The American University of Rome HST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I Session 11 Rome's Three Heirs The long life (but short zenith) of the Eastern Roman empire… The rebirth of the Western empire… The birth of Islam… In the new era of the Middle Ages Take-home exam 2 Exam questions posted on 10/13, due, by email and paper, before 10.30am on 10/20 Can anyone guess what those questions are? Take-home exam 2 Exam questions posted on 10/13, due, by email and paper, before 10.30am on 10/20 Read the document http://www.tiwanakuarcheo.net/swc1/takehome2.htm Structure of the paper (> Outline due Nov. 19) Introduction: presentation of the idea, hypothesis; why the idea is important and relevant in this course; the means that will be used to study it. Body: developing the arguments, evidence to support or reject hypothesis Conclusions: remind us of the starting point; a brief note on the facts and the results of your analysis References (> the annotated bibliography is due on Nov. 12) An example of annotated bibliography (to make critical or explanatory notes on a literary work or subject) On hydraulic systems in the Peruvian North Coast… Farrington, Ian S. 1985 The wet, the dry and the steep, archaeological imperatives and the study of agricultural intensification. In Prehistoric Intensive Agriculture in the Tropics. I.S. Farrington ed. BAR International Series 232. Hunt R.C and Hunt E. 1976 Canal Irrigation and Local Social Organization. Current Anthropology Vol. 17. Kosok, Paul 1940 The role of irrigation in ancient Peru. Proceedings of the Eighth American Scientific Congress 5:169-178. NA. 1965 Life, Land and Water in Ancient Peru. Long Island University Press. An example of annotated bibliography 2 Farrington 1985. In this introduction, Farrington addresses the problem of agricultural intensification, that besides its increase in food productivity (or output effects) needs to grasp the diverse input causal mechanisms. He presents a table that proposes the factors and ways in which agricultural systems change. Finally he mentions the difficulty to identify archaeologically intensive agriculture features; the factors behind changes are elusive and make the reconstruction of the cultural history of a valley a difficult task. Kosok 1965. This book constituted the travel report from his presence in Peru during the 40's. The core of the book is concerned with irrigation features (see Sherbondy 1969 for his references) and the description of prehistoric landscape (i.e. architectonic features in their ecological context). In fact his observations were the hypothesis to be tested later by irrigation concerned projects, particularly irrigation- complex societies. He perceived the existence of valley systems called complexes: the Lambayeque-Zaña-Jequetepeque, the Moche- Chicama, the Pativilca-Fortaleza-Supe, the Chillon-Rimac, and the Chincha-Pisco. A few comments… > The use of the word civilization…to vague…too specific…should be replaced by the words “chiefdom”, “state” and “empire” as is done with the political science jargon… > These days the world civilization is linked to intercultural debates relating to religions… > Benedict in Regensburg: “Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached”… 1391, conversations of Manuel II Paleologus. The emperor goes on to reflect on why spreading the faith through violence is something unreasonable. The Pope cites him to make a point that faith is born in the soul not in the body… The Middle Ages The fall of Rome, of its western part, a result of decay of Roman traditions, mismanagement of the frontiers, fracture in the administration hierarchies, individualism (remember Tainter’s idea of the collapse of societies that cbcome to complex), secessionism…Easy pray to Germanic tribes… The power of the new Christian kings Theodoric, 488-526, founder of the Ostrogoth Kingdom in Italy. Under the auspices of Zeno, Theodoric invaded Italy. Replacing Odoacer as king of Italy. Period of economic development, tolerance and culture. >As an Arian Christian, he will face Justinian (526) a non- Arian emperor. >523 Decree by Justin (J’s uncle) banning J,P & H (Arians) from office. Christianity consolidates its philosophies Augustine (354-430), and the consolidation of ideas and philosophies in the Christian Church…amidst the invasions and decay of the empire. Further “purification” of the doctrine: denies Pelagius and his denial of the original sin…and denies Manichaeism and the importance of free will in a state of grace. Plus, his analysis on the fall of Rome (City of God) The Dark ages were not that dark, rather a transition period in Late Antiquity. Peter Brown thinks Late Antiquity (between Empire and MA) is a period of social and religious change between 300 and 750. Slow collapse of the Empire allowed a period of great creativity and expressiveness in which Christianity flourished and became institutionalized. Periods in the Middle Ages The two last episodes of antiquity: > The Christianization of the Classical societies, & decline of Rome and Hellenistic societies; > The Roman revival of Justinian, 527-568 AD Are these events the start of the Middle Ages ? What are its periods? The Middle Ages Antiquity > MA > Modern 476/565 800 1300 1453/1492 Early MA > High MA > Late MA (defined by Henri Pirenne in "Les periodes de l'historie du capitalism“) ? / ? / ? > Our end to the course How many perspectives for such periodization? Is historical perspective relevant? The Middle Ages 476/565 800 1300 1453/1492 Early MA > High MA > Late MA Shifting Development Growing royal polities, a institutions of power & inception relatively low lordship and of nation-states, level of vassalage, rise of commercial economic castle-building interests, and activity and and mounted weakening feudal successful warfare, and ties of incursions by reviving urban dependence, non-Christian and commercial especially after peoples life the 14th century plague. The Middle Ages: the events 476/565 800 1300 1453/1492 Early MA > High MA > Late MA > Fall of Rome Holy Roman Americas < > Justinian Empire Fall of < Constantinople > Constantine’s Monasteries Plagues Renaissance < division of (Italy) Empire Universities End of 100 < > Rise of Islam Schism years war Battle of < Lepanto “Transition” “Reconquista” < “Dark Ages” of Spain So the Early Middle Ages are about the inheritance of Justinian and the Byzantine empire, the ebb of Mohammad and the growth of Islam, and the recreation of the Roman empire with Charlemagne (Charles de Great) and their particular trajectories. European 500 BE Kingdoms 800 Islam 1000 1400 Ottoman empire These polities will evolve from situations of collapse of the old systems (a failure of previous states) and will create novel political systems, namely the feudal system in the new kingdoms of Europe. After the strong institutions of the Carolingians and the Holy Roman Empire the new dynasties of kings will rely on the lords of the land, with whom they establish a contractual system of political and military relationships. Vassals swore an oath of homage to their lord. They will be unlike any previous kingdom seen before and will create odd political situations. Many vassals will actually be, thanks to the grants of lands to the vassals. For many years, the most important person in France is not the King but the Duke of Burgundy who find himself owner of the richest lands in the kingdom. Questions for chapter 7 > How did the Byzantine state survive for nearly a millenium? > How was Islam able to spread so rapidly? > What forces combined to undermine the political unity of the Islamic empire? > What caused economic and social change in 7th century western Europe? > How did Charlemagne (in his renovatio Romanorum imperii) redefine the relationship between Christianity and kingship?
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