Vocabulary by jennyyingdi


									                           Chapter 24 Vocabulary
                     “Industry Comes of Age: 1865-1900”

1. James J. Hill – 532, 674 (1838-1916), American railway promoter and financier,
   born near Rockwood, Ontario, Canada. He began his business career in 1856 in
   Saint Paul, Minnesota, and became involved in the organization of a river
   steamboat line in Winnipeg, Canada, and the formation of a fuel company to
   supply coal to the railroads. In 1878 Hill purchased, with his associates, the Saint
   Paul and Pacific Railroad. He amalgamated a number of smaller lines into an
   integrated railway system extending north to the Canadian border and westward
   to Seattle. In 1890 Hill consolidated all of his railway holdings into one corporate
   entity, the Great Northern Railway Company. He was president of the Great
   Northern until 1907 when he retired to become chairman of the board of directors.
   Hill also played an important part in the organization and funding of the Canadian
   Pacific Railway. His many operations in the stock market and in mining and
   banking led him to become known as the Empire Builder.
2. Cornelius Vanderbilt – 533,535, 538 (1843-1899), American industrialist and
   philanthropist, son of William Henry Vanderbilt, born on Staten Island, New
   York. He became associated with the New York and Harlem Railroad about 1867,
   serving as president from 1886, about which time he began to act as head of the
   Vanderbilt family. He was a benefactor of the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine
   in New York City, the New York Theological Seminary, and many other
3. Alexander Graham Bell – 537 (1847-1922), American inventor and teacher of
   the deaf, most famous for his invention of the telephone. Bell was born on March
   3, 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland, and educated at the universities of Edinburgh
   and London. He immigrated to Canada in 1870 and to the United States in 1871.
   In the United States he began teaching deaf-mutes, publicizing the system called
   visible speech. The system, which was developed by his father, the Scottish
   educator Alexander Melville Bell, shows how the lips, tongue, and throat are used
   in the articulation of sound. In 1872 Bell founded a school to train teachers of the
   deaf in Boston, Massachusetts. The school subsequently became part of Boston
   University, where Bell was appointed professor of vocal physiology. He became a
   naturalized U.S. citizen in 1882.Since the age of 18, Bell had been working on the
   idea of transmitting speech. In 1874, while working on a multiple telegraph, he
   developed the basic ideas for the telephone. His experiments with his assistant
   Thomas Watson finally proved successful on March 10, 1876, when the first
   complete sentence was transmitted: “Watson, come here; I want you.” Subsequent
   demonstrations, particularly one at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in
   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, introduced the telephone to the world and led to the
   organization of the Bell Telephone Company in 1877.In 1880 France bestowed on
   Bell the Volta Prize, worth 50,000 francs, for his invention. With this money he
   founded the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., where, in that same year, he
   and his associates invented the photophone, which transmits speech by light rays.
   Other inventions include the audiometer, used to measure acuity in hearing; the
   induction balance, used to locate metal objects in human bodies; and the first wax
   recording cylinder, introduced in 1886. The cylinder, together with the flat wax
   disc, formed the basis of the modern phonograph.
4. Thomas Edison – 537,540,587,744 (1847-1931), American inventor, one of the
   greatest inventors of all time. Edison began to work at an early age and continued
   to work right up until his death. Throughout his prolific career as an inventor, he
   was well known for his focus and determination. During his career Edison
   patented more than 1,000 inventions, including the electric light, the phonograph,
   and the motion-picture camera. These three inventions gave rise to giant
   industries—electric utilities, phonograph and record companies, and the film
   industry—thus changing the work and leisure habits of people throughout the
   world. The period from 1879 to 1900, when Edison produced and perfected most
   of his devices, has been called the Age of Edison.
5. Andrew Carnegie – 500, 537, 59, 576, 638, 522, 539-40, 542 (1835-1919),
   American industrialist and philanthropist, who, at the age of 33, when he had an
   annual income of $50,000, said, “Beyond this never earn, make no effort to
   increase fortune, but spend the surplus each year for benevolent
   purposes.”Carnegie was born in Dunfermline, Scotland. He went to the U.S. in
   1848 and soon began work as a bobbin boy in a cotton mill in Allegheny,
   Pennsylvania, for $1.20 per week. The following year he became a messenger in a
   Pittsburgh telegraph office and learned telegraphy. He was then employed by the
   Pennsylvania Railroad as the private secretary and telegrapher to the railroad
   official Thomas Alexander Scott. Carnegie advanced by successive promotions
   until he was superintendent of the Pittsburgh division of the railroad. His financial
   interest in what became the Pullman Palace Car Company laid the foundation of
   his fortune, and investments in oil lands near Oil City, Pennsylvania, increased his
   means. During the American Civil War he served in the War Department under
   Scott, who was in charge of military transportation and government telegraph
   service. After the war Carnegie left the railroad and formed a company to produce
   iron railroad bridges. He later founded a steel mill and was one of the earliest
   users of the Bessemer process of making steel in the U.S. Carnegie was extremely
   successful, acquiring a controlling interest in other large steel plants. By 1899,
   when he consolidated his interests in the Carnegie Steel Company, he controlled
   about 25 percent of the American iron and steel production. In 1901 he sold his
   company to the United States Steel Corp. for $250 million and retired. see USX
   Corporation: History of U.S. Steel Carnegie did not have a formal education, but
   as a youth working in Pennsylvania he developed a life-long interest in books and
   education. During his lifetime he gave more than $350 million to various
   educational, cultural, and peace institutions, many of which bear his name. His
   first public gift was in 1873 for baths in the town of his birth; his largest single
   gift was in 1911 for $125 million to establish the Carnegie Corporation of New
   York. He was a benefactor of Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University). He
   also endowed over 2,800 libraries throughout the world, and he donated funds for
   the construction of the Peace Palace at The Hague, Netherlands, for what is now
   the International Court of Justice of the United Nations. Carnegie was honored
   throughout the world during his lifetime.
6. John D. Rockefeller – 445-46, 500, 537, 538, 541, 549, 571, 542 (1839-1937),
   American industrialist. Rockefeller was born in Richford, New York, on July 8,
   1839, and educated in the public schools of Cleveland, Ohio. He became a
   bookkeeper in Cleveland at the age of 16. In 1862 he went into business with
   entrepreneur Henry Flagler and with Samuel Andrews, the inventor of an
   inexpensive process for the refinement of crude petroleum. In 1870 their firm,
   Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler, changed its name to the Standard Oil Company,
   often referred to as the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. Rockefeller, his brother
   William, Andrews, and Flagler ran the business. In early 1872 Rockefeller helped
   form the South Improvement Company, an association that unified many oil
   refiners in Cleveland with the Standard Oil Company. Since Standard Oil used
   railroads daily to transport huge amounts of cargo, Rockefeller was able to make a
   deal with railroad conductors that would profit both industries. Railroad
   companies decided to set high freight rates but agreed to award substantial rebates
   for members of the South Improvement Company. This plan prevented price wars
   among railroad companies and forced smaller oil refiners to go out of business if
   they didn’t join the association. After three months of much public protest, the
   railroad companies and Rockefeller’s group cancelled their deal. However, most
   of Rockefeller's competitors in Cleveland had already been forced to sell out to
   the Standard Oil Company. By 1878 Standard Oil also owned the major refineries
   in New York City; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In
   1882 Rockefeller and his partners formed the first corporate trust, Standard Oil
   Trust, to merge many oil businesses throughout the United States into a single
   company. Rockefeller soon controlled 90 percent of the oil refineries in the
   country. Journalists, small oil refiners, and many others heavily criticized
   Standard Oil for monopolizing the industry. In 1892 the Ohio Supreme Court
   ordered the Standard Oil Company of Ohio to separate from the trust and become
   an independent business. As a result, the trust dissolved and Rockefeller and his
   associates reorganized and consolidated the Standard Oil conglomerate into 20
   businesses. After the reorganizaton, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, which
   was founded as part of the trust in 1882, became the largest Standard Oil
   corporation. In 1892 it was renamed Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), often
   referred to as Jersey Standard. Jersey Standard became the sole holding company
   for all of Standard Oil in 1899. However, in 1911 the Supreme Court of the
   United States ruled that Standard Oil had continued to act as a monopoly. The
   Court’s antitrust ruling forced all of the Standard Oil companies to become
   independent businesses. That year Rockefeller, at age 72, retired as president of
   Standard Oil.
7. J. Pierpont Morgan – 525, 537, 538, 674, 539-40,571,698 (1837-1913),
   American investment banker, art collector, and philanthropist, considered by
   many the greatest financier in the history of United States business. A private
   banker, Morgan raised millions of dollars in foreign investment to help build
   railroads in the United States and to help pay off the country’s enormous debt
   from the Civil War (1861-1865). His greatest accomplishment came in 1907 when
   he brought bankers together to stem a financial panic that threatened the U.S.
   banking system. Growing concern with Morgan’s control of investment banking,
   however, led the U.S. government to appoint a commission that recommended the
   creation of a central bank, now known as the Federal Reserve.
8. Terence V. Powderly – 551, 552-53 (1849-1924), American labor leader and
   head of the Knights of Labor, born in Carbondale, Pennsylvania. Powderly attended
   school until he was 13 years old, when he went to work on a railroad. He later
   became apprenticed to a machinist, and in 1871 joined a local chapter of the
   Machinists' and Blacksmiths' International Union. In 1879 he was chosen to
   succeed the retiring Uriah Stephens as head of the order of the Knights of Labor,
   an all-inclusive union founded in 1869. Under Powderly's leadership the union's
   membership rose to more than 700,000 by the mid-1880s. Much of the union’s
   success was due to his activities, and during this time he became by far the most
   popular and renowned labor leader in the country. Powderly’s vision of a better
   world, his voluminous correspondence with the rank and file, and his obvious
   sense of dedication and mission all contributed to his great appeal. It was, in fact,
   as a publicist and educator that Powderly made his greatest contribution to the
   labor movement by drawing attention to the low rank of workers in society and
   increasing people's awareness of a national labor movement. Powderly hoped to
   use the Knights as a lever to abolish the wage system and restore a society based
   on individual producers rather than large corporations. Thus he was opposed to
   stressing higher wages or shorter hours, and to separate craft unions, since these
   were mere amelioratives. In the mid-1880s this ideology was opposed by the
   growing craft unions, which emphasized better wages and hours to the exclusion
   of more comprehensive reforms. Powderly was unsympathetic to members of the
   Knights who wanted to better their immediate condition, and trade unionists both
   within and without the order attacked him. In 1886 these unionists organized a
   rival movement, the American Federation of Labor. The Knights went into
   decline, and by the 1890s they were no longer important in the labor movement.
   In 1893 Powderly was deposed from his position of leadership, ending his career
   in the labor movement.
9. Samuel Gompers – 553, 554, 638, 692, 710 (1850-1924), American labor leader,
   who, as president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), stressed
   cooperation between management and labor, rather than strike actions, as a means
   of obtaining labor demands. Gompers was born January 27, 1850, in London.
   After only four years of elementary school education, he was apprenticed to a
   cigar maker in the East End of London, where he learned the trade that he
   followed for a quarter of a century. In 1863 he accompanied his family to New
   York City. There he later became active in the social clubs, fraternal orders, and
   labor unions of the Lower East Side, then teeming with emigrants from Europe.
   Unlike many of the other emigrants who were the bearers of European
   revolutionary traditions, Gompers's ideas were moderate, and he exerted a
   powerful influence in the evolution of American labor unionism from radicalism
   to conservatism. Gompers became a member of the Cigar Maker's International
   Union in 1864 and ten years later helped found Local 144 of the international
   union, of which he remained a member for the rest of his life. He was elected
   president of Local 144 in 1874. In 1881 he was one of the chief founders and the
   first president of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the
    United States of America and Canada, which was established solely to influence
    legislation in behalf of labor. During the following years he was a leader in the
    movement to organize a national federation of labor unions. When the AFL was
    founded in 1886, Gompers was elected president of the organization; thereafter
    until his death, except in 1895, he was reelected annually to that position.
    Gompers was the chief exponent of the policies that gave the AFL its character as
    a conservative federation of autonomous craft unions. He resisted efforts of
    socialist infiltration and control of the federation and fought the openly
    antagonistic and more militant Industrial Workers of the World. Gompers used
    the growing influence of the AFL to secure the passage of federal and state
    legislation favorable to labor. He formulated the federation's policy of urging its
    members to support candidates for public office, regardless of political affiliation,
    who were considered friendly to labor.
10. James Buchanan Duke – 543 (1791-1868), 15th president of the United States
    (1857-1861). He was a prominent figure in American political life for nearly half
    a century, holding some of the nation's highest offices. As president he played a
    role in the split that developed in his own Democratic Party. The split allowed the
    election of Republican Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860.
11. Land grant – 575, 528-29, 530

12. “Pool” – 535

13. Rebate –

14. Vertical integration – 537-38 The vertical integration idea of controlling
    numerous successive steps in manufacture was evident in many of the
    transactions: knitters bought yarn mills, garment makers bought weaving plants,
    converters bought gray goods mills. As these larger combinations get under way,
    there is naturally greater evidence of brand-name promotion and direct consumer
15. Horizontal integration – 538 the grouping of mills at the same level of
    production, which presumably brings efficiencies in overhead costs, in
    management, and in volume production. There are definitely two sides to the
    outlook. The buyers of mills certainly count on three or more prosperous years,
    while a few of the sellers are said to be expecting to buy their properties back
    several years from now at a small fraction of what they have been paid.
16. Trust – 538, 611, 543, 541, 674, 538, 541

17. Interlocking directorate – 538

18. Plutocracy – 542-543 wealthy ruling class: any wealthy social class that controls
    or greatly influences the government of a society
19. Wabash case – 536, 612

20. Interstate Commerce Act/ICC – 536, 543 – 536, 673-74, 755 federal law
    comprising a number of congressional enactments that provide for the regulation
    by the United States government of domestic surface transportation in interstate
    commerce. The regulatory authority of Congress is derived from Article I, Section
    8, of the U.S. Constitution. The first of these congressional enactments, in 1887,
    entitled “An Act to Regulate Commerce,” created the Interstate Commerce
    Commission (ICC) and established reasonable and just rates. The law of 1887
    pertained to common carriers engaged in the transportation of passengers and
    property wholly by railroad or by rail and by water. It required that the carriers
    publicize their rate schedules, and it forbade changes of rates without due notice
    to the public. Subsequent amending acts were the Elkins Act of 1903, prohibiting
    the railroads from granting secret rebates and from establishing discriminatory
    rates; the Hepburn Act of 1906, extending the jurisdiction of the federal
    government over interstate commerce to include express companies, companies
    operating pipelines transporting petroleum products, and companies operating
    sleeping cars on the railroads; and the Transportation Act of 1920, empowering
    the ICC to prescribe intrastate rates when necessary to eliminate discrimination
    against carriers in interstate commerce.
21. Bessemer process/William Kelly – 538-39 (1811-1888), American inventor of
    what later became known as the Bessemer Process for transforming pig iron
    directly into steel. Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Kelly began experimenting
    with inventions while still in his youth. He worked in the shipping business in his
    native city until 1846, when he entered the iron business in Louisville, Kentucky.
    Here in 1851 he developed a process known as Kelly's air-boiling process, in
    which steel is produced by blowing a current of air through molten pig iron to
    remove carbon and other unwanted impurities. At the same time, Sir Henry
    Bessemer, an English inventor, was experimenting along similar lines and in 1856
    secured a patent. Because Kelly complained that American workmen had revealed
    information to Bessemer, he received the patents for the steelmaking process in
    the United States. Kelly made a settlement with Bessemer, however, and retired,
    allowing Bessemer to proceed without further dispute. See also Iron and Steel
22. United State Steel – 540, 674, 796, 1015

23. “Gospel of Wealth” – 542-43 voluntary giving of time, assistance, or money for
    the public good. The term is from the Latin, philanthropia, which means “love of
    man.” Philanthropy is distinct from the concept of charity, which originated as
    part of the Judeo-Christian tradition and denoted unselfish direct assistance. The
    philanthropic impulse is as old as recorded history. In many ancient societies,
    including those of Greece and Rome, the breakup of self-supporting kinship
    groups caused by urbanization led to the institution of state-sanctioned measures
    to aid the infirm, the poor, and the disadvantaged. Similarly, all the great
    religions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism,
    recognize and encourage a duty to aid the less fortunate. During the Middle Ages
    in Europe, an elaborate network of almshouses, hospitals, and orphanages was
    supported by donations from the rich and by church collections. With the rise of
    the modern nation-state, however, secular governments supplanted religious
    authorities as the primary philanthropic agencies. In modern times, philanthropy
    is associated with the disbursement of time, talent, and financial aid by
    individuals for a wide variety of causes and charities. One of the best-known
    philanthropists was the American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, who devoted the
    latter part of his life to giving away most of the huge fortune he had amassed in
    the steel industry. Following the principles laid down in his essay “Gospel of
    Wealth” (1889), Carnegie returned over $300 million to society. Important
    philanthropic foundations of the 20th century were also established by Henry
    Ford and John D. Rockefeller, among others.
24. New South – Industrialization and urbanization also affected the South. Southern
    merchants, manufacturers, and newspaper editors of the 1880s led the campaign
    for a “New South,” where Southern industrialism would break the cycle of rural
    poverty. States provided special breaks for new businesses and promised cheap
    labor. Birmingham, Alabama, became a railroad and steel center where mills
    hired black workers.
25. “Yellow dog” contract – 549, 772, 787
26. National Labor Union – 550

27. Knights of Labor – 551, 552-53, 796 North American labor union, originally
    established as a secret fraternal order. It is notable in United States and Canadian
    labor history as the first organization of workers to advocate the inclusion in one
    union of all workers without regard to skill, sex, or nationality. As its ideal, the
    Knights of Labor projected a society based on cooperative industrial and
    agricultural enterprises owned and operated by the workers, farmers, clerks, and
    technicians constituting them. The Noble Order of the Knights of Labor was
    founded in Philadelphia in 1869 by the American garment worker Uriah Stephens
    and a number of his fellow workers. Workers in all trades were eligible for
    membership; physicians (prior to 1881), lawyers, bankers, professional gamblers
    or stockholders, and liquor dealers were excluded. During its first few years, the
    Knights of Labor functioned as a secret society using an elaborate, mystic ritual.
    It grew slowly until the economic depression of the 1870s, when large numbers of
    workers joined the organization. The secret and fraternal nature of the order was
    eliminated in 1881, and it began to function as a trade union. It adopted a policy
    of militant action against employers and played an important part in the strikes by
    coal miners and railroad workers in 1877. The first general assembly of
    representatives of local organizations of the Knights of Labor met in Reading,
    Pennsylvania, in 1878. The assembly projected a number of sweeping reforms,
    including institution of the 8-hour workday, abolition of convict labor, prohibition
    of the employment of children under 14 years of age, institution of equal
    opportunities and wages for women in industry, and establishment of a bureau of
    labor statistics. The assembly also adopted the policy of inclusive unionism,
    whereby all workers, regardless of race, creed, craft, trade, or degree of skill, and
    all other individuals and groups expressing sympathy for labor were eligible for
    membership in the Knights of Labor. Despite this general policy of inclusion, the
    Knights of Labor refused to admit immigrant Chinese workers. On the West
    Coast of the United States and Canada the union organized protests against
    Chinese workers and supported anti-Chinese legislation. For about five years after
    the convocation of the 1878 general assembly, the Knights of Labor employed the
    strike weapon on numerous occasions. During this period, however, the national
    leadership of the organization began to advocate the use of less radical measures.
    In 1883 Terence Powderly, an American machinist who was the order's leading
    exponent of moderate policies, was elected to head the Knights of Labor.
28. Haymarket riot – 551, 615 confrontation between police and protesters that took
    place on May 4, 1886, in Haymarket Square in Chicago. A strike was in progress
    at the McCormick reaper works in Chicago, and on the previous day several men
    had been shot by the police during a riot at the plant. A meeting was called at
    Haymarket Square on May 4 as a protest against police violence by a group of
    mainly German-born anarchist workers living in Chicago. The police attempted to
    disperse the meeting, and in the ensuing riot a bomb was thrown, which triggered
    another gun battle. Seven policemen were killed and many injured; so were many
    civilians. Eight anarchists attending the meeting were arrested and charged with
    being accessories to the crime, on the ground that they had publicly and
    frequently advocated such violence. They were tried and found guilty on a variety
    of charges (the identity of the bomb thrower was never discovered); seven were
    sentenced to death and one to imprisonment. Eventually four were hanged, one
    committed suicide, the sentence of two was commuted to life imprisonment, and
    one received a 15-year term. In 1893 the three in prison were pardoned by the
    governor of Illinois, John Peter Altgeld, mainly on the ground that no evidence
    had been presented actually connecting the defendants with the throwing of the
29. American Federation of Labor – 551, 554-55, 614, 762, 796, 797, 710, 899
    organization of trade unions in the United States. The organization was formed in
    December 1955 by the merger of the American Federation of Labor and the
    Congress of Industrial Organizations. Of some 16 million members in all United
    States unions in the late 1990s, about 13 million were in the AFL-CIO's 81
    affiliated organizations
30. Sherman Antitrust Act – 543, 684, 692 basic federal enactment regulating the
    operations of corporate trusts, passed by the U.S. Congress in July 1890, through
    the efforts of Senator John Sherman of Ohio. The act declared illegal “every
    contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint
    of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations.” Criminal
    penalties were provided for violators of the law, and aggrieved persons were
    entitled to recover three times the amount of losses suffered as a result of the
    violation. The Sherman Act has been amended and supplemented by several
    subsequent enactments. Most notable among these enactments was the Clayton
    Antitrust Act of 1914.
31. “Drake’s Folly” -

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