T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e (PowerPoint) by ert554898


									       The American University of Rome

     HST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization   I

              Session 11

         Rome's Three Heirs

The long life (but short zenith) of the
     Eastern Roman empire…
The rebirth of the Western empire…
        The birth of Islam…

 In the new era of the Middle Ages
          Take-home exam 2
Exam questions posted on 10/13, due, by email
    and paper, before 10.30am on 10/20

Can anyone guess what those questions are?
           Take-home exam 2
Exam questions posted on 10/13, due, by email
    and paper, before 10.30am on 10/20

              Read the document

  Structure of the paper (> Outline due Nov. 19)

Introduction: presentation of the idea, hypothesis;
   why the idea is important and relevant in this
  course; the means that will be used to study it.

   Body: developing the arguments, evidence to
           support or reject hypothesis

Conclusions: remind us of the starting point; a brief
 note on the facts and the results of your analysis

 References (> the annotated bibliography is due
                  on Nov. 12)
               An example of annotated bibliography
       (to make critical or explanatory notes on a literary work or subject)

On hydraulic systems in the Peruvian North Coast…

Farrington, Ian S.
1985 The wet, the dry and the steep, archaeological imperatives and
the study of agricultural intensification. In Prehistoric Intensive
Agriculture in the Tropics. I.S. Farrington ed. BAR International Series

Hunt R.C and Hunt E.
1976 Canal Irrigation and Local Social Organization. Current
Anthropology Vol. 17.

Kosok, Paul
1940 The role of irrigation in ancient Peru. Proceedings of the Eighth
American Scientific Congress 5:169-178. NA.
1965 Life, Land and Water in Ancient Peru. Long Island University
            An example of annotated bibliography 2
Farrington 1985. In this introduction, Farrington addresses the
problem of agricultural intensification, that besides its increase in food
productivity (or output effects) needs to grasp the diverse input causal
mechanisms. He presents a table that proposes the factors and ways in
which agricultural systems change. Finally he mentions the difficulty to
identify archaeologically intensive agriculture features; the factors
behind changes are elusive and make the reconstruction of the cultural
history of a valley a difficult task.

Kosok 1965. This book constituted the travel report from his presence
in Peru during the 40's. The core of the book is concerned with
irrigation features (see Sherbondy 1969 for his references) and the
description of prehistoric landscape (i.e. architectonic features in their
ecological context). In fact his observations were the hypothesis to be
tested later by irrigation concerned projects, particularly irrigation-
complex societies. He perceived the existence of valley systems called
complexes: the Lambayeque-Zaña-Jequetepeque, the Moche-
Chicama, the Pativilca-Fortaleza-Supe, the Chillon-Rimac, and the
                   A few comments…
> The use of the word civilization…to vague…too
  specific…should be replaced by the words “chiefdom”,
  “state” and “empire” as is done with the political science
> These days the world civilization is linked to intercultural
  debates relating to religions…
> Benedict in Regensburg: “Show me just what Muhammad
  brought that was new and there you will find things only
  evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the
  sword the faith he preached”… 1391, conversations of
  Manuel II Paleologus. The emperor goes on to reflect on
  why spreading the faith through violence is something
  unreasonable. The Pope cites him to make a point that
  faith is born in the soul not in the body…
                    The Middle Ages

The fall of Rome, of its western part, a result of decay of
Roman traditions, mismanagement of the frontiers, fracture in
the administration hierarchies, individualism (remember
Tainter’s idea of the collapse of societies that cbcome to
complex), secessionism…Easy pray to Germanic tribes…

The power of the new Christian kings
Theodoric, 488-526, founder of the Ostrogoth Kingdom in
Italy. Under the auspices of Zeno, Theodoric invaded Italy.
Replacing Odoacer as king of Italy. Period of economic
development, tolerance and culture.
>As an Arian Christian, he will face Justinian (526) a non-
Arian emperor.
>523 Decree by Justin (J’s uncle) banning J,P & H (Arians)
from office.
       Christianity consolidates its philosophies

Augustine (354-430), and the consolidation of ideas and
  philosophies in the Christian Church…amidst the
  invasions and decay of the empire. Further “purification”
  of the doctrine: denies Pelagius and his denial of the
  original sin…and denies Manichaeism and the
  importance of free will in a state of grace. Plus, his
  analysis on the fall of Rome (City of God)

The Dark ages were not that dark, rather a transition
  period in Late Antiquity. Peter Brown thinks Late Antiquity
  (between Empire and MA) is a period of social and
  religious change between 300 and 750. Slow collapse of
  the Empire allowed a period of great creativity and
  expressiveness in which Christianity flourished and
  became institutionalized.
                Periods in the Middle Ages

            The two last episodes of antiquity:

> The Christianization of the Classical societies,
  & decline of Rome and Hellenistic societies;

> The Roman revival of Justinian, 527-568 AD

Are these events the start of the Middle Ages ? What are
its periods?
                    The Middle Ages
    Antiquity              >           MA           >         Modern

476/565               800                           1300         1453/1492

 Early MA            >         High MA                  >       Late MA
    (defined by Henri Pirenne in "Les periodes de l'historie du capitalism“)

            ?             /            ?            /            ?
                                                   > Our end to the course

   How many perspectives for such periodization?
        Is historical perspective relevant?
                   The Middle Ages
476/565            800                     1300    1453/1492
 Early MA          >     High MA            >     Late MA
  Shifting               Development              Growing royal
  polities, a            institutions of     power & inception
  relatively low          lordship and          of nation-states,
  level of                 vassalage,        rise of commercial
  economic              castle-building            interests, and
  activity and           and mounted          weakening feudal
  successful              warfare, and                     ties of
  incursions by         reviving urban              dependence,
  non-Christian        and commercial            especially after
  peoples                      life             the 14th century
        The Middle Ages: the events

476/565            800                 1300      1453/1492
  Early MA         >     High MA          >     Late MA
> Fall of Rome   Holy Roman                       Americas <
> Justinian        Empire                            Fall of <
> Constantine’s Monasteries       Plagues      Renaissance <
  division of                                           (Italy)
  Empire                         Universities
                                                 End of 100 <
> Rise of Islam           Schism                   years war
                                                   Battle of <
                                              “Reconquista” <
   “Dark Ages”                                       of Spain
So the Early Middle Ages are about the inheritance
  of Justinian and the Byzantine empire, the ebb
  of Mohammad and the growth of Islam, and the
  recreation of the Roman empire with
  Charlemagne (Charles de Great) and their
  particular trajectories.

                              European          500




         Ottoman empire
These polities will evolve from situations of
  collapse of the old systems (a failure of previous
  states) and will create novel political systems,
  namely the feudal system in the new kingdoms
  of Europe.

After the strong institutions of the Carolingians and
  the Holy Roman Empire the new dynasties of
  kings will rely on the lords of the land, with whom
  they establish a contractual system of political
  and military relationships. Vassals swore an oath
  of homage to their lord.
They will be unlike any previous kingdom seen
  before and will create odd political situations.
  Many vassals will actually be, thanks to the
  grants of lands to the vassals. For many years,
  the most important person in France is not the
  King but the Duke of Burgundy who find himself
  owner of the richest lands in the kingdom.
           Questions for chapter 7
> How did the Byzantine state survive for nearly a
> How was Islam able to spread so rapidly?
> What forces combined to undermine the political
  unity of the Islamic empire?
> What caused economic and social change in 7th
  century western Europe?
> How did Charlemagne (in his renovatio
  Romanorum imperii) redefine the relationship
  between Christianity and kingship?

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