Misrinah Misban
  Faculty of International studies

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    has been defined as
the art of conducting the
         affairs of states.

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• Statecraft is defined as the deliberate and
  organized actions governments take to
  influence foreign state and non state
  actors in order to maximize national

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• State seek to persuade other actors to do
  something they would not otherwise do
  (positive influence) or to stop doing
  something considered unacceptable
  (negative influence).

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• States can influence other state and no state
  actors through a variety of policy instruments.
• Some of the most important include:
  –   Rational persuasion
  –   Manipulating persuasion
  –   Inducement
  –   Deterrence
  –   Coercive diplomacy
  –   Force

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• Rational persuasion
  – Using logic and data to persuade
  – E.g., peaceful negotiation

• Manipulative persuasion
  – Using deception to persuade
  – E.g., some types of propaganda

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• Inducement
  – Using positive and negative sanctions to
  – E.g., foreign aid
• Deterrence
  – Using military threats to prevent behaviors
    deemed unacceptable
  – E.g., nuclear retaliation

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• Coercive diplomacy
  – Using military threats to persuade actors to
    alter their behavior
  – E.g., threat of military intervention
• Force
  – Using coercive power to compel an actor to
    change its behavior
  – E.g., war

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• Diplomatic negotiation is normally
  considered the most ethical approach
  because it seeks to achieve behavioral
  change peacefully while using truthful

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• Force, by contrast, frequently is
  considered unethical because of the death
  and destruction involved in military

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• Force can be morally justified when it is an
  instrument of last resort and applied in
  defense of legitimate state interests
  against foreign aggression.

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• Deterrence and coercive diplomacy, like
  force, rely on military power, but whereas
  force uses coercion to compel an
  opponent, deterrence and coercive
  diplomacy rely on coercive threats.

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• Statecraft is normally carried out either
  through positive or negative sanctions.

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• Positive sanctions use rewards (carrots)
  like economic or military aid, the granting
  of most-favored-nation trading status, the
  transfer technology, or the conditional
  granting of concession.

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• Negative sanctions involve threats or use
  economic or military punishment (sticks) to
  promote desired behavioral outcomes.

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• Fundamentally, the aim of propaganda is
  to persuade.
• This can be done through straightforward
  foreign reporting of events and actions,
  similar to the dissemination of information
  by public relations firms.

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• But, propaganda also can be undertaken
  through manipulative techniques, including
  reliance on psychological symbols,
  distortion of facts, disinformation, and lying
  – all of which have given propaganda a
  negative connotations.

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• Propaganda is a
  legitimate instrument
  of foreign affairs.

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• Governments use propaganda in foreign
  affairs in order to INFLUENCE public
  opinion in foreign societies.

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government   FOREIGN POLICY     government


society                       society

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• E.g., during the Cold War, the Soviet
  Union disseminated its communist
  perspectives to foreign countries through
  its state-sponsored news service,
  governmental publications, and radio

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• Sometimes governments use propaganda
  not ONLY to foster greater understanding
  and appreciation for country, but to
  manipulate public opinion.

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• Such activities are normally carried out
  covertly, it is difficult to document foreign
  propaganda campaigns.

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• Economic statecraft refers to the
  organized economic actions used by
  government to influence other states.

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• In attempting to influence the action of
  foreign states, economic statecraft can
  rely on economic incentives or

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 – Tariff reduction
 – Preferential trade agreements
 – Granting most-favored-nations
 – Granting export or import licenses
 – Increasing foreign aid

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– Tariff reduction
   • Decrease in import taxes on goods from target
     state, sometimes refers to exports as well
– Preferential trade agreements
   • Giving preferential treatment to imports from target
– Granting most-favored-nations status
   • Treating imports from target state as favorably as
     those from any other state

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– Granting export or import licenses
  • Giving permission to import or export particular
    goods or technology
– Increasing foreign aid
  • Providing target state with more financial

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 – Tariff increase
 – Boycott
 – Embargo
 – Quota
 – Blacklist
 – Freezing of assets
 – Foreign aid suspension
 – Expropriation
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– Tariff increase
   • Increase in import taxes on goods from target
     states, sometimes refers to export as well
– Boycott
   • Prohibition on imports, its scope can vary from
     limited (one or two goods) to comprehensive
     (entiry category of goods and services)

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– Embargo
  • Prohibition on exports, although it can sometimes
    refer to a ban on all trade
– Quota
  • Quantitative limitation on selective exports or
    imports from target state

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– Blacklist
   • Banning of firms involved in trade violations with
     target state
– Freezing of assets
   • Impounding overseas financial assets owned by a
     target state

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– Foreign aid suspension
  • Terminating foreign economic or military aid
– Expropriation
  • A forceful takeover of foreign property belonging to
    a target state

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• Military statecraft involves the use of threat
  OR the use of force in order to influence
  the behavior of state and non state actors.

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• Deterrence involves the use of military
  threats to prevent unwanted foreign

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• Credible threats will depend on the relative
  military capabilities of states and on
  strategy to use them.

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• Intelligence is evaluated data or distilled
  information about foreign countries.

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• The development of intelligence involves
  three phases:
     • Collection
     • Analysis
     • dissemination

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• In the first phase, intelligence may be
  collected openly (overt) or secretly
• Normally, most intelligence is GATHERED
  overtly through LISTENING,

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• OPEN Sources such as books, journal,
  newspaper and radio, television.
• For example, Aviation Weeks & Space
  Technology, a US commercial aerospace
  magazine for professional working in
  aviation and space technology, is
  considered on of the data best sources on
  US commercial and military aerospace

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• Covert collection is through spying (human
  intelligence), involving the placement of
  agents in foreign countries to secretly
  observe and report on development of
  interest to the sending state.

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• Second way of collecting intelligence is
  through high-resolution aerial photography
  (photo intelligence).
• E.g., satellites

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• Third method is signal intelligence, which
  involves the interception of electronic
  signals through sophisticated listening
  posts located in foreign countries and on
  Ships and Airplanes.

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• Governments generally try to maintain
  confidentially in their decision making
  process, they rely on CODED messages
  to protect communication from electronic

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• After intelligence is collected it must be
  analyzed and interpreted.
• Raw data contribute little help to foreign
• But, when data or facts are completely
  clear, there is no need for intelligence

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• Third phase, the dissemination of
  intelligence, involves the distribution of
  finished reports to appropriate government

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• Counter intelligence
  – A government’s effort to protect the secrecy of
    its operations from foreign intelligence agents.

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