INSTRUMENTS OF FOREIGN POLICY

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					      CHAPTER:9
INSTRUMENTS OF FOREIGN
        POLICY
         Misrinah Misban
  Faculty of International studies


             SEM NOV 2005/6          1
SEM NOV 2005/6   2
• STATECARFT: INSTRUMENTS OF
  POLICY MAKING
• PROPAGANDA
• ECONOMIC
• MILITARY
• INTELLIGENCE
• DIPLOMACY

             SEM NOV 2005/6    3
  STATECRAFT:
INSTRUMENT OF
     POLICY
IMPLEMENTATION
     SEM NOV 2005/6   4
                Statecraft
    has been defined as
the art of conducting the
         affairs of states.


       SEM NOV 2005/6         5
• Statecraft is defined as the deliberate and
  organized actions governments take to
  influence foreign state and non state
  actors in order to maximize national
  interests.




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SEM NOV 2005/6   7
• State seek to persuade other actors to do
  something they would not otherwise do
  (positive influence) or to stop doing
  something considered unacceptable
  (negative influence).




                  SEM NOV 2005/6              8
• States can influence other state and no state
  actors through a variety of policy instruments.
• Some of the most important include:
  –   Rational persuasion
  –   Manipulating persuasion
  –   Inducement
  –   Deterrence
  –   Coercive diplomacy
  –   Force

                       SEM NOV 2005/6               9
SEM NOV 2005/6   10
• Rational persuasion
  – Using logic and data to persuade
  – E.g., peaceful negotiation


• Manipulative persuasion
  – Using deception to persuade
  – E.g., some types of propaganda


                   SEM NOV 2005/6      11
• Inducement
  – Using positive and negative sanctions to
    persuade
  – E.g., foreign aid
• Deterrence
  – Using military threats to prevent behaviors
    deemed unacceptable
  – E.g., nuclear retaliation

                    SEM NOV 2005/6                12
• Coercive diplomacy
  – Using military threats to persuade actors to
    alter their behavior
  – E.g., threat of military intervention
• Force
  – Using coercive power to compel an actor to
    change its behavior
  – E.g., war

                    SEM NOV 2005/6                 13
• Diplomatic negotiation is normally
  considered the most ethical approach
  because it seeks to achieve behavioral
  change peacefully while using truthful
  communication.




                  SEM NOV 2005/6           14
• Force, by contrast, frequently is
  considered unethical because of the death
  and destruction involved in military
  combat.




                 SEM NOV 2005/6           15
• Force can be morally justified when it is an
  instrument of last resort and applied in
  defense of legitimate state interests
  against foreign aggression.




                   SEM NOV 2005/6            16
• Deterrence and coercive diplomacy, like
  force, rely on military power, but whereas
  force uses coercion to compel an
  opponent, deterrence and coercive
  diplomacy rely on coercive threats.




                  SEM NOV 2005/6               17
• Statecraft is normally carried out either
  through positive or negative sanctions.




                   SEM NOV 2005/6             18
• Positive sanctions use rewards (carrots)
  like economic or military aid, the granting
  of most-favored-nation trading status, the
  transfer technology, or the conditional
  granting of concession.




                   SEM NOV 2005/6               19
• Negative sanctions involve threats or use
  economic or military punishment (sticks) to
  promote desired behavioral outcomes.




                  SEM NOV 2005/6            20
PROPAGANDA




        SEM NOV 2005/6   21
• Fundamentally, the aim of propaganda is
  to persuade.
• This can be done through straightforward
  foreign reporting of events and actions,
  similar to the dissemination of information
  by public relations firms.



                   SEM NOV 2005/6               22
• But, propaganda also can be undertaken
  through manipulative techniques, including
  reliance on psychological symbols,
  distortion of facts, disinformation, and lying
  – all of which have given propaganda a
  negative connotations.



                   SEM NOV 2005/6              23
• Propaganda is a
  legitimate instrument
  of foreign affairs.




                     SEM NOV 2005/6   24
• Governments use propaganda in foreign
  affairs in order to INFLUENCE public
  opinion in foreign societies.




                 SEM NOV 2005/6           25
      INTERNATIONAL PROPAGANDA




government   FOREIGN POLICY     government

               PROPAGANDA



society                       society




             SEM NOV 2005/6                  26
• E.g., during the Cold War, the Soviet
  Union disseminated its communist
  perspectives to foreign countries through
  its state-sponsored news service,
  governmental publications, and radio
  broadcasting.



                  SEM NOV 2005/6              27
• Sometimes governments use propaganda
  not ONLY to foster greater understanding
  and appreciation for country, but to
  manipulate public opinion.




                 SEM NOV 2005/6          28
• Such activities are normally carried out
  covertly, it is difficult to document foreign
  propaganda campaigns.




                    SEM NOV 2005/6                29
economic


     SEM NOV 2005/6   30
• Economic statecraft refers to the
  organized economic actions used by
  government to influence other states.




                  SEM NOV 2005/6          31
• In attempting to influence the action of
  foreign states, economic statecraft can
  rely on economic incentives or
  punishments.




                   SEM NOV 2005/6            32
• POSITIVE SANCTIONS
 – Tariff reduction
 – Preferential trade agreements
 – Granting most-favored-nations
 – Granting export or import licenses
 – Increasing foreign aid




                   SEM NOV 2005/6       33
– Tariff reduction
   • Decrease in import taxes on goods from target
     state, sometimes refers to exports as well
– Preferential trade agreements
   • Giving preferential treatment to imports from target
     state
– Granting most-favored-nations status
   • Treating imports from target state as favorably as
     those from any other state


                     SEM NOV 2005/6                       34
– Granting export or import licenses
  • Giving permission to import or export particular
    goods or technology
– Increasing foreign aid
  • Providing target state with more financial
    assistance




                    SEM NOV 2005/6                     35
SEM NOV 2005/6   36
• NEGATIVE SANCTIONS
 – Tariff increase
 – Boycott
 – Embargo
 – Quota
 – Blacklist
 – Freezing of assets
 – Foreign aid suspension
 – Expropriation
                  SEM NOV 2005/6   37
– Tariff increase
   • Increase in import taxes on goods from target
     states, sometimes refers to export as well
– Boycott
   • Prohibition on imports, its scope can vary from
     limited (one or two goods) to comprehensive
     (entiry category of goods and services)




                     SEM NOV 2005/6                    38
– Embargo
  • Prohibition on exports, although it can sometimes
    refer to a ban on all trade
– Quota
  • Quantitative limitation on selective exports or
    imports from target state




                    SEM NOV 2005/6                      39
– Blacklist
   • Banning of firms involved in trade violations with
     target state
– Freezing of assets
   • Impounding overseas financial assets owned by a
     target state




                     SEM NOV 2005/6                       40
– Foreign aid suspension
  • Terminating foreign economic or military aid
– Expropriation
  • A forceful takeover of foreign property belonging to
    a target state




                    SEM NOV 2005/6                    41
SEM NOV 2005/6   42
  military


SEM NOV 2005/6   43
• Military statecraft involves the use of threat
  OR the use of force in order to influence
  the behavior of state and non state actors.




                   SEM NOV 2005/6             44
• Deterrence involves the use of military
  threats to prevent unwanted foreign
  behaviors.




                  SEM NOV 2005/6            45
• Credible threats will depend on the relative
  military capabilities of states and on
  strategy to use them.




                   SEM NOV 2005/6            46
intelligence

    SEM NOV 2005/6   47
SEM NOV 2005/6   48
• Intelligence is evaluated data or distilled
  information about foreign countries.




                   SEM NOV 2005/6               49
• The development of intelligence involves
  three phases:
     • Collection
     • Analysis
     • dissemination




                       SEM NOV 2005/6        50
• In the first phase, intelligence may be
  collected openly (overt) or secretly
  (covert).
• Normally, most intelligence is GATHERED
  overtly through LISTENING,
  OBSERVATION, AND READING.



                 SEM NOV 2005/6         51
• OPEN Sources such as books, journal,
  newspaper and radio, television.
• For example, Aviation Weeks & Space
  Technology, a US commercial aerospace
  magazine for professional working in
  aviation and space technology, is
  considered on of the data best sources on
  US commercial and military aerospace
  developments

                  SEM NOV 2005/6          52
SEM NOV 2005/6   53
• Covert collection is through spying (human
  intelligence), involving the placement of
  agents in foreign countries to secretly
  observe and report on development of
  interest to the sending state.




                  SEM NOV 2005/6           54
• Second way of collecting intelligence is
  through high-resolution aerial photography
  (photo intelligence).
• E.g., satellites




                  SEM NOV 2005/6           55
• Third method is signal intelligence, which
  involves the interception of electronic
  signals through sophisticated listening
  posts located in foreign countries and on
  Ships and Airplanes.




                  SEM NOV 2005/6               56
• Governments generally try to maintain
  confidentially in their decision making
  process, they rely on CODED messages
  to protect communication from electronic
  monitoring.




                  SEM NOV 2005/6             57
• After intelligence is collected it must be
  analyzed and interpreted.
• Raw data contribute little help to foreign
  policy.
• But, when data or facts are completely
  clear, there is no need for intelligence
  assessment.


                   SEM NOV 2005/6              58
• Third phase, the dissemination of
  intelligence, involves the distribution of
  finished reports to appropriate government
  officials.




                  SEM NOV 2005/6           59
• Counter intelligence
  – A government’s effort to protect the secrecy of
    its operations from foreign intelligence agents.




                    SEM NOV 2005/6                60

				
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