IENG 471 Facilities Planning Dr. Frank Joseph Matejcik

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IENG 471 Facilities Planning Dr. Frank Joseph Matejcik Powered By Docstoc
					    IENG 471 Facilities Planning
     Dr. Frank Joseph Matejcik
    10/3:
    Chapter Six LAYOUT PLANNING
    MODELS AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS




South Dakota School of Mines and
     Technology, Rapid City
        6.1 Introduction
     Block layout as opposed to detailed layout
     Handling best is less
     Material handling or layout first? Both




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          6.1 Introduction
     following affect layout
         1. Centralized versus decentralized storage of
          work-in-process (WIP), tooling, and supplies
         2. Fixed-path versus variable-path handling
         3. The handling unit planned for the systems
         4. The degree of automation used in handling
         5. The type of level of inventory control,
          physical control, and computer control of
          materials
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        6.2 Basic Layout Types
        (4 types)
     Product large, stable demand for a
      standardized product like an engine block,
      often a production line
     Fixed materials location low sporadic
      demand awkward to move, aircraft fuselage
     Product family (group technology)
      medium demand for a medium number of
      similar components. Similar components
      form groups.
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         6.2 Basic Layout Types (4
         types)
       Process planning combination of
        workstations containing “similar”
        processes are metal cutting departments,
        gear cutting departments, and hobbing
        departments
           The difficulty in defining process
            departments is in the interpretation of the
            word “similar.”

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        6.2 Basic Layout Types




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        6.2 Basic Layout Types




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       6.2 Basic Layout Types




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        6.2 Basic Layout Types




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          6.3 Layout Procedures
     Apple's Plant Layout Procedure
         1.   Procure the basic data.
         2.   Analyze the basic data.
         3.   Design the productive process.
         4.   Plan the material flow pattern.
         5.   Consider the general material handling plan.
         6.   Calculate equipment requirements.
         7.   Plan individual workstations.
         8.   Select specific material handling equipment
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          6.3 Layout Procedures
     Apple's Plant Layout Procedure
         9. Coordinate groups of related operations.
         10. Design activity interrelationships.
         11. Determine storage requirements.
         12. Plan service and auxiliary activities.
         13. Determine space requirements.
         14. Allocate activities to total space.
         15. Consider building types.
         16. Construct master layout.
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         6.3 Layout Procedures
        Apple's Plant Layout Procedure
            17. Evaluate, adjust, and check the layout
             with the appropriate persons.
            18. Obtain approvals.
            19. Install the layout.
            20. Follow up on implementation of the
             layout.


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          6.3 Layout Procedures
     Reed's Plant Layout Procedure
         1. Analyze the product or products to be
          produced.
         2. Determine the process required to
          manufacture the product.
         3. Prepare layout planning charts.
         4. Determine workstations.
         5. Analyze storage area requirements.

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          6.3 Layout Procedures
     Reed's Plant Layout Procedure
         6. Establish minimum aisle widths.
         7. Establish office requirements.
         8. Consider personnel facilities and services.
         9. Survey plant services.
         10.Provide for future expansion.
     Most important part is the Layout planning
      chart (Figure 6.2)
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      6.3 Layout Procedures Muther




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       6.3 Layout Procedures Muther




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      6.3 Layout Procedures Muther




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       6.3 Layout Procedures Muther




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        6.3 Layout Procedures Muther




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        Layout Planning Chart
           Most important phase (Reed)
           Incorporates
               Flow process
               Standard times for each operation
               Machine selection and balance
               Manpower selection and balance
               Material handling requirements



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        Layout Procedures
           Construction Type
           Improvement Types

           Algorithms
               Relationship diagramming
               Pairwise exchange method
               Graph-based construction method


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        Facility Layout
        Once we have determined a new location
    for our facility, we wish to design an optimal
    configuration for the layout of departments.
    Suppose we have the following:
                     Department           Area
                 (1) Production           6,000
                 (2) Warehouse            3,000
                 (3) Office               2,400
                 (4) Toolroom             1,200
                 (5) Food Service          600
                 (6) Support Offices      1,200
                 (7) Shipping             1,800
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        Relationship Chart
        Relationship Chart
                             Department
                  1    2       3      4      5    6    7     Total
           1      --   4       2      4      1    3    3      17
           2           --      0      1      0    2    4      7
           3                    --    0      0    3    1      4
           4                            --   0    0    1      1
           5                                 --   1    0      1
           6                                      --   2      2
           7                                            --    0
         Total    0    4        2       5    1    9    11
        G.Total   17   11       6       6    2    11   11



      4 =Very Important 2 = Useful
      3 = Important     1 = Not very useful
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        Nodal Representation
        Idea: Start with most valuable
        department first and begin building other
        departments around it. Departments in
        order
             1 - 2 - 6 - 7 - 3 -4 - 5
        Ties are broken arbitrarily. Add
        Production
                                                 1

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        Nodal Rep. (cont)
        Department 2, Warehouse, is next most
        important so we add it next. It has a
        relationship value of 4 with production.

                        1             2



        Continue adding Departments in order of
        importance.
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        Nodal Rep. (cont.)

     Add 6, support

                                1            2


                                 6



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        Nodal Rep. (cont.)
                                7



                                1            2


                                 6

  Add 7, shipping
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        Nodal Rep. (cont.)
                                7



                      4         1            2


                                 6

  Add 4, toolroom
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        Nodal Rep. (cont.)
                                7



                      4         1            2


                  3              6

  Add 3, office
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        Nodal Rep. (cont.)
                                7



                      4         1            2


                  3              6           5


  Add , 5 Food Service
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        Nodal Rep. (cont.)
                                7



                      4         1            2
                                       5
                  3              6


  Nodal Clean-up
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        Block Calculations
            Department             Area          Blocks
        (1) Production             6,000           10
        (2) Warehouse              3,000            5
        (3) Office                 2,400            4
        (4) Toolroom               1,200            2
        (5) Food Service            600             1
        (6) Support Offices        1,200            2
        (7) Shipping               1,800            3

     Idea: Add Blocks pretty much in same manner
     as nodal representation
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        Nodal to Block Representation
                                                      7

                  7
                                         4
             4    1       2                      1        2
                      5
         3        6                      3
                                                              5
                                                 6

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        Nodal to Block Representation
                      7
                                                               7

         4                                        4
                  1       2
                                                       1           2
                                                  3
         3
                          5                                6       5
                  6

                                                 Initial Layout

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        Layout Evaluation
        Idea: Compute the rectilinear distance
          between departments and multiply by
          the relationship                7
        chart; e.g.
                                                 4
                                                          1
     Distance = 3                                3            2



                                                          6   5
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        Layout Evaluation

          Distance Chart
                                 Department
                  1         2      3      4       5     6     7    Total
            1     --       1.5     3      3      4.5    3    3.5
            2               --     5      5       3    4.5    4
            3                       --    3      4.5    3    6.5
            4                               --   8.5    6    3.5
            5                                     --   1.5    7
            6                                           --   6.5
            7                                                 --




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        Evaluation (cont.)
          Distance x Relationship
                              Department
                   1     2      3       4      5     6         7     Total
             1     --    6      6      12     4.5    9        10.5     48
             2           --     0      4.5     0     9         16    29.5
             3                   --     0      0     9        3.5    12.5
             4                           --    0     0        3.5     3.5
             5                                 --   1.5        0      1.5
             6                                       --        13      13
             7                                                  --     0
                                                    Total =           108

          Total Effectiveness = 108
          Idea: Try new layout and search for lower
                effectiveness score
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        6.4 Algorithmic Approaches
           Human judgment is still required
           Generally need computer
            implementation
           Outgrowth of university research
           Commercial packages
               emphasize layout evaluation or
               presentation (CAD Tools)

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        Algorithmic Classification
           Use from to chart and/or relationship
            chart
           Problems become increasingly difficult
            as size increases. Limited approaches
            may be used.
           Multiple Objective functions are used


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        Algorithmic Classification
        Multiple Objectives
     cij cost of unit flow/unit distance
     dij distance, fij flow, xij adjacent 1, else 0
     distance based objective
     adjacency based objective
     relatively efficiency



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        Discrete or continuous layout




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        Pairwise Exchange




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        Pairwise Exchange




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        Pairwise Exchange




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        Pairwise Exchange




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        Graph-based Method




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        Graph-based Method




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        Graph-based Method




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        Graph-based Method




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          Graph-based Method




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            Graph-based Method




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         CRAFT (1963)
    Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities
     Technique
    Describe a tentative layout in blocks
    Determine centroids of each department
    cost= S from-to X distance X unit cost
    make pair wise or three way exchanges
        equal area only or adjacent (generally)

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         CRAFT (1963)
    Dummy departments
        1. Fill building irregularities.
        2. Represent obstacles or unusable areas in the
         facility (such as stairways, elevators, plant
         services, and so on).
        3. Represent extra space in the facility.
        4. Aid in evaluating aisle locations in the final
         layout.

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         CRAFT




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        CRAFT




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       CRAFT




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        CRAFT




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        CRAFT




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        CRAFT




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        BLOCPLAN
           Set up all departments in bands (2or3)
           Continuous areas not blocks
           Use From to or a relationship chart
           Uses two way exchanges




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       BLOCPLAN




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        BLOCPLAN




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        BLOCPLAN




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         MIP(Mixed Integer Program)
    Generally a construction type model
    Requires some knowledge of linear and
     integer programming
        Solutions to these types of problems are difficult
    We will examine the general formulation



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        MIP(Mixed Integer Program)
        problem parameters




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        MIP(Mixed Integer Program)
        decision variables




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      MIP model setup




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            MIP model setup II




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        LOGIC
           Layout Optimization with Guillotine
            Induced Cuts
           Slice the area to partition the plant
            between departments
           Supersedes BLOCPLAN, because all
            BLOCPLANS are LOGIC plans
           Improved by pair wise exchange or
            simulated annealing
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        LOGIC




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        LOGIC




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        LOGIC




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        LOGIC




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   LOGIC




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       LOGIC




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        LOGIC




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        MULTIPLE (skip)




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        6.5 Department Shapes and
        Main Aisles
           Rectangular departments makes this
            much easier
           Some guidelines and measures, no
            specific algorithms




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        6.6 Simulated Annealing and
        Genetic Algorithms
           These are alternatives to pair wise
            exchanges
           This an overview, some people do
            better when first seeing a specific
            example.
           Read this if you a curious


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        6.7 Multi-floor Facility Layout
           Skip this for now.
           Book attempts to be a reference.
           Some topics should be skipped
           Topic is important. And, more
            important outside of the United States.



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          6.8 Commercial Facility Layout
          Packages
         VisFactory (or e-Factory) big one, modules
             FactoryCAD
             FactoryFLOW
             FactoryPLAN/OPT
             FactoryVlEW.
         Package for workplace/layout design &
          material flow simulation, eM-Workplace
         PLANOPT is a construction-type with
          rectangular department shapes
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          6.8 Commercial Facility Layout
          Packages
         We encourage the reader to use the
          Web to keep abreast of new
          developments. Trade/professional
          publications (such as lIE Solutions,
          solutions.iienet.org) periodically publish
          lists of software packages for facilities
          planning/design, which are also an
          excellent source of information for the
          layout analyst/engineer.
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     6.9 The Impact of Change
     (common situations)
   1. Changes in the design of existing
    product, the elimination of products from the
    product line, and the introduction of new
    products.
   2. Changes in the processing sequences for
    existing products, replacements of existing
    processing equipment, & changes in the use
    of general-purpose & special-purpose
    equipment. of Mines & Technology
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        6.9 The Impact of Change
   3. Changes in production quantities and
    associated production schedules, resulting in
    the need for capacity changes.
   4. Changes in the organizational structure as
    well as changes in management philosophies
    concerning production strategies such as the
    adoption of just-in-time concepts, total
    quality management, etc.
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        6.9 The Impact of Change
   Flexibility can be achieved by utilizing
    modular office equipment, workstations, and
    material handling equipment; installing
    general-purpose production equipment;
    utilizing a grid-based utilities and services
    system; and using modular construction.
    Additionally, the design of the facility can
    have a significant impact on the ease and
    cost of expansion.
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        Adapting to Change & Planning
        for Facility Reorganization
    The facility layout should also be treated as
     dynamic. In as much as businesses should
     have long-term business strategies, we must
     also have a multiyear master plan for facility
     layout. This master plan should be
     consistent with the company's business plan
     and it should attempt to anticipate future
     requirements and make provisions for
     adapting to changes in facility
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     Adapting to Change & Planning
     for Facility Reorganization How?

       1. Reorganize factory subplants to
        achieve superior manufacturing status.
       2. Provide maximum perimeter access
        for receiving and shipping materials,
        components, and products as close to
        each subplant as practical.


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      Adapting to Change & Planning
      for Facility Reorganization How?
     3. Cluster all subplants dedicated to a
      product or product family around the final
      process subplant to minimize inventories,
      shortages, and improve communication.
     4. Locate supplier subplants of common
      component subplants in a central loca-tion
      to minimize component travel distances.
     5. Minimize the factory size to avoid
      wasted time and motion of workers.
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     Adapting to Change & Planning
     for Facility Reorganization How?
       6. Eliminate centralized storage of
        purchased materials, components, and
        assemblies and move storage to focused
        subplants.
       7. Minimize the amount of factory
        reorganization that will be made
        necessary by future growth and change.

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      Adapting to Change & Planning
      for Facility Reorganization How?

     8. Avoid locating offices and support
      services on factory perimeters.
     9. Minimize the ratio of aisle space to
      production process space.




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        Volvo Example (skip)




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        6.10 Developing Layout
        Alternatives (suggestions)
    1. Exert the necessary effort.
    2. Set a time limit.
    3. Seek many alternatives.
    4. Establish a goal.
    5. Make liberal use of the questioning
     attitude.
    6. Don't get bogged down in details too
     soon.
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        6.10 Developing Layout
        Alternatives (suggestions)
    7. Don't "fail to see the forest for the trees."
    8. Think big, then think little.
    9. Don't be conservative.
    10. Avoid premature rejection.
    11. Avoid premature acceptance.
    12. Refer to analogous problems of others.
    13. Consult the literature.
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        6.10 Developing Layout
        Alternatives (suggestions)
    14. Consult peers in other organizations.
    15. Use the brainstorming technique.
    16. Divorce your thinking from the existing
     solution.
    17. Spread the effort out over time.
    18. Involve operating people.
    19. Involve management.
    20. Involve experienced people.
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        6.10 Developing Layout
        Alternatives (suggestions)
       21. Involve inexperienced people.
       22. Involve those who oppose change.
       23. Involve those who promote change.
       24. Be aware of what the competition is
        doing.
       25. Recognize your own limitations.
       26. Look for trends.
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        6.10 Developing Layout
        Alternatives (suggestions)
          27. Do your homework first.
          28. Understand the requirements.
          29. Don't overlook an improved
           present method.
          30. Think long range.



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        Summary & Assignment




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