Chapter Five: The Introduction

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					Chapter Five:
The Introduction

               RESEARCH DESIGN
    Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches
                            Third Edition
                     John W. Creswell
Table of Contents of Book
   Part I: Preliminary Considerations
        1. The Selection of a Research Design
        2. Review of the Literature
        3. The Use of Theory
        4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations

   Part II. Designing Research
        5. The Introduction
        6. The Purpose Statement
        7. Research Questions and Hypotheses
        8. Quantitative Methods
        9. Qualitative Procedures
        10. Mixed Methods Procedures
Chapter Outline
   The Importance of Introductions
   Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods
   A Model for an Introduction
       An Illustration
       The Research Problem
       Studies Addressing the Problem
       Deficiencies in Past Literature
       Significance of a Study for Audiences
The Importance of Introductions
   The Introduction
       The first passage in a journal article, dissertation, or
        scholarly research study that
            Creates reader interest
            Establishes the problem that leads to the study
            Places the study within the larger context
            Reaches out to a specific audience

   A Research Problem
       The problem or issue that leads to the need for a study from
            Personal experience
            Debate in the literature
            Policy debates
            Problem in society at large
Qualitative, Quantitative, and
Mixed Methods Introductions
   Introductions take a similar pattern for all approaches, but have
    some differences
        Qualitative Introductions
             Problem calls for exploration
             May be shaped by a theoretical lens
             May be written from a personal, first-person, subjective point of view

        Quantitative Introductions
             Problem calls for factors and variables
             May advance a theory to be tested and substantial literature
             May be written from an impersonal, objective point of view

        Mixed Methods Introductions
             May use a quantitative or qualitative approach or a combination
             If one approach is emphasized or begins the study, then the
              introduction may follow that approach
A Model for an Introduction
   The deficiencies model of an introduction
       Popular approach in research
       Write one paragraph per element (2 pages total):
            The research problem
            Studies that have addressed the problem
            Deficiencies in the studies
            The significance of the study for particular audiences
            The purpose statement (see Chapter Six)
The Research Problem
   Begin the introduction with a narrative hook to
    engage the reader
   Clearly identify the issue(s) or problem(s) that
    lead to a need for the study
   Indicate why the problem is important by
    citing numerous references
Studies Addressing the Problem
   Review studies to:
       Justify the importance of the problem
       Create distinctions between past studies and the proposed

   The use of literature in the introduction differs from
    the full literature review (Chapter 2)
       Summarize large groups of studies (broad categories) in the
       Deemphasize single studies
       Include studies that used quantitative, qualitative, or mixed
        methods approaches
       Focus on recent research studies (past 10 years)
Deficiencies in Past Literature
   Identify specific deficiencies in past literature
   These deficiencies may exist because:
       The topic has not been explored with a particular group,
        sample, or population
       The literature needs to be replicated with new people or sites
       The voice of underrepresented groups has not been heard in
        published literature

   Also tell how proposed study will:
       Remedy or address the deficiencies
       Provide a unique contribution to the literature
Significance of a Study for
   Describe the significance of the study for
    select audiences to convey the importance of
    the study

   Consider including:
       3-4 reasons the study adds to the scholarly
       3-4 reasons the study helps to improve practice
       3-4 reasons the study will improve policy
Chapter Five:
The Introduction

               RESEARCH DESIGN
    Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches
                            Third Edition
                     John W. Creswell

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