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New Wave of Exploration

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 9

  • pg 1
									New Wave of Exploration
                The Age of Exploration
• Causes of Exploration              advances in exploration
   – Many nations wanted to find     technology
     a new route over water to
     Asia                                Open-water sailing required:
        • Land took too long             training in navigation,
        • Avoid fees charged by          accurate maps, good ships
          Italian merchants              Compass & Astrolabe
        • Growth of Ottoman Empire
          disrupted trade routes         Cartographers became more
   – Colonies used as sources of         accurate
     raw materials & markets for         Triangle shaped sails (Arabs)
     goods                               Multiple sails
   – 3 G’s                               Began to carry rifles/cannons
       • God                         New economic forms
       • Glory                           Mercantilism
       • Gold
                                         Capitalism/market economy
   – 1st – Portugal (trade)
   – 2nd – Spain (colonization)      New business practices
                                         Joint-stock company
                                         Banks/insurance/bills of
                                         exchange
                             Spain
• Two major goals– to acquire
  wealth (gold) and to convert
  Native Americans to
  Christianity (God)
   – Silver and gold were the most
     valuable products of the
     colonies
• Natives were forced into labor
  and had their lands
  confiscated
• European disease introduced
  and became the primary
  reason for the decrease in the
  native population
                            France
• Attempted to find a northwest
  passage through America to
  Asia
   – Sought quick profits through
     trade instead of farming
• Much of eastern Canada
  claimed for France
   – Quebec, the first permanent
     French settlement in the
     Americas founded in 1608
• Jesuit missionaries sent to
  convert natives
• French settlement in the West
  Indies reeled them into the
  slave trade
England
    • English expansion began with
      the founding of the English
      East India Company in 1600
    • Settlements founded in the
      Americas in 1600s
       – Became involved in the West
         Indies and slave trade
       – Settled Jamestown in 1607
         (first permanent English
         settlement in N.A.)
    • Attempted to push out natives;
      many killed due to disease
    • By 1765, England had
      emerged as the leading
      European power in N. America
The Netherlands
        • Late 1500s- wins
          independence from Spain
        • Commerce became the key to
          survival
        • 1602- Dutch East India
          company chartered
           – By 1600s, had control of the
             Spice Island trade
        • Colonies also established in
          North America (New
          Amsterdam) and Africa
           – By 1700s, Dutch in decline
             and England would soon take
             over Dutch settlements
                         Economics
• Triangular trade
   – Europeans leave carrying
     manufactured goods
   – In west Africa, goods
     traded for slaves
   – In the Americas, slaves
     sold for sugar, cotton,
     tobacco, etc.
   – Ships return to Europe to
     sell goods purchased in the
     Americas
• Mercantilism
   – The states power depends
     on its wealth
   – Under mercantilism,
     nations sought to export
     more goods than imported
     (balance of trade)
                • Europe’s growing population
The Columbian     demanded more goods and
                  services
  Exchange          – Met by increasing contact with
                      the world
                    – Europe contributed to a
                      worldwide exchange of
                      people, goods, technologies,
                      ideas, disease.
                • Europe to America
                    – Wheat, grapes, livestock
                • America to Europe
                    – Corn, potatoes, tomatoes,
                      beans, chocolate, turkey
                       • Potatoes the most
                         important
                • Increase of people moving
                  from continent to continent for
                  economic or religious reasons
                • Drastic decline in Native
                  American population and
                  forcible removal of Africans to
                  the Americas revealed the
                  disruptive effect of European
                  expansion
•   Negative Effects
     – Exchange of diseases
         • Smallpox, measles,
           typhus
     – Impact on Natives
         • New World
             civilizations were almost
             entirely destroyed by
             disease & colonization
         •   Diaspora of Africans b/c
             of slavery resulted in
             damage to African
             culture & dominance of
             Africa by Europeans for
             500 years
         •   Slavery became the
             dominant labor force in
             the Americas
                – 1st – Native
                    Americans
                – 2nd – Africans
         •   Native American death
             toll:     at least 40
             million
         •   Africans taken as
             slaves: at least 12
             million

								
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