process of estimation in unknown situations. Prediction is a similar,
but more general term, and usually refers to estimation of time series, cross-sectional or
longitudinal data. In more recent years, Forecasting has evolved into the practice of Demand
Planning in every day business forecasting for manufacturing companies. The discipline of
demand planning, also sometimes referred to as supply chain forecasting, embraces both
statistical forecasting and consensus process.Forecasting is commonly used in discussion of
time-series data.

NATURE AND USE OF FORECAST

        A forecast is an estimate of an event which will happen in future. The event may be
demand of a product, Rain fall at a particular place, population of a country or growth of a
technology. The forecast value is not a deterministic quantity. Since it is only an estimate
based on the past data related to a particular event, proper care must be given in estimating it.

In any industrial enterprise forecast is the first level decision activity. That is the demand of a
particular product must be available before taking up any other decision problem like,
material planning, scheduling type of production system ( Mass or batch production) to be
implement, etc,.
So forecasting provides a basis for coordination of plans for activities in various part of a
company. All the functional managers in any organization will base their decisions on the
forecast value. so, it is a vital information for the organization. Due to these reasons, roper
care should be exercised while estimating forecast values.

In business, forecasts may be classified into technology forecast , economic forecasts and
demand forecasts.

TECHNOLOGY FORECAST:

       Technology is a combination of hardware and software. Hardware is any physical
product while software is the know-how , technique or procedure. Technology forecast deals
with certain characteristics such as level of technical performance, rate of technological
advances.

Technological forecast is a prediction of the future characteristics of useful machines,
products, process, procedures or techniques. Based on the importance of this activity,
Government of India has established a “technology information forecasting and assessment
council (TIFAC)”, under the ministry of science and technology to promote action oriented
studies and forecasting in selected areas.

ECONOMIC FORECASTS:

       Government agencies and other organizations involve in collecting data and
prediction of estimate on the general business environment. These will be useful to
government agencies in predicting future tax revenues, level of business growth, level of
employment, level of inflation, etc. Also, these will be useful to business circles to plan their
future activities based on the level of business growth.

DEMAND FORECAST:

       The demand forecast gives the expected level of demand for goods or services. This is
the basic input for business planning and control. Hence, the decisions for all the functions of
any corporate house are influenced by the demand forecast.
FACTORS AFFECTING FORECAST(DEMAND):



The factors affecting forecast are given below:

      Business cycle

      Random variation

      Customer’s plan

      Product’s life cycle

      Competition’s efforts and prices

      Customer’s condidence and attitude

      Quality

      Credit policy

      Design of goods or services

      Reputation for service

      Sales effort

      Advertising



COMPANY DEMAND

       It Is the company’s estimated share of market demand at alternative levels of
company marketing effort in a given time period, it is depends on how its products, services ,
prices , communications and so on are perceived relative to the competitors.




COMPANY SALES FORECAST:

       It is the expected level of company sales based on a chosen marketing plan and an
assumed marketing environment
APPLICATIONS OF FORECASTING:

Forecasting has application in many situations:

Supply chain management

Weather forecasting and Meteorology

Transport planning and Transportation forecasting

Economic forecasting

Technology forecasting

Earthquake prediction

Land use forecasting

Product forecasting

Player and team performance in sports

Prediction

Calculating Demand Forecast Accuracy

Prognosis

Estimation

Foresight (future studies)

Technology forecasting




PLASTICS- OVERVIEW:

Plastic can be classified in many ways, but most commonly by their polymer backbone
(polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polymethyl methacrylate and other acrylics, silicones,
polyurethanes, etc.). Other classifications include thermoplastic, thermoset, elastomer,
engineering plastic, addition or condensation or polyaddition (depending on polymerization
method used), and glass transition temperature or Tg.
Some plastics are partially crystalline and partially amorphous in molecular structure, giving
them both a melting point (the temperature at which the attractive intermolecular forces are
overcome) and one or more glass transitions (temperatures above which the extent of
localized molecular is substantially increased). So-called semi-crystalline plastics include
polyethylene, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), polyamides (nylons), polyesters and some
polyurethanes. Many plastics are completely amorphous, such as polystyrene and its
copolymers, poly(methyl methacrylate), and all thermosets.

Plastics are polymers: long chains of atoms bonded to one another. Common thermoplastics
range from 20,000 to 500,000 in molecular weight, while thermosets are assumed to have
infinite molecular weight. These chains are made up of many repeating molecular units,
known as "repeat units", derived from "monomers"; each polymer chain will have several
1000's of repeat units. The vast majority of plastics are composed of polymers of carbon and
hydrogen alone or with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or sulfur in the backbone. (Some of
commercial interest are silicon based.) The backbone is that part of the chain on the main
"path" linking a large number of repeat units together. To vary the properties of plastics, both
the repeat unit with different molecular groups "hanging" or "pendant" from the backbone,
(usually they are "hung" as part of the monomers before linking monomers together to form
the polymer chain). This customization by repeat unit's molecular structure has allowed
plastics to become such an indispensable part of twenty first-century life by fine tuning the
properties of the polymer.

People experimented with plastics based on natural polymers for centuries. In the nineteenth
century a plastic material based on chemically modified natural polymers was discovered:
Charles Goodyear discovered vulcanization of rubber (1839) and Alexander Parkes, English
inventor (1813—1890) created the earliest form of plastic in 1855. He mixed pyroxylin, a
partially nitrated form of cellulose (cellulose is the major component of plant cell walls), with
alcohol and camphor. This produced a hard but flexible transparent material, which he called
"Parkesine." The first plastic based on a synthetic polymer was made from phenol and
formaldehyde, with the first viable and cheap synthesis methods invented by Leo Hendrik
Baekeland in 1909, the product being known as Bakelite. Subsequently poly(vinyl chloride),
polystyrene, polyethylene (polyethene), polypropylene (polypropene), polyamides (nylons),
polyesters, acrylics, silicones, polyurethanes were amongst the many varieties of plastics
developed and have great commercial success.
The development of plastics has come from the use of natural materials (e.g., chewing gum,
shellac) to the use of chemically modified natural materials (e.g., natural rubber,
nitrocellulose, collagen) and finally to completely synthetic molecules (e.g., epoxy, polyvinyl
chloride, polyethylene).

In 1959, Koppers Company in Pittsburgh, PA had a team that developed the expandable
polystyrene (EPS) foam cup. On this team was Edward J. Stoves who made the first
commercial foam cup. The experimental cups were made of puffed rice glued together to
form a cup to show how it would feel and look. The chemistry was then developed to make
the cups commercial. Today, the cup is used throughout the world in countries desiring fast
food, namely, the United States, Japan, Australia,and New Zealand. Freon was never used in
the cups. As Stoves said, "We didn't know freon was bad for the ozone, but we knew it was
not good for people so the cup never used freon to expand the beads."[citation needed]

The foam cup can be buried, and it is as stable as concrete and brick. No plastic film is
required to protect the air and underground water. If it is properly incinerated at high
temperatures, the only chemicals generated are water, carbon dioxide and carbon ash. If
burned without enough oxygen or at lower temperatures (as in a campfire or household
fireplace) it can produce toxic vapors and other hazardous byproducts.[1][2] EPS can be
recycled to make park benches, flower pots and toys.

CELLULOSE-BASED PLASTICS: CELLULOID AND RAYON

All Goodyear had done with vulcanization was improve the properties of a natural polymer.
The next logical step was to use a natural polymer, cellulose, as the basis for a new material.

Inventors were particularly interested in developing synthetic substitutes for those natural
materials that were expensive and in short supply, since that meant a profitable market to
exploit. Ivory was a particularly attractive target for a synthetic replacement.

An Englishman from Birmingham named Alexander Parkes developed a "synthetic ivory"
named "pyroxlin", which he marketed under the trade name "Parkesine", and which won a
bronze medal at the 1862 World's fair in London. Parkesine was made from cellulose treated
with nitric acid and a solvent. The output of the process hardened into a hard, ivory-like
material that could be molded when heated. However, Parkes was not able to scale up the
process reliably, and products made from Parkesine quickly warped and cracked after a short
period of use.
Englishmen Daniel Spill and the American John Wesley Hyatt both took up where Parkes left
off. Parkes had failed for lack of a proper softener, but they independantly discovered that
camphor would work well. Spill launched his product as Xylonite in 1869, while Hyatt
patented his "Celluloid" in 1870, naming it after cellulose. Rivalry between Spill's British
Xylonite Company and Hyatt's American Celluloid Company led to an expensive decade-
long court battle, with neither company being awarded rights, as ultimately Parkes was
credited with the product's invention. As a result, both companies operated in parallel on both
sides of the Atlantic.

Celluloid/Xylonite proved extremely versatile in its field of application, providing a cheap
and attractive replacement for ivory, tortoiseshell, and bone, and traditional products such as
billiard balls and combs were much easier to fabricate with plastics. Some of the items made
with cellulose in the nineteenth century were beautifully designed and implemented. For
example, celluloid combs made to tie up the long tresses of hair fashionable at the time are
now highly-collectable jewel-like museum pieces. Such pretty trinkets were no longer only
for the rich.

Hyatt was something of an industrial genius who understood what could be done with such a
shapeable, or "plastic", material, and proceeded to design much of the basic industrial
machinery needed to produce good-quality plastic materials in quantity. Some of Hyatt's first
products were dental pieces, and sets of false teeth built around celluloid proved cheaper than
existing rubber dentures. However, celluloid dentures tended to soften when hot, making tea
drinking tricky, and the camphor taste tended to be difficult to suppress.

Celluloid's real breakthrough products were waterproof shirt collars, cuffs, and the false
shirtfronts known as "dickies", whose unmanageable nature later became a stock joke in
silent-movie comedies. They did not wilt and did not stain easily, and Hyatt sold them by
trainloads. Corsets made with celluloid stays also proved popular, since perspiration did not
rust the stays, as it would if they had been made of metal.

Celluloid could also be used in entirely new applications. Hyatt figured out how to fabricate
the material in a strip format for movie film. By the year 1900, movie film was a major
market for celluloid.
However, celluloid still tended to yellow and crack over time, and it had another more
dangerous defect: it burned very easily and spectacularly, unsurprising given that mixtures of
nitric acid and cellulose are also used to synthesize smokeless powder.

Ping-pong balls, one of the few products still made with celluloid, sizzle and burn if set on
fire, and Hyatt liked to tell stories about celluloid billiard balls exploding when struck very
hard. These stories might have had a basis in fact, since the billiard balls were often celluloid
covered with paints based on another, even more flammable, nitrocellulose product known as
"collodion". If the balls had been imperfectly manufactured, the paints might have acted as
primer to set the rest of the ball off with a bang.

Cellulose was also used to produce cloth. While the men who developed celluloid were
interested in replacing ivory, those who developed the new fibers were interested in replacing
another expensive material, silk.

In 1884, a French chemist, the Comte de Chardonnay, introduced a cellulose-based fabric that
became known as "Chardonnay silk". It was an attractive cloth, but like celluloid it was very
flammable, a property completely unacceptable in clothing. After some ghastly accidents,
Chardonnay silk was taken off the market.

In 1894, three British inventors, Charles Cross, Edward Bevan, and Clayton Beadle, patented
a new "artificial silk" or "art silk" that was much safer. The three men sold the rights for the
new fabric to the French Courtauld company, a major manufacturer of silk, which put it into
production in 1905, using cellulose from wood pulp as the "feedstock" material.

Art silk, technically known as Cellulose Acetate, became well known under the trade name
"rayon", and was produced in great quantities through the 1930s, when it was supplanted by
better artificial fabrics. It still remains in production today, often in blends with other natural
and artificial fibers. It is cheap and feels smooth on the skin, though it is weak when wet and
creases easily. It could also be produced in a transparent sheet form known as "cellophane".
Cellulose Acetate became the standard substrate for movie and camera film, instead of its
very flammable predecessor.
POLYSTYRENE AND PVC

After the First World War, improvements in chemical technology led to an explosion in new
forms of plastics. Among the earliest examples in the wave of new plastics were
"polystyrene" (PS) and "polyvinyl chloride" (PVC), developed by IG Farben of Germany.

Polystyrene is a rigid, brittle, inexpensive plastic that has been used to make plastic model
kits and similar knickknacks. It would also be the basis for one of the most popular "foamed"
plastics, under the name "styrene foam" or "Styrofoam". Foam plastics can be synthesized in
an "open cell" form, in which the foam bubbles are interconnected, as in an absorbent sponge,
and "closed cell", in which all the bubbles are distinct, like tiny balloons, as in gas-filled foam
insulation and floatation devices. In the late 1950s "High Impact" styrene was introduced,
which was not brittle. It finds much current use as the substance of toy figurines and
novelties.




PVC has side chains incorporating chlorine atoms, which form strong bonds. PVC in its
normal form is stiff, strong, heat and weather resistant, and is now used for making plumbing,
gutters, house siding, enclosures for computers and other electronics gear. PVC can also be
softened with chemical processing, and in this form it is now used for shrink-wrap, food
packaging, and raingear.




Nylon

The real star of the plastics industry in the 1930s was "polyamide" (PA), far better known by
its trade name, "nylon". Nylon was the first purely synthetic fiber, introduced by Du Pont
Corporation at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City.
In 1927, Du Pont had begun a secret development project designated "Fiber66", under the
direction of Harvard chemist Wallace Carothers and chemistry department director Elmer
Keiser Bolton. Carothers had been hired to perform pure research, and he worked to
understand the new materials' molecular structure and physical properties. He took some of
the first steps in the molecular design of the materials.

His work led to the discovery of synthetic nylon fiber, which was very strong but also very
flexible. The first application was for bristles for toothbrushes. However, Du Pont's real target
was silk, particularly silk stockings. Carothers and his team synthesized a number of different
polyamides including polyamide6.6 and 4.6, as well as polyesters.




General condensation polymerization reaction for nylon

It took Du Pont twelve years and US$27 million to refine nylon, and to synthesize and
develop the industrial processes for bulk manufacture. With such a major investment, it was
no surprise that Du Pont spared little expense to promote nylon after its introduction, creating
a public sensation, or "nylon mania". Nylon mania came to an abrupt stop at the end of 1941
when the USA entered World War II. The production capacity that had been built up to
produce nylon stockings, or just "nylons", for American women was taken over to
manufacture vast numbers of parachutes for fliers and paratroopers. After the war ended, Du
Pont went back to selling nylon to the public, engaging in another promotional campaign in
1946 that resulted in an even bigger craze, triggering the so called "nylon riots".

Subsequently polyamides 6, 10, 11, and 12 have been developed based on monomers which
are ring compounds, e.g. caprolactam.

Nylons still remain important plastics, and not just for use in fabrics. In its bulk form it is
very wear resistant, particularly if oil-impregnated, and so is used to build gears, bearings,
bushings, and because of good heat-resistance, increasingly for under-the-hood applications
in cars, and other mechanical parts.
PLASTICS EXPLOSION: ACRYLIC, POLYETHYLENE, Etc.

Other plastics emerged in the prewar period, though some would not come into widespread
use until after the war.

By 1936, American, British, and German companies were producing polymethyl
methacrylate (PMMA), better known as acrylic glass. Although acrylics are now well known
for their use in paints and synthetic fibers, such as fake furs, in their bulk form they are
actually very hard and more transparent than glass, and are sold as glass replacements under
trade names such as Plexiglas and Lucite. Plexiglas was used to build aircraft canopies during
the war, and it is also now used as a marble replacement for countertops.

Another important plastic, polyethylene (PE), sometimes known as polythene, was
discovered in 1933 by Reginald Gibson and Eric Fawcett at the British industrial giant
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). This material evolved into two forms, low density
polyethylene (LDPE), and high density polyethylene (HDPE).




PEs are cheap, flexible, durable, and chemically resistant. LDPE is used to make films and
packaging materials, while HDPE is used for containers, plumbing, and automotive fittings.
While PE has low resistance to chemical attack, it was found later that a PE container could
be made much more robust by exposing it to fluorine gas, which modified the surface layer of
the container into the much tougher polyfluoroethylene.

Polyethylene would lead after the war to an improved material, polypropylene (PP), which
was discovered in the early 1950s by Giulio Natta. It is common in modern science and
technology that the growth of the general body of knowledge can lead to the same inventions
in different places at about the same time, but polypropylene was an extreme case of this
phenomenon, being separately invented about nine times. The ensuing litigation was not
resolved until 1989.

Polypropylene managed to survive the legal process and two American chemists working for
Phillips Petroleum, J. Paul Hogan and Robert Banks, are now generally credited as the
"official" inventors of the material. Polypropylene is similar to its ancestor, polyethylene, and
shares polyethylene's low cost, but it is much more robust. It is used in everything from
plastic bottles to carpets to plastic furniture, and is very heavily used in automobiles.




Polyurethane was invented by Friedrich Bayer & Company in 1937, and would come into use
after the war, in blown form for mattresses, furniture padding, and thermal insulation. It is
also one of the components (in non-blown form) of the fiber spandex.

In 1939, IG Farben filed a patent for polyepoxide or epoxy. Epoxies are a class of thermoset
plastic that form cross-links and cure when a catalyzing agent, or hardener, is added. After
the war they would come into wide use for coatings, adhesives, and composite materials.

Composites using epoxy as a matrix include glass-reinforced plastic, where the structural
element is glass fiber, and carbon-epoxy composites, in which the structural element is
carbon fiber. Fiberglass is now often used to build sport boats, and carbon-epoxy composites
are an increasingly important structural element in aircraft, as they are lightweight, strong,
and heat resistant.

Two chemists named Rex Whinfield and James Dickson, working at a small English
company with the quaint name of the "Calico Printer's Association" in Manchester,
developed polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) in 1941, and it would be used for
synthetic fibers in the postwar era, with names such as polyester, dacron, and terylene.

PET is less gas-permeable than other low-cost plastics and so is a popular material for
making bottles for Coca-Cola and other carbonated drinks, since carbonation tends to attack
other plastics, and for acidic drinks such as fruit or vegetable juices. PET is also strong and
abrasion resistant, and is used for making mechanical parts, food trays, and other items that
have to endure abuse. PET films are used as a base for recording tape.

One of the most impressive plastics used in the war, and a top secret, was
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), better known as Teflon, which could be deposited on metal
surfaces as a scratch-proof and corrosion-resistant, low-friction protective coating. The
polyfluoroethylene surface layer created by exposing a polyethylene container to fluorine gas
is very similar to Teflon.
A Du Pont chemist named Roy Plunkett discovered Teflon by accident in 1938. During the
war, it was used in gaseous-diffusion processes to refine uranium for the atomic bomb, as the
process was highly corrosive. By the early 1960s, Teflon adhesion-resistant frying pans were
in demand.




Teflon was later used to synthesize the breathable fabric Gore-Tex®, which can be used to
manufacture wet weather clothing that is able to "breathe". Its structure allows water vapour
molecules to pass, while not permitting water as liquide to enter. Gore-Tex is also used for
surgical applications such as garments and implants; Teflon strand is used to make dental
floss; and Teflon mixed with fluorine compounds is used to make decoy flares dropped by
aircraft to distract heat-seeking missiles.

After the war, the new plastics that had been developed entered the consumer mainstream in a
flood. New manufacturing were developed, using various forming, molding, casting, and
extrusion processes, to churn out plastic products in vast quantities. American consumers
enthusiastically adopted the endless range of colorful, cheap, and durable plastic gimmicks
being produced for new suburban home life.

One of the most visible parts of this plastics invasion was Earl Tupper's Tupperware, a
complete line of sealable polyethylene food containers that Tupper cleverly promoted
through a network of housewives who sold Tupperware as a means of bringing in some
money. The Tupperware line of products was well thought out and highly effective, greatly
reducing spoilage of foods in storage. Thin-film plastic wrap that could be purchased in rolls
also helped keep food fresh.

Another prominent element in 1950s homes was Formica, a plastic laminate that was used to
surface furniture and cabinetry. Formica was durable and attractive. It was particularly useful
in kitchens, as it did not absorb, and could be easily cleaned of stains from food preparation,
such as blood or grease. With Formica, a very attractive and well-built table could be built
using low-cost and lightweight plywood with Formica covering, rather than expensive and
heavy hardwoods like oak or mahogany.
Composite materials like fiberglass came into use for building boats and, in some cases, cars.
Polyurethane foam was used to fill mattresses, and Styrofoam was used to line ice coolers
and make float toys.

Plastics continue to be improved. General Electric introduced Lexan, a high-impact
polycarbonate plastic, in the 1970s. Du Pont developed Kevlar®, an extremely strong
synthetic fiber that was best known for its use in ballistic rated clothing and combat helmets.
Kevlar was so impressive that its manufacturer, DuPont, deemed it necessary to release an
official statement denying alien involvement. [3]

Plastics are durable and degrade very slowly. In some cases, burning plastic can release toxic
fumes. Also, the manufacturing of plastics often creates large quantities of chemical
pollutants.

By the 1990s, plastic recycling programs were common in the United States and elsewhere.
Thermoplastics can be remelted and reused, and thermoset plastics can be ground up and
used as filler, though the purity of the material tends to degrade with each reuse cycle. There
are methods by which plastics can be broken back down to a feedstock state.

To assist recycling of disposable items, the Plastic Bottle Institute of the Society of the
Plastics Industry devised a now-familiar scheme to mark plastic bottles by plastic type. A
recyclable plastic container using this scheme is marked with a triangle of three "chasing
arrows", which enclose a number giving the plastic type:




Plastics type marks: the Resin identification code

PET (PETE): Polyethylene Terephthalate - Commonly found on: 2-liter soft drink bottles,
cooking oil bottles, peanut butter jars.

HDPE: High Density Polyethylene - Commonly found on: detergent bottles, milk jugs.

PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride - Commonly found on: plastic pipes, outdoor furniture, shrink-
wrap, water bottles, salad dressing and liquid detergent containers.
LDPE: Low Density Polyethylene - Commonly found on: dry-cleaning bags, produce bags,
trash can liners, food storage containers.

PP: Polypropylene - Commonly found on: bottle caps, drinking straws

PS: Polystyrene - Commonly found on: "Styrofoam peanuts," cups, plastic tableware, meat
trays, take-away food clamshell containers

OTHER: Other - This plastic category, as its name of "other" implies, is any plastic other
than the named #1 – #6, Commonly found on: certain kinds of food containers, Tupperware,
and Nalgene bottles.

Unfortunately, recycling plastics has proven difficult. The biggest problem with plastic
recycling is that it is difficult to automate the sorting of plastic waste, and so it is labor
intensive. Typically, workers sort the plastic by looking at the resin identification code,
though common containers like soda bottles can be sorted from memory. Other recyclable
materials, such as metals, are easier to process mechanically. However, new mechanical
sorting processes are being utilized to increase plastic recycling capacity and efficiency.

While containers are usually made from a single type and color of plastic, making them
relatively easy to sort out, a consumer product like a cellular phone may have many small
parts consisting of over a dozen different types and colors of plastics. In a case like this, the
resources it would take to separate the plastics far exceed their value and the item is
discarded. However, developments are taking place in the field of Active Disassembly, which
may result in more consumer product components being re-used or recycled. Recycling
certain types of plastics can be unprofitable, as well. For example, polystyrene is rarely
recycled because it is usually not cost effective. These unrecyclable wastes can be disposed
of in landfills, incinerated or used to produce electricity at waste-to-energy plants.

Biodegradable plastics

Research has been done on biodegradable plastics that break down with exposure to sunlight
(e.g. ultra-violet radiation), water (or humidity), bacteria, enzymes, wind abrasion and some
instances rodent pest or insect attack are also included as forms of biodegradation or
environmental degradation. It is clear some of these modes of degradation will only work if
the plastic is exposed at the surface, while other modes will only be effective if certain
conditions are found in landfill or composting systems. Starch powder has been mixed with
plastic as a filler to allow it to degrade more easily, but it still does not lead to complete
breakdown of the plastic. Some researchers have actually genetically engineered bacteria that
synthesize a completely biodegradable plastic, but this material is expensive at present e.g.
BP's Biopol. BASF make Ecoflex, a fully biodegradable polyester for food packaging
applications. A potential disadvantage of biodegradable plastics is that the carbon that is
locked up in them is released into the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas carbon dioxide when
they degrade, though if they are made from natural materials, such a vegetable crop
derivatives or animal products, there is no net gain in carbon dioxide emissions, although
concern will be for a worse greenhouse gas, methane release.

So far, these plastics have proven too costly and limited for general use, and critics have
pointed out that the only real problem they address is roadside litter, which is regarded as a
secondary issue. When such plastic materials are dumped into landfills, they can become
"mummified" and persist for decades even if they are supposed to be biodegradable.

There have been some success stories. The Courtauld concern, the original producer of rayon,
came up with a revised process for the material in the mid-1980s to produce "Tencel". Tencel
has many superior properties over rayon, but is still produced from "biomass" feedstocks, and
its manufacture is extraordinarily clean by the standards of plastic production.

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana have been working on developing
biodegradable resins, sheets and films made with zein (corn protein).[1]PDF (96.7 KiB)

Recently, however, a new type of biodegradable resin has made its debut in the United States,
called Plastarch Material (PSM). It is heat, water, and oil resistant and sees a 70%
degradation in 90 days. Biodegradable plastics based on polylactic acid (once derived from
dairy products, now from cereal crops such as maize) have entered the marketplace, for
instance as polylactates as disposable sandwich packs.

An alternative to starch based resins are additives such as Bio-Batch an additive that allows
the manufacturers to make PE, PS, PP, PET, and PVC totally biodegradable in landfills
where 94.8% of most plastics end up according to the EPA According to their latest MSW
report done in 2003, located under Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2003 Data
Tables.

It is also possible that bacteria will eventually develop the ability to degrade plastics. This has
already happened with nylon: two types of nylon eating bacteria, Flavobacteria and
Pseudomonas, were found in 1975 to possess enzymes (nylonase) capable of breaking down
nylon. While not a solution to the disposal problem, it is likely that bacteria will evolve the
ability to use other synthetic plastics as well.

The latter possibility was in fact the subject of a cautionary novel by Kit Pedler and Gerry
Davis (screenwriter), the creators of the Cybermen, re-using the plot of the first episode of
their Doomwatch series. The novel, "Mutant 59: The Plastic Eater", written in 1971, is the
story of what could happen if a bacterium were to evolve - or be artificially cultured - to eat
plastics, and be let loose in a major city.

In the novel, the mutant bacterium is cultured by a lone scientist experimenting with the
common germ Bacillus prodigiosus, with the intent of solving the world's plastic waste
disposal problem; it is the 59th attempted variant (hence the novel's title), and is accidentally
released when the scientist suffers a fatal cerebral haemorrhage, dropping a test-tube
containing the bacteria into a sink as he collapses.

Needless to say, the consequences would be - and, in the novel, are - catastrophic; a modern
city such as London would be paralysed if all its plastic suddenly began disappearing under
bacterial action.
                                   CHAPTER-4


                                    OBJECTIVES




   To identify potential demand for the plastic product at different areas in Puducherry.

   To estimate demand of plastic product in near future.


   To find out the consumption rate of plastic product in Puducherry.


   To study and understand the quality needs of plastic product by the customer.


   To identify competitor market demand.
                                         CHAPTER-5

                               RESEARCH METHODOLOGY




5.1.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

       The research design which was selected was narrative one. It narrates the whole
research in a simple manner.

5.1.2 TYPES OF DATA COLLECTED

     Primary Data
       Questionnaires are prepared and interview was conducted. Most of the questions are
consist of multiple choices. The questionnaires were conducted in English. Generally 23
questions are prepared and asked to the plastic related unit in Puducherry locations.

     Secondary Data
        Secondary data was collected from Internets, various books, Journals, and Company
Records.

5.1.3 QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION

       In this Questionnaire Constructed on the basis of two types. There are Multiple choice
and close ended ( Yes/ No) Questions.

5.1.4 DEFINING THE POPULATIONS

        The Population or Universe can be infinite. The population is said to be finite if it
consist of a fixed number of elements so that it is possible to enumerate it in its totality. So
In this projects consist of finite population.

5.1.5 SAMPLE SIZE
       Nearly 50 sample are taken in Pondicherry locations.


5.1.6 FIELD WORK

       The field works is done at ACT Plastic Private Ltd., Metupalayam industrial Estate,
Puducherry and plastic related companies locating in Puducherry
5.1.7 PERIOD OF SURVEY

      The period is from August 1, 2007 to September, 2007.




5.1.8 DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICAL TOOLS USED

    Percentage method
    Weighted average



5.2 PERCENTAGE METHOD:




In this project Percentage method test was used. The following are the formula



                                       No of Respondent
 Percentage of Respondent =                                     x 100
                                    Total no. of Respondents




5.4 WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD


    Weighted average can be defined as an average whose component items are
       multiplied by certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products are divided
       by the total of weights.


    One of the limitations of simple arithmetic mean is that it gives equal importance to
       all the items of the distribution.


    In certain cases relative importance of all the items in the distribution is not the same.
       Where the importance of the items varies.


    It is essential to allocate weight applied but may vary in different cases. Thus
       weightage is a number standing for the relative importance of the items.
                                                     CHAPTER-6

                                DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION




                                            6.1 PERCENTAGE METHOD
                           TABLE: 1 RESPONDENT ON TYPE OF INDUSTRY

                                    Type of Industry                           Frequency    Percent

                            1        Commodity                                     18          36.0

                            2        Automobile                                      7         14.0

                            3        Engineering                                   11          22.0

                            4        Textile                                         6         12.0

                            5        Medicine                                        8         16.0

                     Total                                                         50         100.0



                           CHART- 1: RESPONDENT ON TYPE OF INDUSTRY

                   40.0%




                   30.0%
         Percent




                   20.0%
                                  36.0%




                                                                  22.0%
                   10.0%
                                                                                            16.0%
                                                 14.0%
                                                                                 12.0%




                   0.0%
                                commodity      automobile      engineering      textile    medicine

                                                            type of industry




INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, we interpret that 36% is commodity ,14% is automobile , 22%
is engineering ,12% is textile and 16% is medicine.
                 TABLE: 2 RESPONDENTS ON BUSINESS PERIOD

                     Business Period                 Frequency         Percent

                     1            4-5 years                       18      36.0

                      2           6-10 years                       8      16.0

                      3           above 10 years                  24      48.0


                                                                  50     100.0
                     Total



                 CHART: 2 RESPONDENTS ON BUSINESS PERIOD


           25




           20




           15
   Count




                                                                                       24
                                                                                      48.0%


           10
                           18
                          36.0%




            5
                                                          8
                                                        16.0%




            0
                      4-5 years                      6-10 years                  above 10 years

                                              beeing in this industry



INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, we interpret that most of industry exist above 10 years(48%) in
the industry
           TABLE: 3 RESPONDENTS ON PREFERENCE TO PLACE THE ORDER



                      Preference to place the
                     order                                Frequency     Percent

                     1            Based on demand                  45      90.0

                      2           Seasonal                          3       6.0

                      3           Periodically                      2       4.0

                                  Total                            50     100.0



           CHART: 3 RESPONDENTS ON PREFERENCE TO PLACE THE ORDER


           50




           40




           30
   Count




                           45
                          90.0%

           20




           10




                                                         3
                                                       6.0%                        …
                                                                                  2

            0
                   based on demand                   seasonal               periodically

                                                 placed an order




INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, we interpret that most of the industry placed an order based on

demand ( 90%).
               TABLE: 4 RESPONDENTS ON QUANITITY NEEDED PER MONTH



                          Quantity needed
                         per month             Frequency    Percent

                         1        6-15 ton             26       52.0

                          2       26-40 ton            24       48.0

                                  Total                50     100.0



               CHART: 4 RESPONDENTS ON QUANITITY NEEDED PER MONTH




             60.0%




             50.0%




             40.0%
   Percent




             30.0%

                                  52.0%
                                                                      48.0%


             20.0%




             10.0%




             0.0%
                                6-15 ton                         26-40 ton

                              quantity needed per month(injection molding)




INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, we interpret that quantity of plastic needed per month (injection
molding) for 6-15 ton is 52% and 26-40 ton is 48%.
                TABLE: 5 RESPONDENTS ON SUPPLIERS RATING

                    Suppliers rating                Frequency   Percent

                    1       Much better                     3        6.0

                     2      Some what better                2        4.0

                     3      About the same                 40      80.0

                     4      Some what worse                 4        8.0

                     5      Much worse                      1        2.0

                            Total                          50     100.0



                CHART: 5 RESPONDENTS ON SUPPLIERS RATING

                                                                   comparing of present
                                                                        suppliers
                                                                      much better
                                                                      some what better
                                  1
                                  2.                                  about the same
                                  0      3
                             4    %    6.0%                           some what worse
                           8.0%
                                               2                      much worse
                                              4.…




                                   40
                                  80.0%




INFERENCE :

From the above pie diagram, we interpret that most of the industry had opinion that similar
products offered by other suppliers is about the same (80%) compare to present supplier.
             TABLE: 6 RESPONDENTS ON SPECIFICATION NEEDED OF PLASTIC
                                    PRODUCTS

                        Specification needed
                        of plastics products    Frequency    Percent

                        1     1-250 gms                 43         86.0

                        2     251--500 gms               7         14.0

                              Total                     50       100.0



             CHART: 6 RESPONDENTS ON SPECIFICATION NEEDED OF PLASTIC
                                   PRODUCTS


             100.0%




             80.0%




             60.0%
   Percent




                                86.0%
             40.0%




             20.0%



                                                                     14.0%


              0.0%
                              1-250 gms                          251--500 gms

                                          needed specification




INFERENCE:

From the above bar diagram, we interpret that majority of the industries needed specification
of plastic product is 1-250 grams (86%).
                    TABLE: 7 RESPONDENTS ON TYPES OF RAW MATERIAL USING

                        Types of raw material                    Frequency   Percent

                        1     ABS                                       20      40.0

                        2     Pphp & ppcp                               20      40.0

                        3     ALL THE RAW MATERIAL                      10      20.0

                              Total                                     50     100.0



                CHART: 7 RESPONDENTS ON TYPES OF RAW MATERIAL USING



                                            type of raw material


               20




               15
   Frequency




                                 20                      20
               10               40.0%                   40.0%




                                                                                  10
                5                                                                20.0%




                0
                                ABS                  pphp&ppcp           ALL THE RAW MATERIAL

                                                type of raw material



INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, we interpret that raw material used by more industry are ABS
(40%)and PPHP & PPLP (40%)
                  TABLE: 8 RESPONDENTS ON QUANTITY NEEDED PER MONTH

                                           ( BLOW MOLDING)

                            Quantity needed per
                                  month                 Frequency      Percent

                               1             6-15 ton      26            52.0

                              2             26-40 ton      24            48.0

                                              Total        50           100.0



                  CHART: 8 RESPONDENTS ON QUANTITY NEEDED PER MONTH

                                            ( BLOW MOLDING)



                         quantity needed per month(injection molding)



             60



             50



             40
   Percent




             30
                                   52.0%
                                                                      48.0%

             20



             10



              0
                               6-15 ton                             26-40 ton

                             quantity needed per month(injection molding)



INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, it is clear that 52% of the industry need 6-15 tons of blow
molding per month.
       TABLE: 9 RESPONDENTS ON DEMAND AFTER 2 YEARS IN INJECTION

                      Demand after 2 year        Frequency    Percent

                      1         26-40 ton                19       38.0

                      2         above 40 ton             31       62.0

                                Total                    50      100.0



      CHART: 9 RESPONDENTS ON DEMAND AFTER 2 YEARS IN INJECTION




             60.0%
   Percent




             40.0%



                                                                   62.0%




             20.0%              38.0%




             0.0%
                              26-40 ton                        above 40 ton

                                demand after 2 years(injection molding)



INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, it has been forecasted that that 86% of the industry need above
40 tons of Injection Molding per month after 2 year.
                    TABLE: 10 RESPONDENTS ON SATISFATION

                            satisfation         Frequency     Percent

                            1           yes             47        94.0

                            2           no                3        6.0

                                        Total           50       100.0



                    CHART: 10 RESPONDENTS ON SATISFATION



                                satisfied with plastic product


               50




               40
   Frequency




               30


                                 47
                                94.0%

               20




               10




                                                                          …
                                                                         3

                0
                                yes                                      no

                                        satisfied with plastic product



INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, we interpret that in the Industries 94% are satisfied with the
present supplier.
                  TABLE: 11 RESPONDENTS ON MAJOR SUPPLIERS

      Major suppliers                              Yes                                           No

                                      Count          Percentage                 Count                 Percentage

      Supreme                                 28                  56.0                     22                   44.0

      Brite                                   10                  20.0                     40                   80.0

      ACT                                     12                  24.0                     38                   76.0

      SABA                                    18                  36.0                     32                   64.0

      Sri mother plastics                      6                  12.0                     44                   88.0

      Vijay India                              2                   4.0                     48                   96.0

      Hitech plastics                          4                   8.0                     46                   92.0

      ACE                                      2                   4.0                     48                   96.0

      Mahavir plastics                         6                  12.0                     44                   88.0

      Pondy hitech                             7                  14.0                     43                   86.0

      Other                                    5                  10.0                     45                   90.0



                  CHART: 11 RESPONDENTS ON MAJOR SUPPLIERS



                              5.00%                                  Row
                      7.00%                                              supreme                  hit ech plastics
                                                                         bri te                   ACE
                                                    28.00%               ACT                      mahavi r pl asti cs
              6.00%
                                                                         SABA                     pondy hit ech
          2.00%                                                          sri mother pl asti cs    other
                                                                         vijay i ndi a
         4.00%

        2.00%


         6.00%

                                                         10.00%



                  18.00%
                                         12.00%




INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, it shows that 28% of market share occupied by supreme next to
that is saba(18%)
                  TABLE: 12 RESPONDENTS ON SATISFACTION LEVEL



                                                                     Highly satisfied     Satisfied
                           Factor
                                                                                Group      Group

                           Price                                                     4       46

                           Safety and reliability                                    0       50

                           Brand                                                     40      10

                           Delivery time                                             0       50

                           Service                                                   45      5



                 CHART: 12 RESPONDENTS ON SATISFACTION LEVEL




                      50
                                                                                          Row
                                                                                            pri ce
                                                                                            safety and reli abl ili ty
                      40                                                                    Brand
                                                                                            Deli very time
                                                                                            Service

                      30
             Values




                      20




                      10




                            highly satisfi ed g roup            sati sfi ed g roup


                                                       Column



INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, it is clear that most of the industry highly satisfied with the
service(90%) of supplier for purchasing raw material and most of them satisfied with the
delivery time ,safety and reliability for purchasing raw material .
     TABLE: 13 RESPONDENTS ON FACTORS INFLUENCE TO PURCHASE

                                    Factor influence to purchase                Count

                                    Cost                             1                     43

                                                                     2                        7

                                    safety and reliability           4                        8

                                                                     5                     42

                                    Brand                            3                     25

                                                                     4                     25

                                    delivery time                    2                     43

                                                                     3                        7

                                    Service                          1                        7

                                                                     2                        8

                                                                     3                     18

                                                                     4                     17



     CHART: 13 RESPONDENTS ON FACTORS INFLUENCE TO PURCHASE

                  Column : Count


                                         17                              Row
                                                                          cost 1                       delivery time 2
                               18
                                                                          cost 2                       delivery time 3
                                                                          safety and reli abi lity 4   servi ce 1
                           8
                                                                          safety and reli abi lity 5   servi ce 2
                       7                      43             7            brand 3                      servi ce 3
                   7                                             8        brand 4                      servi ce 4




                                    43              42




                                     25            25




INFERENCE :

From the above bar diagram, it is clear that most of the industries purchase raw material first
because of low cost then second by delivery time followed by brand and service.
                               6.2WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD

    The respondents are asked about the satisfaction level. Their levels are calculated below.

                                              TABLE No: 6.2.1

                                            Highly                                             highly
Factor                       None                         Dissatisfied      satisfied
                                          dissatisfies                                        satisfied
Price                          0               0               0                 5               45

safety and reliability         0               0               0                 50              0

Brand                          0               0               0                 50              0

Delivery time                  0               0               0                 10              40

Service                        0               0               0                 46              4
    Source: Primary data

                                              TABLE No: 6.2.2

Point
                     0          1                  2           3            4
Weightage
                             Highly                                       Highly
Factor            None                     Dissatisfied    satisfied                  Total       Avg.    Rank
                           dissatisfied                                  satisfied

Price                0          0                  0          15           180          195       3.90     1

Safety and
                     0          0                  0          150           0           150       3.00     4
Reliability

Brand                0          0                  0          150           0           150       3.00     5


Delivery time        0          0                  0          30           160          190       3.80     2


Service              0          0                  0          138           16          154       3.08     3



    Inference:

    Form the above calculation it is inferred that the respondents are giving more Weightage to
    the Price, Delivery time, Service, Safety and reliability and Brand respectively.
                                  CHAPTER-7

                           FINDINGS OF THE STUDY



 From the study if is found that 36% is commodity ,14% is automobile , 22% is
   engineering ,12% is textile and 16% is medicine


 From the study we found that most of industry exist above 10 years(48%) in the
   industry. 36 % of respondent have 4-5 years experience and 16 % have 6-10 years
   experience


 According to the study it is found that most of the industry placed an order based on
   demand ( 90%), and 6 % of the respondent placing the order on the basis of seasonal


 From the study it is found that quantity of plastic needed per month
   (injection molding) for 6-15 ton is 52% and 26-40 ton is 48%.


 In ACT Plastic according to the study it is found that, most of the industry had
   opinion that similar products offered by other suppliers is about the same(80%)
   compare to present supplier


 From that study it is found that majority of the industries needed specification of
   plastic product is 1-250 grams (86%) and 14 % of the respondent needed 251 – 500
   gms


 It is found that raw material used by more industry are ABS (40%)and PPHP & PPLP
   (40%). 20 % of the respondent are using all kind of materials.


 It is found that, 52% of the industry need 6-15 tons of blow molding per month and 48
   % of the respondent needed of the plastics upto 40 ton.
 According to this study it is found that , 62% of the industry need above 40 tons of
   Injection Molding per month after 2 year and 38 % of the respondent needed 26 – 40
   tonns after 2 years per month


 It is found that, 94% are satisfied with the present supplier


 From the study it is found that 28% of market share occupied by supreme next to that
   is saba (18%)


 From the study it is found that, most of the industry highly satisfied with the
   service(90%) of supplier for purchasing raw material and most of them satisfied with
   the delivery time ,safety and reliability for purchasing raw material


 From the study it is found that, most of the industries purchase raw material first
   because of low cost then second by delivery time followed by brand and service
                                      CHAPTER-8

                     SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS




 Overall study it is observed that there is high quantity of plastics will be demanded in
   future. Many Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM) and plastics needs company
   planning to setup the plant in Pondicherry.


 The company can installed the high technology injection moulding machines. Presently
   ACT Company using Low technology and manual machines, this can be changed.


 The company can follow the expansion strategy.


 The Company can for go for certification like TPM, EMS, and TS 16496
                                      CHAPTER-9


                                      CONCLUSION



       In today’s business dynamic, knowledge and technology based, people are being
called on take on higher and more complex responsibilities. With increased responsibility,
comes higher impact on the organization’s success. Demand and forecasting, a main strategy
for identify the market potential. The demand forecast gives the expected levels of demand
for goods or services. This is the basic input for business planning and control. Hence, the
decisions for all the functions of any corporate house are influenced by the demand forecast.




      Finally, From the overall study of an analysis on demand and forecasting of plastic
product the researcher may conclude that there is huge need of plastics will be demanded
after 2 years in plastics sectors in Puducherry location. It may be Approximately 50 tons
per month. This will happen due to many Original Equipment Manufacturing units planning
to Setup Company in Puducherry Locations. Once the demands are identified, it would be
possible for the management to take the necessary action to improve the business.
                                       CHAPTER-10


                                       LIMITATIONS



   The study is based upon small populations like 50 samples


   The time duration of the study is less than the expected


   Since this is the new project called “demand and forecasting”, sufficient review of
    literature /case study is not available.


   The Project data can be valid up to six months, Hence there are chances of changes in
    the findings and result obtained
                                     CHAPTER-11


                         SCOPE FOR THE FURTHER STUDY



   The project throws light on the specification for plastic product in Puducherry


   The project was developed to identify potential demand for plastic product


   It will be helpful for the Management to expand the plant in future.


   This project can be base for the students who are doing the project in the related area.
                               ANNEXURE - I



                               QUESTIONNAIRE




     An Analysis on demand and forecast of plastics with reference to

                    ACT plastics Private Limited, Puducherry.

                                 Questionnaire



1. Company Name:               …………………………………..

                                  …………………………………..

                                  …………………………………..

2. Contact Person &Phone No:…………………………………..

3. Core Business:              ……………………………………

4. What type of industry you belong to?

     a. Commodity                     ( )

     b. Automobile                    ( )

     c. Engineering                   ( )

     d. Textile                       ( )

     e. Medicine                      ( )

     f. Other, please specify ……………………

5. Since how long have you been in this industry?

     a. 1-3 yrs                        ( )

     b. 3-5 yrs                       ( )

     c. 5-10 yrs                      ( )

     d. More than 10 yrs              ( )
6. Are you using plastic product?

     a. Yes.                          ( )

     b. No                            ( )

7. Are you purchasing plastic parts from outside?

     a. Yes                           ( )

     b. No                            ( )

8. If yes, what types of produt you are purchasing?

     a. Injection molded component      ( )

     b. Blow molding component.         ( )

     c. others specify…………………………

9. What type of process you prefer?

     a. Injection Moulding             ( )

     b. Blow Moulding                  ( )

     c. Compression Moulding           ( )

     d. Thermoforming                  ( )

10. Where are you buying plastic product?

     a. Puducherry                    ( )

     b. Chennai                       ( )

    c. Other state                    ( )

11. Who are your major Suppliers?

       a. Supreme                     ( )
       b. Brite                       ( )
       c. ACT                         ( )
       d. SABA                        ( )
       e. Sri Mother Plastics         ( )
       f.     Vijay India             ( )
       g. Hitech Plastics             ( )
       h. ACE                         ( )
       i.     Mahavir Plastics        ( )
       j.     Pondy Hitech            ( )
       k. Others, please specify …………………..
12. What is your preference to place an order?

           a. Based on demand         ( )

           b. Seasonal                ( )

           c. Periodically            ( )

           d. Yearly once             ( )

13. How much quantity(in metric ton) you need for a year?



I. Injection Molding

      a. 1- 5 ton                     ( )
      b. 6-15 ton                     ( )
      c. 16-25 ton                    ( )
      d. 25-40 ton                    ( )
      e. More than 40 ton             ( )



II.    Blow Molding

      a. 1- 5 ton                     ( )

      b. 6-15 ton                     ( )
      c. 16-25 ton                    ( )
      d. 25-40 ton                    ( )
      e. More than 40 ton             ( )



14. What is your demand (in metric ton) after 2 years?




I. Injection Molding

      a. 1- 5 ton                     ( )
      f.     6-15 ton                 ( )
      g. 16-25 ton                    ( )
      h. 25-40 ton                    ( )
      i.     More than 40 ton         ( )
 II.   Blow Molding

       a. 1- 5 ton                     ( )

       b. 6-15 ton                     ( )
       c. 16-25 ton                    ( )
       d. 25-40 ton                    ( )
       e. More than 40 ton             ( )


 15. What is the needed specification of your plastic products?



        a. 1-250 gms                   ( )

        b 250-500 gms                  ( )

        c. 500-1000 gms                ( )

        d. 1-3 kgs                     ( )

        e. More than 3                 ( )



16. Thinking of similar products offered by other suppliers, How would you
   compare present product offered by your supplier?


        a. Much better                 ( )

        b. Some what better            ( )

        c. About the same              ( )

        d. Some what worse             ( )

        e. Much worse                  ( )

        f. Don’t know                  ( )
  17. What type of raw materials you prefer in your plastic products?

           a. ABS                               ( )

           b. HDPE                              ( )

           c. PPHP&PPLP                         ( )

           d. PC                                ( )

           e. Nylon                             ( )

           f. All the above                     ( )

  18. Are you satisfied with product quality?

           a. Yes                               ( )

           b. No                                ( )

  19. Rate the following factor that influence to purchase?

           a. Cost                              ( )

           b. Safety and reliability            ( )

           c. Brand                             ( )

           d. Delivery time                     ( )

           e. Service                           ( )

  20. Mention your satisfaction level?

                         Highly                                         Highly
                                    Satisfied   None   Dissatisfied
                        Satisfied                                     Dissatisfied

a. Price



b. Safety and

Reliability



c. Brand



d.Deliverytime
21. How about your communication system to our company?

     a. Not effective                 ( )

     b. Effective                     ( )

     c. Very effective                ( )

22. Do you want to switch over your present suppliers?

     a. Yes                           ( )

     b. No.                           ( )

23. If yes, Please specify Name& reason

    ……………………………………



24. What is your expectation apart from these factors discussed above?



    Please specify………………………………………………………….
                                     ANNEXURE – II



                                      II. BLIOGRAPHY




BOOKS:




1.Mr. Kothari, C.R., “Research Methodology - Methods & Techniques” Publishers- New
Age

                        International (P) Ltd., New Delhi, Second Edition, 2004.

2. Mr.Gupta, S.P., “Statistical Methods”, Sultan Chand & Sons Publishers, New Delhi,

                       Thirty Fourth Editions, 2005.

3. Mr.R.Panneerselvam., “Production and Operations Management” Eastern Economy
Edition
                             Prentice –hall of India private limited.New Delhi, Second Edition

4 Mr.Philip Kotler.,     “ Marketing Management” Pearson Prentice Hall, Delhi ,

                            Twelfth Edition,2007




WEB SITES:

   1. www.actpaintplast.com
   2. www.marketch.org
   3. www.highfuntioningautism.com
   4. www.larsperner.com
   5. www.ask.com
   6. www.managementhelp.org

								
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