Pollution _its hazardous effects

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      Pollution is also called environmental pollution. The addition to the
environment of any substance or energy form e.g. heat at rate faster than the
environment can accommodate by depression, breakdown, recycling, and
storage in some harmless form. Pollution of the natural environment is largely
unintended     and    unwanted    consequences     of   human       activities   in
manufacturing, transportation, agriculture and waste disposable.

      High levels of pollution are largely a consequence of industrialization,
urbanization and the rapid increase of human population in modern times.
Pollutants commonly are classified according to the part of the environment
primarily effected by them either by air, water or land. Sub grouping depends
on characteristics of the pollutants themselves: chemical, physical, thermal and
others. Many pollutants affect more than one resource. The substances that
pollute the atmosphere are either gases, finely divided solids, or finely
dispersed liquids aerosols. Five major classes of pollutants are discharged into
the air. Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur Oxides, Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen Oxides and
particulates (dust, ash).

      The principal source of air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels e.g.
coal, oil and derivatives of the latter, such as gasoline-in internal combustion,
engines or for heating or industrial purposes.

Water Pollution:

      Nature has taken hundreds and thousands of years to shape this world
up. And we, the human beings, are determined to destroy the earth at the
earliest. Water is being contaminated and polluted like anything.

      Geographically, 70 % of earth is made up of water and the rest is made
up of land. But as a matter of fact, human beings are bringing the entire 70
% of water under peril and intoxicating it through a careless attitude to the
environment. Industrial effluents, sewage and farm wastes are the major
pollutants threatening the sanctity of our water resources.

     The    organic    and    inorganic   contaminants    are   acids,   alkalis,
carbohydrates, dyes, fats, soaps, waxes, gases, suspended matter, oil, toxic
metals and pesticides including radioactive materials and heated effluents that
impose thermal load on receiving waters. Biological pollutants include
bacteria, viruses, plants and animals.

      “You can live without oil and you can even live without love, but you
cannot live without water.” These are the words of Daniel Moynihan, former US
Ambassador to India, underlining the seriousness of the water crisis in US but
are relevant for the entire world.

      Water is the basic ingredient in the entire life cycle. The living cell is
mostly water. Blood and sap are about 90 per cent water. The composition of
blood and seawater is very similar, which lends support to the theory that life
was created in the ocean waters. An adult’s body is about 65 per cent water. A
loss of 15 per cent to this liquid proves usually fatal through dehydration.
Humans require 2 to 3 liters of water a day just to maintain the racial liquid
balance within the body. More than 4 liters may be required when the person
is active. Not all this need be taken directly because our food intake also
contains some water. Tomatoes contain 90 per cent water, potatoes 80 per
cent and meat about 60 per cent. It is estimated that an average person eats
about 50 tons of food and drinks about 40,000 liters of water in a lifetime. This
is subject to variations from country to country.

      Enormous quantities of pure water are the basic requirement for every
product we make. To refine a ton of sugar, 4,000 liters of really pure water are
required. A ton of paper needs 300,000 liters of moderately pure water while
for generating one kilowatt of electricity in a thermal plant about 3,500 liters
are needed. A ton of steel needs 240,000 liters of water. Agriculture demands
supply of water that far exceeds industrial needs. Actually water used in
agriculture cannot be recirculated as is often possible in industry. For growing
a ton of cotton 8 million liters of water are needed while a ton of sugar crop
consumes nearly a million liters of water.

      Water pollution includes the accumulation in oceans, lakes, streams,
and ground water of substances that are either directly harmful to life or that
have harmful secondary or long term effects. The principle sources of water
pollution are sewage, industrial waste, garbage and refuse, and agriculture
fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Any body of water has a capacity to
absorb or break down introduce materials and sewage and some organic
industrial waste `are broken down naturally by microorganisms into forms in
which they are useful to aquatic life. But if the capacity of a body of water to
dissolve, disperse or recycle is exceeded, all additional substances become

Types of water pollution:

Oil Pollution:
      Oil pollution is one of the highest publicized forms of Ocean Pollution.
The majority of oil pollution is from spills or leakages of oil that originate from
land or rivers, which in turn flow to the sea. The more direct form of oil
pollution occurs when ships transporting the substance leak or crash.

      Some of the oil washes up on the shore and becomes tar-like lumps;
some coat the fur of animals (e.g. sea otters) affecting their natural heating
system. Also, some oil finds its way to other water sources (such as lakes,
rivers, and personal water supplies) causing hazardous water to be consumed.
In extreme cases, rivers, lakes and wells have been known to ignite. For
example, in 1969, the Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio ignited.

Toxic Wastes:
     Toxic waste is the most harmful form of pollution to marine creatures
and humans alike. Once a form of toxic waste affects an organism, it (the toxic
waste) can be quickly passed along the food chain and might eventually end up
as seafood, causing various problems. Toxic wastes arrive from the leakage of
landfills, dumps, mines and farms. Sewage and industrial wastes introduce
chemical pollutants such as PCB, DDT, and Sevin. Farm chemicals
(insecticides and herbicides) along with heavy metals (e.g., mercury and zinc)
can have a disastrous affect on marine life and humans alike.

      Radioactive wastes, reactor leaks, natural radioactivity, and radioactive
particles, which originate from the Atmospheric Testing Program from
explosions of nuclear weapons, are dispersed in water all over the world. The
effect of these radioactive particles is currently being researched.

      All of these factors allow seafood to have a chance of being hazardous to
human health. For example, if a fish is contaminated with the metal Mercury
(by either eating it or consuming a creature who had), birth defects and
nervous system damage in humans may result. Also, Dioxin causes genetic
and chromosomal mutations in marine life and is suspected of causing cancer
in humans.

      Medical wastes, such as stale blood vials, hypodermic needles, and urine
samples that have been found in ocean around the U.S. are being researched
to determine if swimmers have a chance of contracting Hepatitis or AIDs from
such wastes. Other wastes have been known to cause viral and bacterial
diseases such as cholera, typhoid, dysentery, and diarrhea.

Ocean Dumping:
      The lawful ocean dumping of various pollutants was once common
practice, but is now regulated. However, the wastes that were dumped into the
ocean in the early 1900's remain there still. Human wastes, ground-up
garbage, water from bathing, and plastics all contribute to ocean dumping.

      Examples of trash found in the ocean are: syringes, laboratory rats,
human stomach lining, Navy decontamination kits, test tubes with various
substances (with radioactive markings), tampon applicators, and a wallet-sized
photo of a dead communist dictator.

      One of the main causes of trash finding its way to the ocean is the fact
that some sewage pipes share their space with storm water drains. Rainfall (at
least 1/4 of an inch), causes the sewage pipes to flood and the sewage wastes
(basically anything you flush down your toilet), mingles with the storm water
drain which flows unhindered to a water source.

      Balloons have been known to find their way into animals such as sperm
whales, blocking their digestive tracts; causing the animals to die. Plastic six-
pack rings choke various animals and animals for food mistake other waste.
Basically any unnatural trash can be harmful to ocean life.

Noise Pollution:

      The word noise, which is derived from the Latin word ‘nausea’, has been
defined in different ways. In law, noise may be defined as ‘an excessive,
offensive, persistent or starling sound. In short, the best definition of noise is
‘sound which is undesirable by the recipient’. This subjective definition of
noise differs from the scientific definition of noise.

      Noise is one of the undesirable products of technological civilization.
Admits this civilization, wherever we go, noise surrounds us. The roar of
traffic, the passage of trains and aeroplanes, the bustle our ears. Even home is
invaded by noise. The noise from whatever source it comes from is
undoubtedly, physiologically as well as psychologically harmful, it is ‘an
invisible but insidious form of pollution. Noise as a potentially harmful
pollutant is being recognized as a great nuisance these days affecting the
quality of life, particularly, in urban areas.

      As cities grow and there are more motor vehicles, air traffic, factories
and people, the level of noise grows accordingly. Noise is often defined as
unwanted sound. Noise problems are becoming increasingly severe, especially
in urban areas. Noise has come to be regarded as a major urban pollutant
capable of causing annoyance and hearing loss and perhaps even adverse
physiological and psychological effects. According to its magnitude, its
continuity and varying susceptibility of different individuals, noise can induce
temporary or permanent impairment of hearing.
Sources of noise pollution:

       Noise pollution has been strengthening its grip on the society since last
two decades. Damages caused by other problems are reversible to some extent
whereas in case of noise pollution, it’s irreversible. The major sources of noise
pollution are:
      Loud speakers
      Automobiles
      Aircrafts
      Trains
    Construction works
      Projection of satellites into space
      Industry & Machinery.
      Entertainment

Effects of noise pollution:

       The effects of noise pollution are multifaceted and interrelated. Noise
pollution has ill effects not only on the human beings but also on other living
and non- living things. A few common effects may be discussed as following:

                            Noise Effects on Human Beings

        Noise Hazards                                          Noise Nuisance

    Permanent hearing loss

 Neurol-humoral stress response
 Destruction of artifacts

                 Efficiency           Comfort                    Enjoyment
                 Mental stress        Sleep interference         Concentration
                 Frustration          Communication              Interference
                 Task interference    Invasion of Privacy        Meditation
                 Irritability         Damage of artifacts        Recreational
                                                                 Hearing Loss
Effects of High Intensity Noise on Human Beings
 Noise dB                             Effects Observed

  0                                   Threshold of audibility
 150                                  Significant Change in pulse rate
  110                                 Stimulation of reception in skin
  120                                 Pain threshold
  130-135                              Nausea, vomiting dizziness, interference –with
                                       touch and muscle sense
  140                                 Pain in ear, prolonged exposure caused insanity
  160                                 Minor permanent damage if prolonged
  190                                 Major permanent damage in short time

Soil Pollution:
        Land- an inelastic resource is the most important natural resources of
any region which not only provide the basis for economic activities but is the
main factor for the very existence and development of the community.
Required for agriculture afforestation, housing, industry, commerce and many
other    purposes,     this   resource     following     burgeoning    population,     rapid
industrialization, urbanization and other human activities, has come under a
tremendous pressure. The process of modernization and imprudent land use is
causing degradation and pollution of this resource.

        The term “soil pollution” does not have a very precise meaning. This is
because there are different types and degrees of pollution and the people have
varying standards by which the judge pollution effects. Soil pollution mainly
involves the deposition on land of solid wastes such as cans, bottles, plastic
containers, paper, and used cars that cannot be broken down quickly or, in
some     cases,   at   all.   Aside    from   recycling,    disposal   methods       include
concentrating such materials in landfills, burning them in incinerators, or
dumping them in ocean. The term land pollution also includes the
accumulation on land of toxic chemicals (in solid or liquid form) produced by
industry and of radioactive wastes from nuclear processing facilities.

       Massive mountains of solid wastes are disposed each day by our
consumer society. It is estimated that about 10 billion tones of solid wastes
are produced every year in the world and are dumped into the surroundings.
Solid wastes are an integral part of our life as they devour our precious
landscape spoiling the aesthetics of the surroundings.

       Solid wastes are unwanted materials thrown away in solid form, arising
from the normal community activity. It includes garbage i.e. kitchen and food
wastes, rubbish materials like paper, rag, glass bottles, metallic cans, plastics,
fibers, residues from home fuels, street sweeping, building debris, rubbles and
abandoned vehicles.

Sources of soil Pollution:

       Sources of Land pollution are many. Land or the soil pollution stems
principally from the following:
    Indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes
    Mining or ore processing etc.
      Contamination of soil with man-made chemicals, and
      Improper land use and planning.

Effects of soil Pollution:

       The effects of land pollution are numerous, interrelated and of adverse
consequences on the entire ecological system. Land pollution caused by
indiscriminate disposal of solid and semi-solid wastes, particularly in the
urban areas besides presenting unsightly scene, poses a grave threat to human
health. Huge piles of garbage at the disposal sites and littered around in the
towns remains a dwelling place for flies, bacteria, mosquitoes and other
harmful insects. The atmosphere in the vicinity of disposal sites of wastes is
affected by the obnoxious smells and pathogens emitted or produced in the
process of decomposition of garbage which eventually is a cause of intestinal
and respiratory diseases in human beings. Presence of explosives, highly toxic
substances, plastic and diseased culture etc. In the solid wastes put the health
and safety of sanitary workers at risk which may ensure from occupational
diseases, contact with the toxic materials in the course of collection,
transportation and disposal of solid waste. The adverse economic effects of
solid wastes, too, are far reaching. The squandering of limited and non-
renewable mineral resources such as copper, zinc, lead and tin etc. disposed of
and indiscriminately dumped in solid wastes- beyond recovery inevitably
produce a disruptive economic impact.

Air pollution:

      A man can live without food for a month, without water for two or three
days, but he cannot live without breathing even for a minute. According to
research, it is estimated that an average adult male breathes in 15 kg of air a
day, in comparison to about 1.5 kg of the food consumed and 2.5 kg of water
intake. Hence it is obvious that the quantum of pollutants that enter our body
through respiration would be manifold in comparison to those taken in
through polluted water or contaminated food.

      Air is a mixture of gases comprising 78 per cent nitrogen, 21 per cent
oxygen and a little less than 1 per cent argon, together with 0.03 per cent
carbon dioxide. These elements make upto 99.9 per cent of dry air. As long as
this composition is maintained, the air is pure. If this composition is altered,
i.e. the oxygen level gets reduces or other harmful gases enter the atmosphere,
then the air is said to be polluted and inhalation of this polluted air can lead to
respiratory disorders
      The atmosphere the earth envelope is a mixture of various gases, with a
total mass of about 5.1 x (10)15 tones about 0.00001percent off the planers
mass. The composition of the atmosphere has been stable over the period
human life has been in existence, which indicates that it is suited to us.
The composition of the unpolluted air is given in table:

Constituent                             Volume per cent
Nitrogen                                78.09
Oxygen                                  20.94
Argon                                   0.93
Carbon dioxide                          0.03
Balance @                               0.01

      About 99.99 % of the mass of the atmosphere is concentrated within a
height of about 80 kilometer of the earth’s surface. This is one of the factors
that make our planet hospitable of life through some basic functions. The
atmosphere shields and protects us from harmful things like ultra violet
radiation from space and extraterrestrial bodies like comets and asteroids
reaching and hitting the Earths surface. It functions as a medium of storage
and distribution for much substance that is integral parts of vital life processes
that take place continuously on the Earth. For example, it stores and
distributes water vapor and heat energy to make our climate moderate. It
stores and distributes oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, which are integral
constituents of all life forms. An important function of, the atmosphere, which
is of interest in air pollution is that, it stirs, dilutes and distributes the various
pollutants that we put into it. The behavior of the atmosphere is the major
factor, which completely determines whether, our pollution, haunts us or will
blow away to trouble someone else.

      Air pollution is a particular problem in urban areas, where the ultra
violet rays in sunlight combine with hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide to form
photochemical smog. On a somewhat wider scale, So2 a nitrogen oxide from the
burning fossil fuel can combine with atmospheric water vapor to form acid rain
which is damaging to water, forest and soil resources. As a result of the
increased consumption of fossil fuel, levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
have risen steadily in the 20th century and show signs of increasing
atmospheric temperature worldwide owing to the greenhouse effect.

Types of Air Pollution:

       Air pollution is indication of disturbances to the composition of
compounds in the atmosphere, as it may be summarized as shown:
      Excess emission of gases/vapors into atmosphere
      Saturation of chemical compounds/particulates
      Rate of dissipation < (smaller than) rate of absorption through various
       cycles (i.e. carbon and nitrogen cycle)
      Emergence of new chemical reactions of reactive and non-biodegradable

Following are some of his common pollutants occurring in the air:
             1. Gases Pollutants:
Sources: The sources of gaseous pollutants are the vehicles, industries,
manufacturing processes and even agricultural activities.
Combustion of fossil fuels release oxides of Sulphur and nitrogen.          SO2 is
released even from petroleum refineries and nitrogen oxides are produced from
the power generators carbon monoxide is another harmful gas released during
Agricultural activities are responsible for air pollution, to some extent.
Because of spraying and dusting, organic phosphates and chlorinated
hydrocarbons are added. Ammonia produced from fertilizer factories and from
cold storage systems is added to the air.

Particulate pollutants: The particulate pollutants include dust from crushing
and grinding due to road mix plants and the construction work.                Silica
particles and asbestos particles, fibers from textile mill are other particulate
pollutants, particulate fluorides; lead particles are still other pollutants of this
class.   Pollen grains and the spores when produced in excess also act as
natural pollutants.

Smog:    The mixture of smoke and fog together produced smog (‘smo’ from
smoke and ‘g’ from fog). It is actually fog carrying carbon particles. Smog is
the result of heavy traffic on the highways.

Photochemical oxidants:        These pollutants are the secondary pollutants.
NO2 and hydrocarbons react with each other in presence of light. The major
oxidants are ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate [PAN].

            2. Radioactive pollutants:
Nuclear activities are responsible for addition of the new type of pollutants to
the air. Nuclear fission from nuclear reactors and testing for nuclear weapons
are other sources of such pollution. These pollutants persist for many years.
After effects of atomic blast of 1945, are still observed in Japan.
The atomic reactor at Chernobyl in former USSR blew off and a thick cloud of
radioactive substances decipated in the atmosphere.        Radioactive pollutants
are the most dangerous, because they affect the chromosomes and bring about
hereditary disorders.
Sources and Methods of air pollution:

       We can classify major sources that lead to air pollution to the following

      Motor vehicle exhaust
      Heat and power generation facilities
      Industrial processes
      Auto manufacturing
      Fertilizers plants
      Building demolition
      Solid waste disposal
      Solvent evaporation
      Volcanic eruption
      Fuel production
      Roadway construction
      Electrical components manufacturing
      Extraction of metals
      Forest fires
      Agriculture

   Source        Smoke    Parti-   Sox    NOx       CO   Hydro- Toxic       Others
                         culates                         carbons Metals
Fossil fuel      X       X       X       X      X        X       X        ---
Transportation   X       X      X        X      X        X       X        ---
Incineration     X       X      ---      ---    ---      ---     ---      Odours
Metallurgical    ---     ---    X        X      X        ---     X        Fluorides
Operations       ---     X      X        X      ---      ---     X        Ordours,
Chemical                                                                  fluorides,
Industries                                                                hydrogen
Sewage           ---     ---    ---      ---    ---      ---     ---      Odours,
Field burning    X       X      X        ---    ---      ---     ---      ---
Mining           ---     X      ---      ---    ---      ---     X        ---
Major pollutants                     Methods of pollution

Motor vehicle exhaust                        Combustion of fuel led to the
                                          production of oxides of lead,
                                          nitrogen and sulfur
                                             Particulates release will cause
                                          haze and smog resulting in the
                                          poor vision in the area
                                             Oxides of lead, nitrogen and
                                          sulfur dissolves in water vapor
                                          and altering its pH and causing
                                          it more acidic

                                             Emission of excess heat to
                                          atmosphere causing warming of
                                          the atmosphere
                                             Waste biomass not properly
                                          incinerated,                  incomplete
Heat     and   power    generation
                                          combustion          and       unrecycled
                                          remaining waste leads to the
                                          release of carbon monoxide (CO),
                                          and methane (CH4 ]

                                             Production      of    thick      black
                                          smoke emitted without a proper
                                          filtering   system        lead    to   an
                                          increase       of   carbon        dioxide
Industrial processes
                                             Emission             of          CFCs
                                          (chlorofluorocarbon)                    in
                                          atmosphere will through a free
                                          radical     reaction      altering     the
                                          structure of the ozone molecule
                         (O3) by breaking the bond to
                         produce free radicals. CFCs can
                         be found in refrigerant products
                         like refrigerator, aerosol spray
                        Production of nitric acid ( HNO3 )
                         through Oswald process involves
                         a series of combustion

                            Emits   about     1180      tons   of
                         organics; 54 tons of NOx (oxides
                         of nitrogen); 730 pounds of SO2;
                         and 7 tons of carbon monoxide
Auto Manufacturing
                            Increase production of vehicles
                         has led to the increase of usage
                         organic     products,       and    heavy

                            Emission         of         corrosive
                         byproducts like sulphuric acid
                         (H2SO4) by Contact process and
                         hydrochloric acid (HCl), which
                         increase the acidity of water
                         vapor in the atmosphere
Fertilizers Plants          Over production of ammonia
                         (NH3) for fertilizer production,
                         which are not contained in a
                         proper      manner        may   increase
                         alkalinity of atmosphere
Building demolition       Crumbling rubble and debris
                       which floats and settles in the
                       atmosphere, causing haze and
                       smog      (i.e.   benzene,    asbestos,
                       beryllium, inorganic arsenic)

                          Accumulation of waste leads to
                       production of strong odor and
                       humidity, right conditions for
                       pests (houseflies) and bacteria
                       growths which further aggravates
Solid waste disposal   the odor in the area
                          Radioactive     and      hazardous
                       waste not disposed in enclose
                       area will cause the release of
                       radioactive vapors or substances
                       into atmosphere

                          Vaporization       of      complex
                       organic solvents which are non
                       biodegradable (i.e. non - methane
                       organic       compounds:       ethane,
                       ethylene, aldehydes, ketones)
Solvent evaporation       Production         of       strong
                       unpleasant odor (i.e. lubricants,
                          Organic vapors reacting with
                       chemical           compounds         in
                       atmosphere         which     acts   as
                    insulator       earth,      thereby
                    producing greenhouse effects (i.e.
                    methane, carbon dioxide)

                       Toxic and poisonous gases of
                    SO2 , NO2 and PbS2 spewed out
                       Heat produce during eruptions
Volcanic eruption   will increase the temperature of
                    atmosphere, altering the rate of
                    chemical reactions occurring

                       Fractional distillation of crude
                    oil to produce kerosene, gasoline
                    and refinery gas by the cracking
                    process (pyrolisis) involves the
                    use of high heat energy at 450°C
                    splitting larger alkane molecules
                    into smaller alkane and alkene
                    molecules which are more easily
                    vaporized and are therefore more
                    useful fuels
Fuel production
                       Fuel   extraction,   processing,
                    refining and distribution add an
                    additional 14% of carbon dioxide
                    emissions (CO2)
                       30% of hydrocarbon emissions
                    are         released        through
                    evaporation, which occurs from
                    both fuel tanks and gasoline
Roadway construction                     Manufacture       of    construction
                                      equipment       comparable          to    the
                                      degree     of   pollution       of       auto
                                         Asphalt     fumes        which        are
                                      bothersome          and    toxic,     which
                                      involves      the    release    of       both
                                      particulate     benzene         (C6H6)      –
                                      soluble organics and individual
                                      aromatic hydrocarbons

                                         Process           of            making
                                      semiconductors             involves       the
                                      usage of hazardous heavy metal
                                      (i.e. arsenic and lead)
                                         Emission of toxic byproducts
Electrical             components
                                      into river and atmosphere (i.e.
                                      sulphates,           nitrates            and

                                    Extractions of pure metal involves
                                    the heating of coke (carbon); (i.e.
Extraction of metals                iron and silicon) produce carbon
                                    dioxide and carbon monoxide

                                         Extractions of Group 1 and 2
                   metals     (sodium,     potassium,
                   magnesium,       calcium)   through
                   electrolysis involves the usage of
                   graphite (carbon) and mercury as
                   the electrode

                  Release     of   particulates   into
                   atmosphere causing smog and
                   haze results in the poor vision of
Forest fires
                   sight in the area

                      Improper sanitation results in
                   the accumulation of faces and
Agriculture        urine causing strong odor and
                   smell contamination in the area
Air Pollution and Health Hazards:

All the air pollutants severely affect the health of human beings. Some of the
main air pollutants and their side effects on human health are given below the
in the table:

Pollutants                Sources And Side Effects
Chloroform                Sources:


                          Side Effects:

Para-dichlorobenzene      Sources:

                          Air freshener, campers

                          Side Effects:

Tetra chloroethyl         Sources:

                          Vapour from cloth-dryer liquid that left in clothes

                          Side Effects:

                          Heart disorder, damages to kidney and herpes


Styrene                   Carpets and plastic

                          Side Effects:

                          Damages to kidney and herpes
Radon-222               Sources:

                        Radioactive soil, foundation stone, water sources.

                        Side Effects:

                        Lung cancer
Smoke form Cigarette    Sources:


                        Side Effects:

                        Lung and respiratory system cancer, heart damage
Carbon Monoxide         Sources:

                        Kerosene cooking stove board, damaged fire store in
                        living room.

                        Side Effects:

                        Headache,       improper    heartbeats,     excessive
Nitrogen Oxide          Sources:

                        Wood board

                        Side Effects:

                        Lung irritation, fever to children, headache.
1,1,1-Trichloroethane   Sources:

                        Aerosol spray

                        Side Effects:

                        Headache and respiratory difficulties
Asbestos   Sources:

           Pipe isolation and tile.

           Side Effects:

           Lung damages and cancer
Air Quality Standards:

Each country ha set its national air quality standards which much not be
exceeded if public health and welfare are to be protected.

The central Board for Prevention and Control of Pollution of India has
prescribed the following air quality standards for some pollutants.

Area Category               Suspended     Sulphur       Oxides of      Carbon
                            particulate   dioxide       nitrogen       monoxide
Industrial and mixed use 500              120           120            5000
Residential and rural       200           80            80             2000
Sensitive (hill stations,   1             30            50             1000
tourist resorts, national
parks, monuments,
health resorts etc.)

The values for Sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen present annual averages
when monitored uniformly over twelve months of the year, with a frequency of
not less than once a week with a sampling time of 8 hours, The concentration
of the pollutant shall be 95 per cent of the time within the prescribed limits.

At present the monitoring programmers in India are not geared up for
systematic work. These standards are invariably exceeded in many regions of
the country, usually the densely populated urban industrial areas. Another
important aspect is that the technology employed in most of the industrial
units as well as automobiles is not updated with in-built pollution control

According to New York Times Magazine the air quality in big cities in India is
among the worst in the world.        According to one report, Delhi, the Indian
Union Capital, has 1.3 million registered vehicles, 120,000 being added
annually? Two and Three wheelers constitute about 63 per cent. The vehicular
traffic contributes more then 800 Ions of pollutant gases every day, which
constitutes more than 60 per cent of the air pollution in the city. During peak
time the emissions are estimated at

Carbon monoxide       1,500kg

Hydrocarbons              500kg

Oxides of nitrogen        1000kg

Over 400 kg of lead are released into the air every day. The two thermal power
stations emit 1,450 tons of flyash and 600 tons of Sulphur dioxides every day.
There are 5,000 noxious gas-emitting industries in the capital, 868 of which
the walled city itself.   As many as 28 large industries release chlorine and
other dangerous substances. The water-polluting industries are put at 82.
Environmental Effects of Acid Rain

                                Do you think that she knows what acid rain is?

Air Pollution Creates Acid Rain...

      Scientists have discovered that air pollution from the burning of fossil
fuels is the major cause of acid rain. Acidic deposition, or acid rain as it is
commonly known, occurs when emissions of Sulphur dioxide (so2) and oxides
of nitrogen (nox) react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and oxidants to
form various acidic compounds. This mixture forms a mild solution of sulfuric
acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions.

      These compounds then fall to the earth in either wet form (such as rain,
snow, and fog or dry form (such as gas and particles). About half of the acidity
in the atmosphere falls back to earth through dry deposition as gases and dry
particles. The wind blows these acidic particles and gases onto buildings, cars,
homes, and trees. In some instances these gases and particles can eat away
the things on which they settle. Dry deposited gases and particles are
sometimes washed from trees and other surfaces by rainstorms. When that
happens, the runoff water adds those acids to the acid rain, making the
combination more
acidic than the falling rain alone. The combination the acid rain plus dry
deposited acid is called acid deposition. Prevailing winds transport the
compounds, sometimes hundreds of miles, across state and national borders.

Wouldn't you rather see this...?

      Electric utility plants account for about 70 percent of annual SO2
emissions and 30 percent of NOx emissions in the United States. Mobile
sources (transportation) also contribute significantly to NOx emissions.
Overall, over 20 million tons of SO2 and NOx are emitted into the atmosphere
each year.

      Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to
damage of trees at high elevations (for example, red spruce trees above 2,000
feet in elevation). In addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of building
materials    and   paints,   including   irreplaceable   buildings,   statues,   and
sculptures that are part of our nation's cultural heritage. Prior to falling to the
earth, SO2 and NOx gases and their particulate matter derivatives, sulfates
and nitrates, contribute to visibility degradation and impact public health.

      Implementation of the Acid Rain program under the 1990 Clean Air Act
amendments wills confers significant benefits on the nation. By reducing SO2
and NOX, many acidified+ lakes and streams will improve substantially so that
they can once again support fish life.     Visibility will improve, allowing for
increased enjoyment of scenic vistas across our country, particularly in
national parks. Stress to our forests that populate the ridges of the mountains
from Maine to Georgia will be reduced. Deterioration of our historic buildings
and monuments will be slowed.       Finally, reductions in SO2 and NOx will
reduce sulphates, nitrates, and ground level ozone (Smog), leading to
improvements in public health.

Control Measures:

   1) Tall chimneys of factories help to discharge pollutants at the highest
   2) Automobiles should be checked regularly for their efficiency as regards
       complete combustion of fuels.
   3) Green vegetation around the industry seems to be a good solution to
       reduce pollution. Trees act as biomonitor for the problem of pollution.
   4) Setting chambers, bag filters, wet collectors; gas absorbers are some of
       the equipments useful in the control of air pollution.
   5) If use of a row material produces more pollution, a suitable one should
       replace it. For example, the use of a fuel containing less percentage of
   6) Modification in the equipment can pose less pollution problem. E.g.
       instead of using open hearth furnace, oxygen furnace is used to
       reduced pollution.
Cases Studies:

Bhopal Tragedy: On Dec 3, 1984 methyl isocyanate [MIC] accidentally leaked
out form the storage tanks of the insecticide and germicide factory at Bhopal.
This MIC killed over 3000 and seriously affected nearly lakhs of the residents.