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a simple guide to suffixes

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					Suffixes
A suffix is a group of letters placed at the end of a word to make a new word. A suffix can make a new word in one of two ways: 1. inflectional (grammatical): for example, changing singular to plural (dog > dogs), or changing present tense to past tense (walk > walked). In this case, the basic meaning of the word does not change. 2. derivational (the new word has a new meaning, "derived" from the original word): for example, teach > teacher or care > careful

Inflectional suffixes
Inflectional suffixes do not change the meaning of the original word. So in "Every day I walk to school" and "Yesterday I walked to school", the words walk and walked have the same basic meaning. In "I have one car" and "I have two cars", the basic meaning of the words car and cars is exactly the same. In these cases, the suffix is added simply for grammatical "correctness". Look at these examples: suffix grammatical change -s -en -s -ed -en -ing -er -est plural plural (irregular) 3rd person singular present past tense past participle past participle (irregular) continuous/progressive comparative superlative example example original word suffixed word dog ox like work eat sleep big big dogs oxen he likes he worked he has worked he has eaten he is sleeping bigger the biggest

Derivational suffixes
With derivational suffixes, the new word has a new meaning, and is usually a different part of speech. But the new meaning is related to the old meaning - it is "derived" from the old meaning.

We can add more than one suffix, as in this example: derive (verb) + tion = derivation (noun) + al = derivational (adjective) There are several hundred derivational suffixes. Here are some of the more common ones: suffix making -ation -sion -er -cian -ess -ness -al -ary -ment -y -al -ary -able -ly -y -ful -ly -ize adverbs verbs adjectives nouns example example original word suffixed word explore hesitate persuade divide teach music god sad arrive diction treat jealous victor accident imagine tax brother ease sorrow forget helpful terror exploration hesitation persuasion division teacher musician goddess sadness arrival dictionary treatment jealousy victory accidental imaginary taxable brotherly easy sorrowful forgetful helpfully terrorize

private -ate hyphen

privatize hyphenate

Note that -er can convert almost any verb into the person or thing performing the action of the verb. For example: a teacher is a person who teaches, a lover loves, a killer kills, an observer observes, a walker walks, a runner runs; a sprinkler is a thing that sprinkles, a copier copies, a shredder shreds. A suffix is a letter or a group of letters attached to the end of a word to form a new word or to alter the grammatical function of the original word. For example, the verb read can be made into the noun reader by adding the suffix -er; read can be made into the adjective readable by adding the suffix -able. Understanding the meanings of the common suffixes can help us deduce the meanings of new words that we encounter. The table below defines and illustrates 26 common suffixes. Common Suffixes Noun Suffixes Suffix Meaning Example -acy state or quality privacy -al act or process of refusal -ance, -ence state or quality of maintenance, eminence -dom place or state of being freedom, kingdom -er, -or one who trainer, protector -ism doctrine, belief communism -ist one who chemist -ity, -ty quality of veracity -ment condition of argument -ness state of being heaviness -ship position held fellowship -sion, -tion state of being concession, transition Verb Suffixes become eradicate become enlighten make or become terrify become civilize

-ate -en -ify, -fy -ize, -ise

-able, -ible -al -esque -ful -ic, -ical -ious, -ous -ish -ive -less -y

Adjective Suffixes capable of being edible, presentable pertaining to regional reminiscent of picturesque notable for fanciful pertaining to musical, mythic characterized by nutritious, portentous having the quality of fiendish having the nature of creative without endless characterized by sleazy


				
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Description: Just some gathered info on suffixes.