Cross Cultural Ethical Conflicts by LHqv7zW


									Cross Cultural Ethical Conflicts
                  Whose standards to follow?

             Presented by…       Berçin
                                 Bercin Mersin
                                    Aslı Kartal
                                   Esra Savas
                                Gϋlbin Gezmiş
                                Gulbin Gezmis
                             Senem Evrim Ozer

   What is ethics?
             General ideas or beliefs that influence people's
              behavior and attitude…
   What is cross-cultural ethics?
             The application of moral values in situation involving
              two or more nations or multinational corporations...
   What is cross-cultural ethical conflicts?
             Perceived or actual incompatibility of
              values, norms, processes,goals between two or more
              cultural parties over
              content, identity, relational, and procedural issues
  5/1/2012                          Berçin Mersin                      2
Why and How???
   Why do cross-cultural ethical conflicts emerge?
              Differences in perspectives and values among decision-makers
               from different national cultures
              Different social and cultural factors across nations
   How to resolve cross-cultural ethical conflicts?
              Avoiding
              Forcing
              Education/persuasion
              Infiltration
              Negotiation/compromise
              Accommodation
              Collaboration/problem solving

  5/1/2012                             Berçin Mersin                          3
A New Emerging Market: Turkey

   Joint ventures
   Finding the right person
   The company's corporate culture
    + home country's business
   Personal and job related
    adjustment problems

  5/1/2012             Aslı Kartal    4
Cost of Adjustment Problems

   From the perspective of the host company
              Company's foreign operations may stagnate
              The productivity may go down
              The ability to control indigenous employees may
              The company may lose its market share
               accompanied by its reputation.

  5/1/2012                          Aslı Kartal                  5
Cost of Adjustment Problems

   From the perspective of expatriates:
              Ruining their careers
              Causing personal blows to their self-esteem and
              May be taxing on their family life both physically
               and psychologically
              Having difficulty in adjusting to the corporate
               structure once they return

  5/1/2012                           Aslı Kartal                    6
Factors Influencing Cross-Cultural
   Individual factors:
              Personality traits
              Non-ethnocentrisms
              Communication and interpersonal skills
              Language proficiency
              Spousal support, marital status.
              Prior experience in cultures other than one's own.
              Pre-departure knowledge.
              Education and age.

  5/1/2012                          Aslı Kartal                     7
Factors Influencing Cross-Cultural
   Job/task related factors:
              Training
              Role ambiguity, role discretion role conflict, role
               overload, role novelty
              Organizational culture and size

  5/1/2012                            Aslı Kartal                    8
Research on 342 Human Resources
   Adjusting to amenities/ facilities
   Adjustment to social life
   Interactions with Turkish nationals outside
    of work

  5/1/2012               Esra Savaş               9

   Previous work experience in a foreign country
   Training areas such as the Turkish business
    environment, management practices etc.
   Open communication channels, consensus
    decision making, teamwork
   Older managers with longer years of work
   Nationality of expatriate's bosses
   Spousal support

  5/1/2012              Esra Savaş                  10

   Personal characteristics
              Being culturally sensitive person
              Ability to recognize complexities in host cultures
              Liking to mix with with host nationals
              Being realistic in one’s expectations
              Enjoying social interactions
              Having empathy for others
              Effectiveness at resolving conflicts
              Being a people’s person

  5/1/2012                           Esra Savaş                     11
Ideal Candidate for Turkish Company

   Ability to maintain a valued sense
    of self
   Ability to relate to host nationals
   Ability to cognitively appreciate the
    social beliefs systems

  5/1/2012                Esra Savaş        12
Minimizing Problems for Expatriates
   Take action to prepare expatriates to handle new
              Providing housing
              Education of child
              Medical facilities
   Parent company may administer training programs:
              Cultural diversity training programs
              Information session
                  Values, habits, beliefs, language of Turkish people
              General information about the country prior to arrival
                  Traffic jams, frequent water and electricity outrages

  5/1/2012                                 Gülbin Gezmiş                   13
Minimizing Problems for Expatriates
   Social activities
              Organize recreational and entertainment activities
                  Picnics, sightseeing tours
              Host national sponsorship programs
   Provide information about Turkish business culture:
              Collectivism characterizes
              High power distance
              Masculinity
              Low achievement
              Future orientation
              Respect of managerial hierarchy

  5/1/2012                                 Gülbin Gezmiş            14
Motivate the Expatriates

   Importance of expertise in selection
   Recommend training programs about
             Career implications
             Repatriation concerns

  5/1/2012                       Gülbin Gezmiş   15

   Big emerging market’s importance
             Their booming economies are primary
              targets for western companies
             Deployment of expatriates to these
             Joint responsibility of parent and
              affiliate companies

  5/1/2012                       Gülbin Gezmiş      16
Is Cross-Cultural Analysis Sufficient?

   Too many contradictions exist for accurate
    classification of Turkish culture as a whole
   Points of tension in Turkish society
             Westernization and modern ways of life vs.
              preservation traditional values and life styles
             Government control vs. private initiative

  5/1/2012                         Senem Evrim Özer             17
Why Subcultures in Turkey?

   Marked cultural differences exist in Turkey
             Rapid industrialization
             Concerted efforts to modernize a traditional culture
             Change has taken place in an uneven pace at various
              segments of the society
             Geographical location in between East and West
              allows for duality in values

  5/1/2012                       Senem Evrim Özer               18
Identification of Subcultures in Turkey

   Definition of subculture
             Subcultures are derivatives of, but different from, the
              larger culture; they embody shared system of norms,
              values, interests or behaviors that distinguish some
              individuals, groups and/or larger aggregations from
              the larger societies in which they also participate…
   Four Subcultures
             Power seekers
             Stimulation seekers
  5/1/2012                          Senem Evrim Özer                    19
Definition of Four Subcultures with
Schwarts’ Values Inventory

 Power seekers                               Egalitarians
         self-enhancement                        self-transcendence
             power                                benevolence
             achievement                          universalism

 Stimulation seekers                         Traditionals
         openness to change                      conservation
             self-direction                       security
             hedonism                             conformity
             stimulation                          tradition

  5/1/2012                    Senem Evrim Özer                        20
Subcultures and Conflict Management


                                                                         Stimulation Seekers


             Competing         Accommodation             Collaboration                         Avoiding

                                        Assertive       Cooperative

  5/1/2012                                 Senem Evrim Özer                                                  21

   Cross-cultural ethical conflicts should be
    expected for expatriates entering the Turkish
    market place
   Governmental and business entities may take
    steps to insure significant reduction of cross-
    cultural ethical conflicts
   While Hofstede’s categories are helpful, distinct
    sub-cultural groups may be taken under
    consideration for predicting Turkish approach to
    resolving ethical conflicts
  5/1/2012              Senem Evrim Özer            22


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