Year 45 English Scope and Sequence

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Year 45 English Scope and Sequence Powered By Docstoc
					                                                        NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5

Essentials – Writing and designing
Sound, visual and meaning patterns, including word functions, are used to spell single-syllable and multi-syllable words
                                      Semester 1                                                                     Semester 2
                                            Content –Knowledge of:                                      Key Resources                                      Content –Knowledge of:                                     Key Resources
                                 Review less common long vowel patterns in             - Eg. identify, multiply, occupy, uphold, foretold,       Introduce and teach open and closed                Open syllables end with a long vowel sound eg
                                 single-syllable words                                 frightening, ghostly, program, silent, silence, final     syllables                                          sea/son, ti/ger
                                 –long ‘o’ sound as in told, both, roll, ghost…        etc                                                       -vccv double letters eg su/pper, di/nner           Closed syllables contain a short vowel sound that is
                                 -long ‘i’ sound as in write, might, find, child,      - Sound Waves (p 86,87)                                   -vcv open eg. su/per, di/ner                       usually ‘closed’ by two consonants eg. ra/bbit, ra/cket
                                 why…                                                  - Norville Concept Word Lists (p1)                        -vccv different consonants eg. win/dow, sis/ter    Norville Concept Word Lists (p5)
                                 Introduce and teach less common vowel                                                                           vcv closed eg. ri/ver, co/ver
Phonological Knowledge (sound)




                                 patterns in multi-syllabic words                                                                                Introduce and teach hard and soft ‘c’ and ‘g’      Generalisation Soft ‘c’ –when ‘c’ is followed by ‘I’,
                                                                                                                                                 patterns in more complex words eg.                 ‘e’, or ‘y’, it is usually sounded as an‘s’ eg. cite, cell,
                                 Introduce and teach R influenced vowel                - Sound Waves Year 4 (p 86,87)                            circumference, crystal, giraffe, gallery.          cylinder.
                                 patterns in multi-syllabic words                      - Norville Concept Word Lists (p2)                                                                           Generalisation Soft ’g’ #1 –when used as an initial
                                 -ar, are, air                                                                                                                                                      letter the letter ’g’ often has a soft ‘j’ sound if it is
                                 er, ear, eer                                                                                                                                                       followed by ‘e’, ‘I’ or ’y’ eg gem, giant, gym.
                                 -ir, ire, ier                                                                                                                                                      Exceptions ‘get’ and ‘girl’.
                                 -or, ore, oar                                                                                                                                                      Generalisation Soft ‘g’ #2 –When used in the
                                 -ur, ure                                                                                                                                                           middle of a word and followed by an ‘e’, the letter ‘g’
                                 Introduce and teach beginning complex                Norville Concept Word Lists (p3)                                                                              has a soft ‘j’ sound eg. large
                                 consonant clusters                                                                                                                                                 Link to Visual Knowledge
                                 -straight                                                                                                                                                          Norville Concept Word Lists (p3)
                                 -throat
                                 -screen
                                 -squawk
         -




                                                                      Norville State School                                             Page 1                                                     1/05/2012
                                        NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5


Essentials – Writing and designing
Sound, visual and meaning patterns, including word functions, are used to spell single-syllable and multi-syllable words
                                      Semester 1                                                                     Semester 2
                   Content –Knowledge of:                            Key Resources                                          Focused Teaching                                           Key Resources
                   Introduce and teach ‘tch’’ and ‘ch’ word          New Wave Spelling (p 86)                               Consolidate silent beginning consonant                     -Also included in Phonological Knowledge
                   endings                                           Norville Concept Word Lists (p4)                       patterns in more complex words eg.                         -Study, Say, Cover, Write, Check
                   -catch, scratch                                                                                          -knead, knoll, knight, wreath, gnaw, gnat                  Norville Concept Word Lists (p7)
                   -reach, porch, attach                                                                                    Introduce and teach diphthongs and complex                 Sound Waves (p 86, 87)
                                                                                                                            vowel clusters in more complex words                       Norville Concept Word Lists (p6)
                   Introduce and teach high frequency words          Norville Concept Word Lists (p4)                       -oi, oy eg. voice, employ
                   starting with unaccented syllables                                                                       -ou. ow eg. mountain, powder
                   -‘a’
                   -‘be’                                                                                                    Introduce and teach vowel patterns in                      Sound Waves (p 86, 87)
                                                                                                                            unaccented syllables                                       Norville Concept Word Lists (p6-7)
                   Introduce and teach ‘dge’ and ‘ge’ patterns       Generalisation -Where the letters ‘r’, ‘l’ and ‘n’     -unaccented final syllable ‘l’ sound spelled ‘le’,
                   -edge                                             precede the ‘g’ sound, ‘ge’ is indicated               ‘el’, ‘il’, and ‘al’.
                   -stage                                            Open of Closed Word Sorts developing                   -unaccented final syllable ‘er’ spelled ‘er’, ‘ar’, and
                                                                     generalisation                                         ‘or’
                                                                     Study, Say, Cover, Write, Check                        -unaccented final syllable ‘chur’ spelled ‘ture’ and
                                                                     Norville Concept Word Lists (p4)                       ‘sure’.
                   Consolidate homophones in single syllable         Strategic Spelling –Teacher’s Resource Book
                   words eg.                                         all levels (p 189 – 192)
Visual Knowledge




                   -long ‘a’ -pale/pail, hair/hare, aren’t/aunt      Study, Say, Cover, Write, Check (words in
                   -long ‘I’ –write/right, find/fined                context)
                   Introduce and teach homophones in two             Mnemonics/ words within words
                   syllable words eg.                                Norville Concept Word Lists (p4)
                   -pedal/peddle (often confused petal)
                   -allowed/aloud
                   -boarder/border




                                                     Norville State School                                         Page 2                                                             1/05/2012
                                                    NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5



Essentials – Writing and designing
Sound, visual and meaning patterns, including word functions, are used to spell single-syllable and multi-syllable words
                                      Semester 1                                                                     Semester 2
                            Content –Knowledge of:                              Key Resources                                                    Content –Knowledge of:                               Key Resources
                            Introduce and teach inflectional endings in          Inflection –the change made to the form of a                     Introduce and teach unusual past tense words        Norville Concept Word Lists (p6)
                            more complex words                                   word to alter its meaning / the affix added to                   eg.
                                                                                 change the form of the word                                      -keep/kept
                                                                                 Generalisation –Words ending in ‘y’ #1 –If a                     -shine/shone
                            (1) Changing final ‘y’to ‘i’ eg.                     word ends in ‘y’ preceded by a consonant, the ‘y’                -buy/bought
                            -happy/happiness/happiest                            is usually changed to an ‘I’ before adding suffixes              Introduce and teach unusual plurals eg.             Norville Concept Word Lists (p6)
                            -fancy/fanciful                                      such as ‘-age’, ’ed’, ‘-er’, ‘-es’, ‘-est’, ‘-ful’, ‘-ly’, ‘-    -wife/wives
                                                                                 ness’, ‘-ous’.                                                   -goose/geese
                                                                                 Generalisation –Words ending in ‘y’ #2 –If a                     -foot/feet
                                                                                 word ends in a ‘y’ preceded by a vowel, keep the                 Introduce and teach prefixes                        Norville Concept Word Lists (p8-9)
                                                                                 ‘y’ before adding suffixes such as ‘-s’.                         Year 4
                                                                                 Norville Concept Word Lists (p5)                                 out-beyond; un- not; over- too or too much;
                            (2) Doubling consonant at syllable break            Generalisation –Doubling last consonants –In                      position above; under-situated below or beneath
                                                                                single syllable (and some double) words ending in                 Year 5
                                                                                a consonant that follows a single vowel, double the               inter- among or between; dis- not or without;
                                                                                consonant before adding the suffixes ‘-ed’, ‘-er’ ‘-              apart; re- back or again; repetition;sub- near;
                                                                                est’, ‘-ing’ eg. begin/beginner/beginning,                        under; pre- before; micro- very small
                                                                                run/runner/running
                                                                                Norville Concept Word Lists (p5)
                            (3) Possessive plural                               Generalisation –Apostrophe of possession –An                     Introduce and teach suffixes                         Norville Concept Word Lists (p9-10)
                            -the kittens’ basket                                apostrophe is used to show that something belongs to a           Year 4
                                                                                particular person or thing. When a word is singular,             -er noun forming –a person or thing that performs
                                                                                whether it already ens in an ‘s’ or not, add an apostrophe       -er adverb forming –comparative degree
                                                                                and then an ‘s’ at the end of the word. When a word is in
                                                                                                                                                 -ly adverb forming –like, manner
                                                                                plural form, if it already ends in an ‘s’ simply add an
Word Function (morphemic)




                                                                                apostrophe eg. girls/girls’. If the plural form of the word      -less adjective forming –without
                                                                                doesn’t end in an ‘s’, add an apostrophe and an ‘s’ eg.          -est adverb forming –superlative degree
                                                                                children/children’s.                                             -ness noun forming –quality or state
                            (4) Drop the ‘e’                                    Generalisation –Silent ‘e’ #1 –If a word ends in a silent        Year 5
                                                                                ‘e’, drop the ‘e’ before adding a suffix that begins with a      -en verb forming -to make, become
                                                                                vowel eg. broke + en =broken, rake + ed = raked, make            -ment noun forming –state of, condition
                                                                                + ing = making                                                   -al adjective forming –belonging to, having the
                                                                                Generalisation –Silent ‘e’ #2 –If a word ends in ‘ge’ or         characteristics of
                                                                                ‘ve’, keep the ‘e’ before adding suffixes such as ‘-ous’, or
                                                                                ‘-able’ eg. move + able = moveable, outrage + ous =              -ish adjective forming –rather, like, somewhat,
                                                                                Norville Concept Word Lists (p5)                                 belonging to
                                                                                                                                                 -age noun forming –collectivity
                                                                                                                                                 -ship noun forming –office, rank, condition, state
                                                                                                                                                 of being

                                                               Norville State School                                                  Page 3                                                      1/05/2012
                                                 NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5



   Essentials – Writing and designing
Sound, visual and meaning patterns, including word functions, are used to spell single-syllable and multi-syllable words
                                      Semester 1                                                                     Semester 2
                             Content –Knowledge of:                          Key Resources                                           Content –Knowledge of:                                    Key Resources
                             Related to number                                Definition Etymological knowledge refers to: -         centum, centi- one hundred/ one hundredth of the          Norville Concept Word Lists (p10)
                             mono -monos –single or alone                     - The origins and meaning of non-phonetic words.       base unit e.g. century, centipede, centimetre
                             bi –two or twice                                 - The roots of words and word meanings, origins        milli- one thousandth of the base unit e.g. millilitre,
                             tri –tres -three                                 and history.                                           millimetre
                             quadri -four                                     - That particular clusters of letters that appear in   kilo- 1000 times greater than the base unit e.g.
                             penta -five                                      words not only look the same but are also related      kilometre, kilolitre, kilovolt
Word Origin (Etymological)




                             hexa -six                                        in meaning often because of their root                 multi- many e.g. multicultural, multimillionaire,
                             hepta –seven                                     Strategic Spelling Teacher’s Resource Book             multinational
                             octa/octo -eight                                 (147-152, 177-186)                                     semi- half e.g. semicircular, semicircle, semitrailer
                             nona -nine                                       Norville Concept Word Lists (p10)                      hemi- half e.g. hemisphere
                             deca/deci /decem -ten




                                                            Norville State School                                          Page 4                                                          1/05/2012
                                                               NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5


Essentials -Writing and designing
Sound, visual and meaning patterns, including word functions, are used to spell single-syllable and multisyllable words
                                                                                                   Focused Teaching                                                                         Resources
                                         Revise and consolidate                                                                                                                             ‘Spelling: Improving Learning
                                         As appropriate model and discuss ways of spelling unknown words:                                                                                   Outcomes’ CD Rom (Education
                                             Sound/symbol correspondence (spelling the way it sounds –sound/symbol correspondence)                                                         Queensland 1994)
                                             careful articulation (spelling the way you say it-articulation)                                                                               - Visualisation activities (see EQ CD-
                                             visual memory (spelling the way it looks- visual memory)                                                                                        ROM)
                                         Introduce and teach Active Spelling Strategies and Procedures                                                                                      First Steps Spelling Developmental
                                                Proofread and correct errors in written work                                                                                               Continuum (p 80-91) “Transitional Spelling
                                                Recognise the contexts in which conventional spelling, punctuation and legible script are valued                                           Contexts –Modelled and Shared Reading,
                                                Identify misspelt words in own written text and attempt to correct                                                                         Complementary Activities, Independent
                                                Use a variety of authoritative sources to spell words (dictionaries, wall charts, spellchecker)                                            Reading, Independent Writing”
                                         Introduce and teach strategies to learn to spell and to recall words:
                                                                                                                                                                                            First Steps Spelling Resource Book (p 68-
                                                Identify morphemic relationships between words
                                                                                                                                                                                            69) “Proof Reading – Proof Reading Activity,
                                                Use effective Look-Say-Cover-Write-Check process                                                                                           Dictation Activity”
                                                Break words into syllables
                                                Use knowledge of sound, visual and meaning patterns to spell unfamiliar words                                                              Appendix –Spelling Strategies
                                          
Spelling Strategies and Understandings




                                                 Use knowledge of affixes to spell words
                                                Use analogy to spell unknown words
                                                Use Have-a-go strategies (Dictation activities –dictation of a meaningful passage provides a context for having-a-go at unknown words,
                                          proof reading, teacher modelling and discussion)
                                                Identify words within words
                                                Use extended knowledge of generalisations to spell new words
                                                Use of mnemonics as a memory aid
                                         Encourage and support the development of Metacognitive Knowledge: Knowledge of the Spelling System
                                                Analyse and categorise spelling “knowledges” to begin to synthesise their understanding of the spelling system
                                                In monitoring spelling, know when to switch between automaticity and an analytic approach to spelling

                                         Encourage and support the development of Knowledge of self, as speller
                                         By the end of Year 5 students interact with texts to:
                                              Determine problem-solving strategies that match aspects of the spelling system
                                               Begin to develop a conscious knowledge of the difference between automaticity and an analytic approach to correct spelling
                                               Demonstrate an awareness that spelling expertise is valued in our community




                                                                           Norville State School                                   Page 5                                                 1/05/2012
                        NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5

Revise and consolidate
Dictionary Skills
-Alphabetical ordering use of consecutive letters eg 1st, 2nd, 3rd letters in words to sequence alphabetically
-Locating words in dictionaries developing speed and accuracy eg. Opening the dictionary near the beginning for a word beginning with ‘C’ , use of
guide words
-Using the dictionary as a resource for spelling unknown words –identifying likely spellings –using definitions to identify desired word
-Using the dictionary to define word meanings –selecting the appropriate meaning of word within given context
-Using a thesaurus – identifying antonyms and synonyms to broaden vocabulary




                                      Norville State School                                        Page 6                                            1/05/2012
                                      NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5


                      Essentials -Writing and designing
                      Writing and designing involve using language elements to construct literary and non-literary texts for audiences in personhal and community
                      contexts

                                                                       K&U -The purpose of writing and designing includes entertaining, informing and describing
                                                                       e.g. designing a comic strip to entertain.
                                                                       WoW –identify the relationship between audience, purpose and text type
                                                                       Students need to be explicitly taught:
                                                                          writers/designers consider their purpose for writing, including to persuade, entertain, inform
                                                                             and evoke emotion.
                                                                         See Literary and non-literary texts
                                                                       K&U -Writers and designers can adopt different roles, and make language choices
                                                                       appropriate to the audience e.g. writing an information report using subject specific vocabulary.
                                                                       WoW –construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing subject matter,
                                                                       using personal, cultural and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                                                                       WoW –interpret how people, characters, places, events and things have been represented
                                                                       and whether aspects of subject matter have been included or excluded
                                                                       Students need to be explicitly taught:
                                                                          writers/designers consider the interests of the audience when selecting subject matter within a
                                                                             chosen topic. (WD Literary)
                                                                          writers/designers can influence others’ opinions. (WD Non-literary)
                                                                          others can be influenced by including or omitting information and making particular language
                                                                             choices (eg, to create a positive or negative perspective). (Non-literary)
                                                                          characters and events can be represented in particular ways by including or omitting
                                                                             information and making particular language choices. (WD Literary)
                                                                       K&U -Words and phrases, symbols, images and audio affect meaning and interpretation.
                                                                       WoW –reflect on and describe the effectiveness of language elements and how language
Writing and Shaping




                                                                       choices represent people, characters, places, events and things in particular ways
                                                                       WoW –recognise and select vocabulary and distinguish between literal and figurative
                                                                       language
                                                                       Students need to be explicitly taught:
                                                                          writers/designers can explore their own ideas and feelings through the characters and
                                                                            situations they create. (WD Literary)
                                                                          adjectives, verbs and visual techniques to represent people, places, events and things in a
                                                                            chosen way (eg, in positive or negative ways) (WD Literary)
                                                                          Main ideas are established by identifying who, what, where, when, how and why




                                               Norville State School                                           Page 7                                                        1/05/2012
                     NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5

                                                        K&U -Text users make choices about grammar and punctuation, to make meaning.
                                                        WoW –construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing subject matter,
                                                        using personal, cultural and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                                                        Students need to be explicitly taught:
                                                           the aspects of grammar and punctuation specified in Norville SS Year 4/5 Grammar Scope &
                                                             Sequence

                                                        K&U -Sound, visual and meaning patterns, including word functions, are used to spell
                                                        single-syllable and multisyllable words e.g. doubling consonant at syllable break: begin,
                                                        beginning; changing y to i: famil-y, famil-ies.
                                                        Students need to be explicitly taught:
                                                           the aspects of spelling specified in the Norville SS Spelling Scope & Sequence including
                                                              sound, visual and meaning patterns and word functions to spell single and multisyllable words.
                                                              (WD Literary)
Consolidate and Extend 4 READS MODEL for editing        K&U -Writers and designers use a number of active writing strategies, including planning,                4 Reads Model –class chart
and proofreading                                        drafting, revising, editing, proofreading, publishing and reflecting and by referring to
First Read –for meaning                                 authoritative sources e.g. working with a partner to proofread each other’s texts.
Second Read –for word choice, grammar and               WoW –construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing subject matter,
punctuation                                             using personal, cultural and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
Third Read –for spelling                                Students need to be explicitly taught:
Fourth read –for quality                                   writing processes of planning, drafting, editing and proofreading. (WD Literary)
                                                           authoritative sources such as dictionaries, spell checks and/or thesauruses to decode and
                                                              spell unfamiliar words.(WD Literary)
                                                           research and note taking skills using print and electronic media (WD Non-literary)




                                Norville State School                                           Page 8                                                         1/05/2012
NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5

                             K&U -Fluent handwriting using Queensland Modern Cursive script has uniform slope, size               Refer to: The Teaching of
                             and spacing. (WD Literary)                                                                           Handwriting in Years 4 to 7,
                             Handwriting                                                                                          (Curriculum Development Services
                                Teach students legible handwriting as appropriate using letters of consistent shape, size,               Department of Education
                                  slope and spacing in Queensland Modern Cursive
                                                                                                                                   Queensland 1990)
                             Style and Legibility
                                    accurate formation of the basic writing patterns
                                    accurate formation/use of the beginners alphabet
                                    accurate formation/use of capital letters
                                    accurate formation/use of Qld Modern Cursive- Correct joining principles and appropriate
                                         use of pen lifts
                             Speed
                                    legible writing at 40-60 words per minute
                                    fluent and rhythmic movements
                             Parallelism
                                    consistent within letters and words
                             Spacing
                                    even spacing of letters and between words
                             Slope
                                    consistent and efficient slope
                             Letter Size
                                    consistent letter size
                                    size appropriate to writing context
                             Pressure
                                    apply appropriate pressure on the writing instrument
                             Setting out
                                    effective arrangement of written material




     Norville State School                                          Page 9                                                      1/05/2012
                                                       NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5
                      Essentials -Reading and Viewing
                      Reading and viewing involve using a range of strategies to interpret and appreciate written, visual and multimodal texts in personal and
                      community contexts.
                      Revise and consolidate                                                   K&U -Purposes for reading and viewing are identified and are supported by the selection of texts based on an                     Teaching considerations from
                      Reading and viewing are done for a range of purposes                     overview that includes skimming and scanning titles, visuals, headings, font size, tables of contents, indexes                   NAPLAN
                        - To gain ideas and information                                        and lists e.g. selecting an appropriate website from a list of different resources to support a task.                             discuss abstract
                      Enjoyment                                                                WoW –identify the relationship between audience, purpose and text type                                                             concepts from different
                      Text types and their purposes can be identified                          Students need to be explicitly taught:                                                                                             contexts
                       - predictions about the type of text, content and purpose                    Skim and scan techniques to locate and synthesise information.                                                              use stories to illustrate
                          can be made by skimming titles, visuals and headings                      To note all aspects on the page, both graphics and text including headings and subheadings                                   abstract concepts
                       - contents pages in factual texts help locate information                    To identify own purpose for reading/selecting texts                                                                          expose students to
                          within the text                                                           To select texts based on personal readability                                                                                abstract concepts (and
                                                                                                    To scan a text but not be distracted by the technical and more complex language                                              use stories to highlight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  where possible)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 familiarise students with
                      Readers and viewers use active comprehension                             K&U -Readers and viewers draw on their prior knowledge of language and texts when engaging with a text e.g.                        legends/folk tale genre.
                      strategies to make meaning of texts                                      readers familiar with newspapers will bring understandings about the way news reports are written.                                continually ask students
                      -           prior knowledge/personal knowledge (semantic                 WoW –identify the relationship between audience, purpose and text type                                                             to refer to the text when
                      knowledge) makes connections between the reader and the                  Students need to be explicitly taught:                                                                                             giving an answer (e.g.
                      subject matter of the text and can be actively “tapped into”                   Imaginative texts are produced for particular audiences and purposes in order to narrate events, create and                 Show me in the text
                      when we begin to read/view by asking questions of the text                      encourage reflection on ideas, issues and events.                                                                           where…. Which words in
                      eg. “is this a story/report/letter etc? What are the clues? If                                                                                                                                              the text mean …? What
                                                                                                     To recognise that some genre has possible cause/effect or moral to the story
                      this is a story, what type of story is it? If this is a factual text,                                                                                                                                       in the text helps you to
                                                                                                     To view the diagram/visual as an integral part of the text
                      what do I already know about ….?                                                                                                                                                                            understand ….?)
                      - prior knowledge supports the reading process and helps                                                                                                                                                   expose students to
                      us monitor our reading when we ask ourselves “Does this fit                                                                                                                                                 quotes
                      with what I already know and understand?”                                                                                                                                                                  discuss direct and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  indirect quotes with
                      Words, groups of words, visual resources and images                      K&U -Words, groups of words, visual resources and images can be included or excluded to elaborate ideas and                        students and what is
                      elaborate ideas and information, and portray people,                     information and to portray people, characters, places, events and things in different ways.                                        meant when people are
                      characters, places, events and things in different ways                  WoW –reflect on and describe the effectiveness of language elements and how language choices represent                             misquoted.
                      - main ideas are developed using words, groups of words                  people, characters, places, events and things in particular ways                                                                  display word banks on
                          and images                                                           Students need to be explicitly taught:                                                                                             subject matter.
Reading and Viewing




                      - people, characters, places, events and things can be                        Identify how language has been used to construct characters and events in particular ways, including positive and           expose students to
                          referred to in different ways                                              negative perspectives.                                                                                                       letters both with a
                                                                                                    Identify how a person or event is represented in a particular way (eg, as a hero or villain in a news report, positively     negative and positive
                                                                                                     or negatively).                                                                                                              tone
                                                                                                    How a range of resources are used in texts to develop subject matter and focus the viewer’s attention, including            provide opportunities for
                                                                                                     visual (shot types, colour, size, graphic layout and links), non-verbal (facial expressions, proximity), spoken              students to experiment
                                                                                                     resources (volume and tone) and auditory resources (music, sound effects, silence)                                           using language to
                                                                                                    How to locate words/phrases in a text that emphasize a particular mood or idea                                               persuade people.




                                                                       Norville State School                                            Page 10                                                        1/05/2012
                              NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5

Reading fluency (reading with accuracy, speed and                    K&U -Reading fluency is supported by the use of decoding strategies, prediction, monitoring meaning and self-                   provide opportunities to
appropriate phrasing “smoothness”) is supported by                   correction, in combination with a developing vocabulary and prior knowledge of subject matter                                    debate popular issues in
decoding strategies, recognition of high frequency                   Students need to be explicitly taught:                                                                                           class and provide facts
words, prediction and self-correction                                      Pausing, re-reading words and phrases, and reading on when meaning is interrupted assists with making                     and opinions for both
     Punctuation cues help us identify where to pause/stop                 meaning and fluency                                                                                                       sides.
     Rereading sections of the text/ rather than single words             Predicting possible vocabulary and structure based on prior knowledge of text type and subject matter supports           expose students to a
      helps with phrasing                                                   fluency and meaning making                                                                                                range of text with
     Reading fluency helps us make meaning of the whole                   Prediction, monitoring meaning and self-correction are integrated reading strategies                                      different layouts (why
      text                                                                 Extensive word bank/wide vocabulary supports reading fluency and making meaning                                           would the author present
     Reading fluency helps us communicate meaning to                      How to build vocabulary knowledge around topics/issues                                                                    the information this way?
      listeners                                                                                                                                                                                       What is different about
     Integrating decoding strategies helps reading fluency                                                                                                                                           the texts? Which layout
      eg. predicting (including use of picture cues), building a                                                                                                                                      do you prefer? Why?)
      large bank of sight word words, looking for little words                                                                                                                                       have students compare
      in big words, reading on, making substitutions,                                                                                                                                                 different types of genre
      monitoring and self-correcting                                                                                                                                                                  and their layout (Would
     Sections of texts can be rehearsed to develop fluency                                                                                                                                           we find a change of
Comprehension involves using language elements and                   K&U-Comprehension involves using language elements and contextual cues to interpret, infer from and                              layout in a procedural
contextual clues to interpret, infer from and evaluate               evaluate texts in personal and community contexts e.g. connecting pronouns to the nouns to which they refer.                     text, a narrative, or
familiar texts                                                       WoW –reflect on and describe the effectiveness of language elements and how language choices represent                           mainly information
      3 Level Guides Literal, Inferential and Evaluative Level      people, places, events and things in particular ways                                                                             texts?).
       Questions                                                     WoW-make judgements and justify opinions using information and ideas from texts, and recognise aspects that                     assist students to deal
      Here, Hidden and Head are useful words to describe            contribute to enjoyment and appreciation                                                                                         with dense scientific
       how we can find information in texts                          WoW –recognise and select vocabulary and distinguish between literal and figurative language                                     language by identifying
  main ideas can be identified (in factual texts main ideas         Students need to be explicitly taught:                                                                                           the theme of the text and
       are paragraph organisers and are usually identified in             Time connectives and tense are used to locate characters in time.                                                          then breaking the text
       the first sentence of a paragraph; in narratives main              Pronouns refer back to nouns/nominal groups                                                                                into smaller chunks.
       ideas can be identified by asking questions about plot             Text connectives signal how things, ideas and information are related
       (orientation, complication and resolution), characters             Paragraphs separate ideas in texts
       and under story (theme/message of story”                                                                                                                                                     Key Reading
                                                                          Figurative language is a poetic way of developing descriptions of characters and settings
      frequent returns to the text helps readers verify and                                                                                                                                        comprehension skills
                                                                          Vocabulary is chosen to express ideas and information in a commonsense or technical way
       justify their choices                                                                                                                                                                        required by NAPLAN How
                                                                          Make connections between similar phrases/language across texts                                                           to :
                                                                          How to identify key words
                                                                          To locate certain words in context to gain meaning strategies for dealing with text involving technical or unfamiliar     identify the main purpose
                                                                           terms                                                                                                                      of a text
                                                                          How to synthesize information                                                                                             identify the possible
                                                                          Identify facts and opinions                                                                                                audience of a text
                                                                          Summarise the meaning of separate paragraphs and understand how the meaning/focus of each paragraph                       identify the main idea in
                                                                           contributes to the overall meaning/feeling of the text                                                                     a text
                                                                          How to read/construct points of view understanding the importance of elements of language e.g. tenor,                     identify the order of
                                                                           cohesiveness, use of conjunctions e.g. Firstly, Another, Yet another, Finally (temporal); looking at the relationships     events, ideas and
                                                                           between people; objective/subjective points of view.                                                                       information in texts
                                                                     Refer to literary and non-literary texts


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-                                K&U-Readers and viewers use a number of active comprehension strategies to interpret texts, including                          locate directly stated
                                 activating prior knowledge, predicting, questioning, identifying main ideas, inferring, monitoring, summarising                 information in the written
                                 and reflecting.                                                                                                                 text and/or in illustrations
                                 WoW –identify main ideas and the sequence of events, and make inferences                                                       make connections
                                 Students need to be explicitly taught:                                                                                          between ideas and
                                      To refer to all aspects of a document (text, diagrams, captions, graphics) when retrieving information or providing a     information in a text
                                       response                                                                                                                 draw conclusions about
                                      Make connections from directly-stated information to identify main ideas.                                                 ideas and information in
                                      Identify main ideas in different sections of a text ie. In paragraphs and graphics/pictures                               a text
                                      Infer characters qualities, motives and actions.                                                                         interpret the meaning of
                                      Locate supporting details and background events.                                                                          unfamiliar phrases,
                                      Identify differences and similarities in information in different texts on the same topic.                                words and symbols
                                      Visualisation techniques                                                                                                 interpret figurative and
                                      How flow charts work                                                                                                      literal language in non-
                                      How to map ideas/details from text e.g. using graphic organisers including mind maps                                      literary and literary texts
                                                                                                                                                                interpret diagrams and
-                                K&U -Unfamiliar words and their meanings are decoded using the integration of the three cueing systems                          illustrations
                                 (grapho-phonic, syntactic and semantic), small meaning units and base words e.g. tele is a small meaning unit                  identify the function of
                                 meaning “distant, from afar” — television, telephone port is a base word meaning “carry” — portable, import, transport.         textual features
                                 (RV Literary)
                                 Students need to be explicitly taught:
                                      How to break down compound words
                                      How to identify and use known “parts” of unknown words to assist in making meaning
                                      That some English words are derived from Latin, Greek, and French words. They have a stem that is recognisable.
                                       This stem may assist in deciphering the meaning of certain words e.g. aqua duct = acqua (water)
                                      That prefixes and suffixes are used to modify the meaning, grammar and tense of base words




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                                                                                                      Literary and non-literary texts
                                  Making choices about literary and non-literary texts involves identifying the purpose, audience, subject matter and text structure.
                                                                                      K&U -Aspects of subject matter can be included or omitted to present a point of view e.g. an article on cats as
                                                                                      excellent pets may choose to omit information about their impact on native wildlife.
                                                                                      WoW –interpret how people, characters, places, events and things have been represented and whether aspects of
                                                                                      subject matter have been included or excluded
                                                                                      The students need to be explicitly taught::
                                                                                         To identify aspects of subject matter that have been omitted and suggest why.
                                                                                         Aspects of subject matter can be included or omitted to create a particular perspective or to heighten
                                                                                             newsworthiness.
                                                                                      K&U -Texts represent Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledges, peoples, places, events and things in
                                                                                      different ways e.g. an Aboriginal painting using symbolism may tell a story associated with food preparation; an historical
                                                                                      text can be written from an Indigenous or non-Indigenous perspective.
                                                                                      WoW- identify the relationship between audience purpose and text type
                                                                                      WoW- reflect on and describe the effectiveness of language elements and how the language choices represent
                                                                                      people, characters, places, events and things in particular ways
                                                                                      The student needs to be explicitly taught:
                                                                                         Texts represent Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledges, peoples, cultures, events and things from the
                                                                                             different perspectives of the writers/designers.
Literary and Non-literary Texts




                                                                                      K&U -Literary texts entertain, evoke emotion, and convey messages and information.
                                                                                      WoW –reflect on and describe the effectiveness of language elements and how the language choices represent
                                                                                      people, characters, places, events and things in particular ways
                                                                                      The student needs to be explicitly taught:
                                                                                         Literary texts include contemporary and traditional texts that use language in aesthetic, imaginative and engaging
                                                                                             ways to entertain, to move, to express and reinforce cultural identity and to reflect.
                                                                                         Literary texts include narrative and non-narrative
                                                                                      K&U -Narratives, myths, legends, Dreaming stories, ballads, form verse, song lyrics and simple scripts are types
                                                                                      of literary texts.
                                                                                      WoW -construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing subject matter , using personal, cultural
                                                                                      and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                                                                                      The student needs to be explicitly taught:
                                                                                         Narrative literary texts include-novel, short story, Dreaming story, ballad (poetry), Short play (one act), personal
                                                                                             journal/recount
                                                                                         Non-narrative literary texts include many forms of poetry




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                             K&U -Narratives have structural features that set the scene, introduce and describe characters and plot
                             (orientation), describe events or actions leading to a problem (complication), and describe how and why a problem
                             is solved (resolution).
                             WoW -construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing subject matter , using personal, cultural
                             and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                             The student needs to be explicitly taught that narratives:
                                Provide an introduction that describes the setting and characters and gives a clue to the complication (orientation)
                                Provide a description of the sequence of events or actions that lead to the complication (complication)
                                Include an ending which draws together elements of the storyline, sometimes in a resolution. (resolution)
                             K&U Events can be sequenced to build tension and suspense within a text and are used to explore ideas and
                             feelings through the invention of characters and situations.
                             WoW -construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing subject matter, using personal, cultural
                             and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                             The student need to be explicitly taught that:
                                A sequence of events can build up complications and resolutions to create tension and suspense
                                Characters are developed through description and action (including direct and reported speech)
                             K&U -Poetry can include rhyme and rhythm.
                             WoW-reflect on learning to identify new understandings and future applications
                             The student needs to be explicitly taught:
                                  That poetry can take on a number of forms or styles
                                  That poetry can include rhyme and rhythm
                                  A variety of poetic forms, including cinquain and ballad

                             K&U -Non-literary texts report, inform, present and seek opinions, present arguments, persuade and negotiate.
                             K&U Information and news reports, articles, features, simple arguments, descriptions, explanations, group
                             discussions and formal presentations are types of non-literary texts.
                             WoW-reflect on learning to identify new understandings and future applications
                             The student needs to be explicitly taught::
                                  That reports are non-literary texts whose major purpose is to inform
                                  Information reports, news reports/news stories, personal responses and interpretations/book reviews are types of
                                   report
                                  Transactions are interactive non-literary texts which may include a range of purposes, including to persuade and
                                   negotiate, present and seek opinions, inform
                                  Transactions include conversations, discussions, advertising, the buying and selling of goods and services,
                                   interviews
                                  That expository texts are non-literary texts which may include a range of purposes, including to explain, analyse,
                                   argue, persuade or give opinions
                                  Expository texts (expositions) include explanations (formal and informal, including scientific explanations),
                                   arguments, formal presentations, documentaries
                                  Procedural texts are non-literary texts that give directions
                                  Procedural texts include timetables, instructions, demonstrations, recipes




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                             K&U Main ideas are established by identifying who, what, where, when, how and why.
                             WoW-reflect on learning to identify new understandings and future applications
                             WoW -construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing subject matter , using personal, cultural
                             and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                             The student needs to be explicitly taught:
                                to recognise main ideas by identifying who, what, where, when and why
                                that in narratives main ideas are developed through the interconnection of plot, character and setting.
                             K&U Reports and arguments have structures, including an introduction or a general statement, elaboration of
                             information or reasons, and a conclusion.
                             WoW -construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing subject matter , using personal, cultural
                             and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                             The student needs to be taught that:
                                Non-narrative texts have predictable and supportive structures
                                Simple argument texts make a statement of personal judgement and support the judgement with a few points or
                                  arguments and a conclusion which provides a restatement of position
                                News stories include a headline, lead, lead development/body
                                Explanations include a title, phenomenon identification, explanation sequence
                                Personal responses include an orientation, description, comment
                                Book reviews include a text evaluation, text synopsis, reaffirmation of text, evaluation




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                         Speaking and Listening
                         Speaking and listening involve using oral, aural and gestural elements to interpret and construct texts that achieve purposes in personal and community contexts.
                         Revise and consolidate                                        K&U -The purpose of speaking and listening includes informing, presenting simple arguments, negotiating
                         Speaking and listening are done for a range of purposes       relationships and transactions, and seeking opinions of others e.g. talking to the teacher about a task may involve
                             To share and exchange ideas and information              negotiation.
                             To support relationships (make and keep friends)         WOW -Students are able to identify the relationship between audience, purpose and text type
                             Enjoyment
                                                                                            speaking and listening provides opportunities to consider their purpose, including informing, giving simple
                             Giving opinions (and justifying)
                             Getting things done
                                                                                               arguments, negotiating relationships and transactions and seeking the opinions of others.
                                                                                          People, places, events and things can be represented in particular ways.

                                                                                      K&U -Speakers can adopt different roles, and make language choices appropriate to the level of formality e.g.
                                                                                      presenting an oral information report requires the use of subject-specific vocabulary.
                                                                                      WOW-Students are able to construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing the subject matter,
                                                                                      using personal, cultural and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                                                                                           specialist vocabulary related to the topic from research.


                                                                                      K&U -Spoken texts have different structures from those of written texts e.g. spoken texts are often interactive.
                                                                                      WOW-Students are able to construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing the subject matter,
                                                                                      using personal, cultural and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                                                                                          Spoken texts are often concrete and specific to the local shared context (contextualised)
                                                                                          Spoken texts are often spontaneous and unplanned –conversations and discussions
                                                                                          Planned spoken texts, e.g. oral presentations/reports have structures more similar to written texts
Speaking and Listening




                                                                                      K&U -Statements, questions and commands generate and maintain discussions and conversations.

                         Speakers can add interest and emphasis                       K&U -Words and phrasing, modulation of volume, pitch, pronunciation and pace enhance expression of ideas, can
                             Changing volume and pitch                               be adjusted to match the purpose, audience and context, and are monitored by listeners.
                             Using an appropriate pace                               WOW-Students are able to construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing the subject matter,
                             Awareness of audience eg. Are they facing me? Can       using personal, cultural and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                               they hear what I am saying?
                                                                                      WOW –make judgements and justify opinions using information and ideas from texts, and recognise aspects that
                             Pausing
                                                                                      contribute to enjoyment and appreciation
                             Monitoring listeners for interest and understanding
                               eg. looking for focused listeners                          speak with clarity
                                                                                          modulation of volume, pitch, pronunciation and pace to enhance ideas and to match the purpose and audience.




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                                                                K&U -Nonverbal elements, including body language, facial expressions and gestures, enhance expression of
                                                               ideas, can be adjusted to match the audience, purpose and situation of a text, and are monitored by listeners e.g.
                                                               increased volume shows authority when giving a command, compared with use of a whisper to build suspense in
                                                               storytelling.
                                                               WOW-Students are able to construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing the subject matter,
                                                               using personal, cultural and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
                                                               WOW –make judgements and justify opinions using information and ideas from texts, and recognise aspects that
                                                               contribute to enjoyment and appreciation
                                                                    Facial expressions, movements, gestures and modulation of volume to enhance their expression of ideas.

Active listeners and observers                                 K&U -Active listeners identify the topic, main ideas and opinions, retell information accurately, ask clarifying
     Focus their attention on the speaker/action or scene     questions and volunteer information.
        (whole body listening/observing)                       WOW –identify main ideas and the sequence of events, and make inferences
     Show interest by responding to what has been                 Listen constructively and provide positive and encouraging feedback.
        said/observed
     Identify the main idea and some supporting details of
                                                                   Identify opinions offered by others in discussions and conversations, propose other relevant viewpoints or extend
        what has been said                                            ideas in a constructive manner.
     Can make inferences from what they see and/or hear           Active listeners identify the topic, main ideas and opinions, retell information accurately, ask clarifying questions and
        (my friend is smiling –she is happy; the magpies are          volunteer information.
        chasing the girl –they might be nesting/angry)
     Summarising to identify main ideas
     Checking for understanding (thinking about what is
        being said) eg. Does that make sense to me? Does it
        fit with what I already know? What is new
        information?
Speakers can make their meaning clearer to listeners           K&U - In presentations, speakers make meaning clear through the selection and sequencing of ideas and
     Sequencing their information eg. time order              information and the use of visual aids as support e.g. a poster can be used to support a presentation.
     Using pictures and objects to focus attention and add    WOW-Students are able to construct literary and non-literary texts by planning and developing the subject matter,
        interest eg. compose a simple statement describing a   using personal, cultural and social experiences that match an audience and purpose
        drawing or object of interest
                                                                        Visual and auditory aids to add emphasis to selections and sequencing of ideas and information in
     Choosing words carefully eg. developing subject
        specific vocabulary                                              presentations.
     Introducing the topic eg .Today I am going to talk                Provide a logical sequence of events when describing a process or explaining a phenomenon.
        about… This is a picture of my…. etc

Conventions for turn-taking and interruption are               Conventions for turn-taking and interruption are used differently, depending on the context e.g. a presentation to
influenced by the context                                      the class, compared with buying an item at a shop.
      Recognising and observing simple rules for taking       WOW -Students are able to identify the relationship between audience, purpose and text type
        part in conversations and discussions (classroom
                                                                          Active listeners apply conventions for turn taking and interruption differently depending on the context.
        contexts)
      Conversations and discussions involve turn-taking
      Formal and informal contexts (the playground, home,
        classroom etc




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                        NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5
Speakers and listeners use a number of strategies to            Speakers and listeners use a number of strategies to make meaning, including identifying purpose, activating
make meaning                                                    prior knowledge, responding, questioning, identifying main ideas, monitoring, summarising and reflecting.
    Thinking about what they know about the topic                       Refer to main ideas, give possible explanations and solutions, and support these with a few reasons in small
      (activating prior knowledge)
                                                                          group discussions or when making presentations on a topic or issue.
    Asking questions
    Identifying main ideas (the “what”)
    Identifying the purpose for listening eg. Do I need to
      find out what to do next? Some information? Is it for
      enjoyment?
    Identifying main ideas (the “what”) and some
      supporting details
    Asking questions to gain more information (question
      starters who, why, when, where)




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                                    NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5


                                                                                  GRAMMAR –SCOPE AND SEQUENCE
 LANGUAGE ELEMENTS – Interpreting and constructing texts involve exploring and using grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, audio and visual elements, in print-based, electronic and face-
                                     to-face modes (speaking and listening, reading and viewing, writing and designing) in familiar contexts
Paragraphs
Paragraphs are used to group                                                                                          Whole Text Level
the major ideas in a text. This   Revise and consolidate                                              Introduce and teach                                                                         -Modelled and group
helps readers recognise the         Transitivity is the identification of patterns in text types       Paragraphs are used to group the major ideas within a text so readers can                analysis of patterns in text
significant ideas and make                                                                                                                                                                        types –eg. Instructions
                                       (processes, participants, circumstances)                            recognise the key messages and make associations between them
associations between them.
                                    Theme position refers to the meaning that is fore-grounded         In a narrative, a new paragraph is often used to signal:                                 (generally) – process
                                       in a clause –the remainder of the clause is called rheme.           - shifts in time or place                                                              (theme position),
                                    paragraphs consist of a group of sentences                            - the introduction of a new character                                                  participant, circumstance –
                                    each paragraph deals with a single unified topic or event             - the beginning of the complication                                                    Beat(process) the egg
                                    a topic sentence occurs at the beginning of a paragraph            The topic sentence (hyper-theme) can be used to emphasise the point of an                (participant) gently
                                       (hyper-theme) and is used to state the main idea of the             argument and focus the attention of the reader                                         (circumstance); Report
                                       paragraph, the rest of the paragraph generally elaborates on                                                                                               (generally) The wombat
                                       the topic sentence (hyper-theme)                                                                                                                           (participant) is (process) a
                                                                                                                                                                                                  marsupial mammal
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (participant)
Cohesion                            Time and sequence connectives link ideas and events in            A conjunction is a word whose main function is to join two parts of the language           Appendix –Using
Text connectives are used            recounts and narratives e.g. first, next, finally, by morning    together and indicate the relationship between them.                                        conjunctions to join
to link and sequence                 and in reports and arguments eg. in the first place,                Conjunctions can be additive, comparative (compare/contrast connectives), temporal      clauses to make sentences
things, ideas and events.            secondly                                                             (time and sequence connectives) and consequential (cause/effect connectives).           and Summary table of
Cohesion in a text is                                                                                    Conjunctions can function between clauses within a sentence, between sentences          conjunctions(from p198-
achieved through using                                                                                    and between paragraphs to organise the text                                             199, Language and Literacy
a range of cohesion                                                                                      .Conjunctions that function to organise the text are called Rhetorical Conjunctions,    Classroom Applications of
devices that link various                                                                                 e.g.                                                                                    Functional Grammar)
parts of the text and
make the whole coherent                                                                               Additive              Comparative            Temporal              Consequential
                                                                                                      Moreover, In          That is, On the        At the same time,     To this end, Then, In
                                                                                                      addition,             other hand             Finally, At first     conclusion, After all,
                                                                                                      Alternatively                                                      Nevertheless, In this
                                                                                                                                                                         way
                                                                                                        Conjunctions that join either paragraphs or sentences are called Cohesive
                                                                                                         Conjunctions, e.g.
                                                                                                      Additive              Comparative           Temporal               Consequential
                                                                                                      And, Or               Likewise, In          Meanwhile,             To this end, Then,
                                                                                                                            contrast, Instead     Throughout,            Otherwise, Therefore,
                                                                                                                                                  Previously             For, However, yet,
                                                                                                                                                                         Thus
                                                                                                        Conjunctions that join clauses to make sentences can be either linking or binding
                                                                                                           conjunctions.
                                                                                                        Linking conjunctions are used where adjacent clauses are not structurally
                                                                                                           dependent on each other, e.g.

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                             NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5

                                                                                               Additive               Comparative            Temporal                Consequential
                                                                                               and, or                but                and, meanwhile,         so, but, and thus
                                                                                                                                         then
                                                                                               Binding conjunctions are used where one clause is structurally dependent on another,
                                                                                               .e.g.
                                                                                               Additive               Comparative            Temporal                Consequential
                                                                                               besides, if            like, as, as if,       while, when, as         so that, so as, in case,
                                                                                               not…then               whereas, except        long as, after, since   if, even if, unless,
                                                                                                                      that                                           because, as, since,
                                                                                                                                                                     although, in spite of,
                                                                                                                                                                     by, thereby
                           Word Association                                                     Patterns of cohesive relationships in texts are set up through:
                             Related and repeated words eg. Synonyms can be used              -repetition
                              across a text help to set up cohesive links eg. the king…..his   -synonyms
                              majesty….the ruler                                               -antonyms, e.g. The wolf was happy which gave the pig every reason to be sad.
                                                                                               -collocation (related words), e.g. mounts, jockey, stable hands, riders


                           Referring Words                                                      Pronouns can refer to a noun outside the text, e.g. We in this country believe…
                             Pronouns are used to set up links in a text, by referring         The definite article is also used as a referring word, e.g. Bob’s cheeky rabbit… The
                              backwards or forwards to nouns/noun groups (participants) –        rabbit…
                              he, him, his , this, that, these, those
Mood- Different types of                                                                                       Sentence Level
sentences are identified   Revise and consolidate                                              Introduce and teach
by their function.
                             Statements have a typical structure which includes a              Complex sentences contain a clause carrying the main message and one or more
Statements provide
                              subject and a verb. eg. The girl (subject) ate (verb) the            clauses which elaborate on that message, e.g. The wax melted (main message)
information; questions
                              apple (object).                                                      because it was heated (elaborating on main message).
seek information;
                             A sentence can be a single clause or a combination of             Clauses in complex sentences are joined by binding conjunctions
commands give orders;
and exclamations
                              clauses                                                           Commands/imperatives typically begin with a process. A command doesn’t usually
emphasise or express         Compound sentences are formed when two or more clauses               have a subject or a finite, except in the negative when it has a finite.
emotions.                     of equal importance and joined by words such as: and, but, so     Questions/interrogatives can start with who, what, when, where, how, why.
                              eg. The knot in the string unravelled and the balloon flew           Alternatively, the auxiliary comes before the subject, e.g. Are (auxiliary) we (subject)
                              away.                                                                leaving?
                             Direct speech is what a character says eg. “I want to go          Exclamations/declaratives have a typical structure which includes omitting the verb,
                              home” said mum.                                                      e.g. Wow! Other times a statement is used as an exclamation, e.g. She is so funny!
                             Indirect speech is another persons report on what has been
                              said (reported speech) eg. Mum said that she wants to go
                              home.




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A clause is the basic unit                                                                                       Clause
of meaning in English. It
provides information         Revise and consolidate                                        Introduce and teach
about what is happening,       A clause is a group of words containing a verb (process)    A clause must contain a verb/process
who is taking part and the     A simple sentence consists of a single clause               Dependent clauses can consist of a verb, a subject and verb, or a subject, verb
circumstances around the                                                                       and object (or even two objects) and cannot stand alone.
activity. A sentence can                                                                    Independent clauses can have a similar structure but can stand alone.
be a single clause or a
combination of clauses.                                                                     The subject and the verb need to agree in number and person, e.g. “They were
                                                                                               unhappy.” rather than “They was unhappy.”
                                                                                            The theme of a clause refers to the first idea or focus of the sentence, and
                                                                                               therefore receives the most attention, e.g. compare the two sentences “The dog bit
                                                                                               the man.” and “The man was bitten by the dog.”
                                                                                            In English, we use the beginning of the clause (theme) as the starting point for
                                                                                               the message
                                                                                            In terms of meaning we can refer to these different functions:
                                                                                               -    With clauses containing an action process we can talk about who is doing
                                                                                                    the action (doer) and who or what is receiving the action (done to), e.g.
                                                                                                    The tennis player (doer) threw (action process) the ball (done to).
                                                                                               -    With clauses containing saying processes, we can talk about who is the
                                                                                                    sayer and what was said, e.g. Jess (sayer) whispered (saying process)
                                                                                                    goodbye (what was said).
                                                                                               -    With clauses containing thinking processes, we can talk about who is the
                                                                                                    thinker and what was thought, e.g. John (thinker) remembered (thinking
                                                                                                    process) his promise (what was thought).
                                                                                               -    With clauses containing being/having (relational) processes we can talk
                                                                                                    about who is being/having and the description, e.g. the insect (possessor) has
                                                                                                    (having process) six legs (description)




                                            Norville State School                                  Page 21                                                  1/05/2012
                               NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5

A clause consists of                                                                                                   Group Level
smaller groups of words
which do certain jobs. At    Revise and consolidate                                               Nominal groups or noun groups have the greatest potential for expanding meaning within a
the core is the verb group     A noun group is a group of one or more words                       clause
“the action or what is            consisting of a noun and words elaborating on the noun          Elements within nominal groups have a specific order –the order is based on the function of
happening” (process). The         (In functional grammar the main noun is identified as            the element, e.g.
person or things involved         “the thing”, the describing words around it are identified   Pointer    Numerative      Describer/s              Classifier/s    the Thing    Qualifier/s
in this action is the noun        as describers, classifiers, and/or pointers depending on       Those      two            beautiful though          luxury          hotels      lining the esplanade
group (nominal group).                                                                                                     decaying
                                  the job that they do. eg. The “pointer” (identifies which
                                  one) old “describer” (describes the thing), school           To the left of the thing, the first possible functional element is the classifier. The classifier
                                  “classifier” teacher “the thing”                             functions to classify or group the thing. Next to that comes the describer, which functions to
                                                                                               determine a quality of the thing by describing it. Then comes the numerative, which quantifies the
                                                                                               thing. Adjacent to the numerative is the pointer, which functions to specify the thing by pointing to
                                                                                               it. To the right of the thing comes the qualifier, which functions to give further qualification of the
                                                                                               thing. It is possible to have multiple describers, classifiers and qualifiers.
                                                                                                   Noun groups can be found in adjectival and adverbial phrases, e.g. The boy with red hair
                                                                                                    (adjectival phrase) played in the rain (adverbial phrase).
                                                                                                   Noun groups may contain the definite article, e.g. “the”, or the indefinite article, e.g. “a” or
                                                                                                    “an”
                                A verb group represents an activity (doing (action: run,          The verb group must “agree” with the subject of the clause, i.e. a plural subject must have a
                                  swim, laugh…. thinking/sensing mental: know, see,                 plural verb, e.g. “the boys were going to school”, not “the boys was going to school”.
                                  like…… saying saying: say, tell, reply …. or state of            Generally the tense should remain relatively consistent throughout the text.
                                  being or possessing relational (being or having” be,
                                  have, represent, mean…)
                                A verb group can be just one word eg. sleeps or several
                                  words eg. is sleeping/ is trying to sleep
                                Adverbials can be a single word –an adverb –                     Adverbs modify not only verbs but adjectives and other adverbs.
                                  sang(verb) sweetly (adverb)
                                Adverbials can provide more information about an activity
                                  eg. Where? When? How? (in functional grammar –
                                  identified as the “circumstance”
                                                                                                  Modality can be expressed through verb groups. Writers can make information appear to be
                                                                                                   certain or uncertain, e.g. “Weipa is definitely in North Queensland” (high modality), compared
                                                                                                   to “I think Weipa might be in North Queensland” (low modality).
                                                                                                  Modality can be expressed through modal nouns, e.g. possibility, requirement; modal
                                                                                                   adjectives, e.g.possible, required; and modal adverbs, e.g. possibly, always.




                                             Norville State School                                          Page 22                                                        1/05/2012
                                   NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5

Nouns, verbs, adjectives,                                                                                           Word Level
adverbs and prepositional
phrases, develop and             Revise and consolidate                                         Introduce and teach
elaborate ideas and portray        a noun is a naming word (used to represent the who           Nouns and noun groups can be specific (eg, Bob) or general (eg, builders).
people, characters, places,           or what –the people, places, things, feelings and ideas    The selection of specific nouns add details and interest to a text (eg, ‘The Spaniel’ is more
events and things in different
ways                               a noun can be singular or plural                                specific than ‘The dog’.)
                                   nouns can be formed by using prefixes and suffixes
                                   common nouns (cat, wombat, thought …) and proper
                                      nouns (Sally, Brisbane, Australia…)
                                   collective nouns label groups eg. flock, herd
                                   an adjective is a describing word - describes the noun       Pointing adjectives answer the question ‘which’ eg, ‘This’.
                                      - eg. The blue chair … -occurs before the noun             Possessive adjectives answer the question ‘whose’ eg, your.
                                                                                                 Comparing adjectives answer the question ‘how much’ eg, larger.
                                                                                                 Some adjectives convey opinion (wonderful, respectable) and others are factual (nutritious,
                                                                                                  smooth).
                                    a verb is an action word - doing, being, sensing,           The selection of specific verbs adds detail and interest to a text eg, ‘moan’ compared with
                                     saying - can have positive or negative representations       ‘said.
                                    an adverb describes the verb -usually end in ‘ly’ -         Verbs can be inflected to show first, second or third person. (eg, I jump, you jump, she
                                     usually follow the verb - answers the “how” of the verb      jumps).
                                     eg, the boy walked quickly.                                 Plural verb forms are used when the answer to ‘who’ or ‘what’ before the verb group is a
                                                                                                  compound noun group. (eg, The cat and dog are playing in the yard).
                                                                                                 Plural verb forms are used when a collective noun refers to the many individual members
                                                                                                  of a group (eg, The staff were.)
                                                                                                 Singular verb forms are used when a collective noun refers to a group as a unit (eg, the
                                                                                                  team plays on Saturday).
 Closed word classes-               A pronoun refers back to something already mentioned        There are four sub-classes of pronouns:
 Closed word classes act as          in the text                                                         - personal and possessive (see Yr 3)
 structural markers in the
                                    A pronoun is used so that the noun does not have to be              - reflexive (eg, myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves)
 text and show logical
 relations between ideas.            repeated                                                            -                      relative (eg, who, whom, whose, that, which.
 They do not carry the key          prepositions eg. over, under, on, by, in, from … can        The tracking of relative pronouns back to the referent noun is important to fully
 message.                            be placed in front of a noun group to show where or          comprehend texts.
                                     when                                                        Specific prepositions are used in common Standard English phrases, e.g. to believe in
                                                                                                  someone or something to confide in someone to complain about.
                                                                                                 Conjunctions (and, nor, but, or, yet, so) show relationships between two independent
                                                                                                  clauses.




                                                 Norville State School                                    Page 23                                                     1/05/2012
                                  NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5

Speakers, writers and                                                                                           Figurative Language
designers can make
language choices that add       Revise and consolidate                                              A simile is a poetic way of describing how an action is like something else
metaphorical meanings to          alliteration – the repeated use of one consonant/sound           A simile is introduced with “ like” or “as”, e.g. The river gleamed like a silver ribbon in the moonlight. The boy ran across
their texts eg. Alliteration,        –often used poetically –silly sausage, green grass etc          the meadow as lightly as a summer breeze.
assonance, similes,               onomatopoeia – a word that is formed by imitating the
metaphors etc.                       sound of thing that is being referred to (sound echoes
                                     the sense) eg. buzz, plop, crunch, howl, ring etc
Speakers and writers can                                                                                       Evaluative Language
use words that indicate
whether an idea, object or      Revise and consolidate                                            Speakers and writers can use words to indicate degree. e.g. the first family, very fast, smallest pig.
performance is good or            Speakers and writers can use words which indicate
bad. Eg. Minnie Mouse was            whether an idea, object or performance is good or bad
silly.                               eg. The girl made a nasty comment. The girl sang
                                     sweetly. The kind girl …
Punctuation marks,                                                                                                    Punctuation
including capital letters,      Revise and consolidate                                            A comma is often used to separate two clauses joined together with “and”, “or”, “but”, “while” and “yet”, e.g. I thought the
full stops, commas,
                                  question marks, quotation marks (talking marks),                balloon floated away, but I was wrong.
exclamation marks and
                                    exclamation marks, contractions, acronyms                     A comma can be used after an adverbial (including adverbial clauses) that is placed at the beginning of a sentence, e.g.
question marks clarify
                                    (ANZAC), commas, hyphen (between ones and tens,                after a while, the seal swam away; when we had finished eating, we watched television.
meaning.
                                    hyphenated surnames within class etc)
                                  A comma is used in compound noun groups i.e. a list of
                                    things containing more than two items, eg. two bananas,
                                    some milk and four apples
                                  No comma is needed before the and that precedes the
                                    final item in a list
                                  A comma is used in a list of adjectives or adverbs
                                    containing more than two items, eg. the sweet, little girl
                                    ….., the cat sprang silently, sneakily and swiftly..




                                               Norville State School                                       Page 24                                                        1/05/2012
                           NORVILLE STATE SCHOOL -ENGLISH SCOPE AND SEQUENCE -Year 4/5


                                     LITERARY AND NON-LITERARY TEXT TYPES – SCOPE AND SEQUENCE
Knowledge and understanding of a range of literary and non-literary text types is developed as students use a range of strategies to interpret, construct and appreciate texts in familiar
contexts. To be developed in conjunction with units of work.
Literary Texts                                                           S & L Speaking and Listening; R & V Reading and Viewing; W & D Writing and Designing
Contemporary and traditional texts        Core                                                       S&L        R&V       W&D       Optional
that use language in aesthetic,
imaginative and engaging ways –to         Narrative                                                                                 Myths/legends, Fantasy, Adventure story
entertain, to move, to express and        Narrative-short story                                                       
reinforce cultural identity and to        Dreaming story                                                         
reflect.                                  Poetry -ballad                                                         
These texts include narrative and non-    Short play (one act)                                                            
narrative.                                Personal journal/recount                                                          

                                          Non-Narrative                                                                             Poetry –rhymed verse, acrostic
                                          Poetry –Form verse(cinquain)                                                      

Non-Literary Texts
Contemporary, traditional and             Transaction                                                                               Complaint, meeting procedure, group discussion,
everyday texts that use language in        Personal letter/email (unknown audience)                                               catalogue, electronic discussion, vote of thanks
precise and accurate ways to:              Interview (known audience)                                                   
 - transact and negotiate relationships    Advertisement (also persuasive)                                                
 - transact and negotiate goods and
 services
 - report on things, events and issues    Report                                                                                    Biography, description, photo-journal, article and
                                          Information report (including note-making)                                          feature,
                                          News report                                                                     
                                          Book review/interpretation                                                        
- give directions                         Procedure                                                                                 Instructions, demonstration
                                          Timetable e.g. TV guide, transport                                                

- explain, analyse, argue, persuade        Exposition                                                                               Formal presentation, documentary film
or give opinions                           Scientific explanation (cause and effect)                                      
                                           Simple argument                                                             




                                      Norville State School                                Page 25                                             1/05/2012

				
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