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            What are DRILLING RIGS?

• Construction machinery which creates boreholes and shafts in the
  ground
• Large equipment which creates holes for water wells, oil wells, or
  use for the extraction of natural gas
• Can be used to test soil, rock material, groundwater
• Used to install underground utilities, wells, tunnels, and other
  instruments
• Can be powered by; electric, mechanic, pneumatic, or hydraulic




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          Why Safety?
   • Why is safety important?
   • Why bother with it?
   • Isn’t it just another
     government or company
     program?




In the U.S. an
injury occurs
about every 8.3
seconds
         10-year-old had to pick out dad’s
                headstone, casket
• Ronnie Lynn May, 44, was killed while working on a drilling rig in Midland
  County, TX.
• May and a co-worker were moving pipe on a drilling rig when a portion of
  the pipe slipped, pinning the co-worker’s leg.
• As May tried to rescue the worker, he was crushed by another piece of the
  rig. May was taken to a hospital where he was pronounced dead. The
  other worker’s injuries weren’t life threatening. OSHA is investigating.
• The San Antonio Express-News reports that May’s son, 10-year-old Seth,
  spent the day after his father’s death picking out a headstone, casket and
  funeral flowers.
• May’s mother, Mamie May, told the newspaper that the father and son
  were great friends. The two spent time together riding four-wheelers,
  fishing and hunting.
• “They did everything,” Mamie May said. “And today, Seth made all of his
  father’s funeral arrangements.”



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       More About the
          Injuries
 4,365,200 injuries resulted in:
       – lost work time
       – medical treatment (other than
         1st aid)
       – loss of consciousness
       – restriction of work or motion
         or
       – transfer to another job


Source: BLS 2004
 OSHA AND CANADIAN New
    Criminal Prosecution
         Provisions

• Greatly Expanded “Legal Tests” for Criminal Prosecution
• Under a “knowing” standard, the government must only
  prove that the defendant had knowledge of the facts that
  constitute the offense – i.e., that the conduct at issue was not
  accidental or a mistake.


          Willful act resulting in death
                      versus
       Knowing act resulting in serious harm
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 Elements Required to Prove Violation
       of General Duty Clause
• The employer failed to keep the workplace free of
  a hazard to which employees of that employer
  were exposed
• The hazard was recognized
• The hazard was causing or was likely to cause
  death or serious physical harm
• There was a feasible and useful method to
  correct the hazard




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         Operations – General
• Well control maintained at all times
• Rig floor attended by person qualified in well
  control
• “Horseplay and careless acts” not permitted
• Training and safety program
• Unsafe conditions reported to supervisor and
  relayed between shifts


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Regulations and Lease Specific Rules




                   We can prevent


                     1/3
          of all work related injuries!
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•Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (K.S.A. rules)




     Safety Orientation for
Drilling & Service Contractors

        Everyone on the rig needs to know
       I.      General Safety
       II.     Personal Protective Equipment
       III.    Hazard Communications/Hazardous Materials
       IV.     Occupational Health
       V.      Specialized Work Procedures

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VI.    Fire Safety
VII.   Materials Handling
VIII. First Aid
IX. Rig/Platform Environment
X.     Emergency Response

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More rules more guidelines more safety
 I.     General Safety
 •    Principles
 •    Alcohol & Drug Policies
 •    Firearms and Weapons Policies
 •    Personal Conduct
 •    GeneralP Worksite Safety
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I.    General Safety
•    Housekeeping
•    Communications, Chain of Command
•    Reporting & Investigating Incidents
•    Land Transportation

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       Your part of your own safety
• Working on a drilling rig means working in all types of weather
  conditions, it can get extremely hot in Alberta and it will also get
  extremely cold. Drilling rigs typically have their busy season during
  the winter when the ground is frozen, so expect to do a lot of work
  in the winter.
• Accidents still occur due to human carelessness therefore the oil
  companies strive to provide all employees with proper and up to
  date safety training.
• Drilling rigs are operated by units of people called “drilling crews.” A
  drilling crew is usually made up of four to five people and there are
  typically three to four crews per rig. Crews generally are made up of
  a driller, a derrick hand, a motor hand, a floorhand (head
  roughneck), and a leasehand (roughneck). Each crew member has
  their own responsibilities and work as a team to complete a job
  successfully.


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    4 Reasons to Make Safety Important

•   Responsibility to self
•   Responsibility to family
•   Responsibility to not endanger co-workers
•   Productivity and health of the company




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Without a good safety program, you could end up
          with your buttocks in a sling
            (In more than one way)!




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        Safety Standards: From Working
         Surfaces to Machine Guarding
•  Lawmakers specify a host of safety precautions that employers in the oil and gas industry must
   follow to help ensure accident-free workplaces. These safety precautions cover a range of items,
   from requiring guardrails on floor and wall openings to preventing occupational diseases with the
   use of respiratory protection. When accidents happen, they harm not only workers, but also
   sometimes residents living near the work sites.
• The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), as well as other state and federal
   authorities, prescribes rules that are meant to prevent accidents. An employer's failure to follow
   these safety standards puts you at significant risk. And, depending on where the work site is
   located, there could be significant risk to residents living nearby if proper safety equipment is not
   provided and an explosion, fire or gas leak occurs.
• While safety standards are meant to keep workers safe, they also help to keep the surrounding
   community safe.
Important safety standards include:
• Walking-working surfaces: Clean walkways, free of water and oil or other debris, go a long way in
   preventing slip-and-falls. And guarding or covering open spaces can prevent dangerous falls from oil
   rigs.
• Personal protective gear: Employers must provide protective gear and training to oil and gas
   workers. Depending on the job and location, this gear includes everything from eye and respiratory
   protection to proper footwear.
• Machine guarding: Machinery is to be guarded to prevent injury from nip points, sparks and other
   dangers — and the guards are not to be removed, altered or disabled.
• Proper safety training


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On-Site Safety Programs and Expectations

  Reporting to the Person “In-Charge”

  Reviewing the JSA & Emergency Plan

         Participating in “STOP”

       Practicing Safety Leadership

  Understanding General On-Site Rules

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    No Excuse for Improper Maintenance

•  Improper maintenance is one of the most egregious causes of an accident —
   simply because good maintenance is a necessary part of keeping equipment and
   oil rigs in working order. When maintenance is done improperly or not at all, oil
   and gas workers are put at risk of serious injury or worse. And in the event that a
   gas leak, explosion or fire does occur, it could harm not only workers, but also
   unsuspecting residents living nearby the work site.
Maintenance problems come in all shapes and forms, including:
• Failure to replace old leaking gas pipelines
• Failure to maintain emergency shut-off valves
• Failure to follow minimum maintenance regulations for a safe gas distribution
   system
• Poor maintenance of pipes, joints, valves and meter sets, as required
• Leaking meter sets, service lines and gas mains
• Metal fatigue and corrosion
• Defective gas connectors or control valves
• Aging pipelines



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• Improper maintenance can lead to pipeline explosions,
  drilling rig blowouts and gas leaks — all of which can cause
  serious injury or even death to workers and others living
  nearby.
• Often, improper maintenance is closely tied to inadequate
  safety precautions and lack of workplace safety training:
  Irregular or nonexistent maintenance saves oil and gas
  companies money. Equipment is not shut down for
  maintenance and worker productivity continues without
  interruption — until, of course, something goes wrong. In
  the push to extract oil and gas, energy companies may
  operate in a reactive manner by fixing things only after
  someone has been injured — when the time to prevent a
  serious accident is long gone.

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       Oil Rig Falls: Heights and Other
              Common Hazards
• Falls from drilling rigs may not make the headlines as often as pipeline
  explosions or gas leaks, but slip and falls from an oil rig or off a platform
  can still lead to serious injury or even death. Your injuries may be
  temporary or permanent. Either way, dangerous falls from oil rigs can
  often be prevented if employers take proper safety measures.
• When it comes to most oil and gas jobs, many accidents involve falls from
  heights or slip-and-falls on other surfaces. These cases include:
• Working on platforms: Equipment and machinery are constantly being
  moved around overhead. This can lead to getting struck and pushed off a
  platform. Other hazards include lack of a safety harness and accumulated
  snow, ice or water.
• Working at ground level: You may slip or trip on uncovered cables,
  because of poor lighting, or on wet and oily surfaces. Lack of proper
  footwear or improperly placed objects can lead to a slip-and-fall.




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          Were You Hit by Unsecured
                 Equipment?
• Safety harnesses aren't just for oil and gas workers. Harnesses,
  netting and other barriers should also be used to keep objects and
  equipment from falling. Equipment and machinery are always being
  moved overhead on oil rigs. If machinery or equipment is left
  improperly secured, oil and gas workers are at risk of getting struck
  and seriously injured by falling objects.
No Excuse for Falling Objects/Equipment
• Supervisors and managers have a responsibility to ensure that oil
  and gas workers stay safe on the job. Much of that responsibility
  comes with very little room for mistakes. A lapse of attention or
  poor judgment can cause an accident. And then there are those
  mistakes that happen because of an ongoing safety issue — like lack
  of harnesses, or because of defective safety equipment or improper
  maintenance.



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               Asphyxiation
• Employee opened a cover at the top of a oil
  storage tank in order to gage the amount of
  water in the tank and was overcome by H2S
  gas.




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ACCIDENTS ASSOCIATED WITH HYDROGEN
     SULFIDE CONTINUE TO OCCUR.


 Accidents associated with H2S continue to occur even though we know about the
 extremely dangerous properties of the gas. People tend to disregard the danger and
 therefore disregard the need for specialized training and PPE while dealing with
 toxic chemicals, and the need to go above and beyond conventional training.




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        Dangers of distracted driving
•   OSHA's new distracted driving brochure explains to employers and supervisors the
    importance of preventing texting by their workers while driving. Texting while
    driving dramatically increases the risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause
    of worker fatalities. Distracted driving crashes killed more than 5,400 people and
    injured nearly 500,000 in 2009. OSHA encourages trade associations to share this
    brochure with their members.
•   See OSHA's Distracted Driving Web page for more information on the agency's
    efforts to protect workers from this growing hazard.




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   Actions to Take Prior to Arriving at the Site

• Ensure you have had the proper training.

• Ensure you have with you:

  – Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).

  – The right tools for the job.

  – The right people to do the job safely.

• Ensure you have no prohibited items
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FRC must be worn with the sleeves fully extended to
              the wrist and with the
            buttons and zippers closed

     Shirts are to be completely tucked inside
              of the pants at the waist

      FRC shall meet NFPA 2112 requirements

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PPE – Respiratory Protection


If Respiratory Protection is necessary, medical
approval and fit testing are also required prior
                     to use

Facial hair must not interfere with the face-to-
                   mask seal



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What Types of Work are Associated with a rig site
               all this and more




            Chemical Use                                         Computer Work

     Construction                                                     Ladder Use




                                    Cut/Saw/Drill
                                                                    Machining




             Lifting P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
Symptoms of Soft Tissue Injuries
 – Less strength for
   gripping
 – Less range of motion
 – Loss of muscle function
 – Inability to do everyday
   tasks
 – Sore muscles
 – Strains/Sprains
 – Bruises
 – Pinched nerves
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    Primary Causes of Soft Tissue Injuries
•   Repetitive motions
•   Awkward postures
•   Forceful exertion
•   Contact stress
•   Prolonged vibration
•   Excess body weight
•   Slips/Falls
•   Struck by        Ask participants to name
•   Caught in         tasks that they perform
                     that could result in a soft
                                     tissue injury.

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                 Contact Stress
• Caused by contact with                     Examples:
  hard objects or surfaces                   • Working on your knees
                                             • Hitting something with
                                                   your hand
                                             • Carrying something and
                                                   supporting it on your
                                                   shoulder or head
                                             • Standing/working off
                                                   ladders and rubbing soft
                                                   tissue
                                             • Using tools like tin snips
                                                   that require a lot of
                                                   pressure
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                                                        Moving Body
  Material Handling




All Other                                                   Walking
                                     Stair Use


    Wrench Use


                                          Welding
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   MATERIAL HANDLING - 11 Accidents - What
    could be done?

        Excess manual force- 4?
        No gloves- 3
        Proper cart / hand trucks- 2
        Unstable body position- 1
        Avoid falling objects- 1




        Design/Mitigation Ideas                          Material Handling
           Long term plan- decrease manual/increase powered lifting

           Job Planning- Safety meetings discuss options




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   STAIR USE - 5 Accidents - What could be done?
       No handrail use
       No handtruck
       Splinter from handrail




       Design/Mitigation
          Establish culture of using handrails

          Avoid carrying items that prevent you from using
            handrail/seeing
          Design OSHA compliant handrails                                   Stair Use
          Safety meetings/Job Hazard Analysis




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                          Slips/Falls
• Watch out for trip hazards
• Trash and debris, esp. items like
  conduit or pieces of hanger rod
  create hazards for everyone in
  the building
• Watch for slick surfaces
• Make sure lighting is adequate                       • Don’t jump from
                                                         equipment
                                                       • Use three points of contact
                                                         when climbing
                                                       • Wear fall protection when
                                                         required!

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  Preventing Some of the Most
Serious Accidents - Ladder Safety

   Pick the right ladder
       Don’t use a ladder that is too
        short
   Inspect the ladder
   Climb with both hands free




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After reporting to the on-site supervisor, review the
           task and site-specific JSA so as
      to be aware of potential hazards and the
         plans that exist to mitigate hazards


       Review the on-site Emergency Plan
     requirements and identify all emergency
             contacts and resources


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             JSA’s – Job Safety Analysis


A pre-job safety meeting and JSA will be conducted prior to
beginning daily operations and also when the job scope or
                    conditions change

             Full crew participation is expected

JSA’s must be revised as work conditions or personnel change
                       during the day




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THINK WHERE CAN I GET HURT
NOW THINK HOW DO I AVOID
       GETTING HURT




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•
                               Struck by
    Wear hard hats and safety glasses and
    watch out for falling objects.
•   Ensure mobile equipment has
    functioning back-up alarms.
•   Post and barricade areas with overhead
    hazards.
•   Install toeboards where needed.
•   Inspect and follow proper rigging
    procedures.
                                                         • Don’t walk under scaffolds,
                                                           suspended loads, lifts, etc.
                                                         • Follow established traffic
                                                           control procedures and wear a
                                                           reflective vest when working
                                                           around traffic.
                                                           ALWAYS be observant and cautious
                                                           when moving around a construction
                                                                         site.
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                  Struck - By
• Employee was walking across the site to
  visually inspect drill pipe when he was struck
  by a truck.
• The crown sheave shaft came out of one of its
  mounts releasing the sheaves, the drilling line,
  165,000 pound drilling string, and the blocks
  fell to the drilling floor.


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             Struck – By Incidents
• An employee was traversing a steep incline on an ATV when
  the vehicle turned over, striking the employee.
• Employee was struck on the head by a falling A-Frame leg
  of a drilling derrick. The employee was in the process of
  guiding the brace of the A-Frame leg into place.
• An employee was working on / near the line heater when
  the end blew off. The employee had been engaged in
  changing out the o-ring. Shut in the line heater by closing a
  valve upstream at / near the well head and closing a valve
  downstream in front of the separator. The valve upstream
  had been opened but the valve downstream had not been
  opened.


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                 Struck - By
• Employee jumped on to the back end of a
  traveling bobcat. The auger bit on the bobcat
  got stuck into the ground. Operator of bobcat
  stopped, backed up the bobcat, and raised the
  auger bit up; when doing this the hydraulic
  arms of the bobcat crushed his face and neck.




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                  Caught - in
• While lubricating rotary the employee’s raincoat
  was caught by the near-by rotating kelly.
• Employee was examining the hatch of a
  pressurized vessel for a suspected leak when the
  hatch exploded, striking the employee.
• While performing gas well servicing hydrocarbon
  vapors escaped from the well and were ignited by
  the engine on the work-over rig.


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              Caught in/between
• Assure all guards for equipment
  and machines remain in place.
• Lock out machines and equipment
  when making repairs.



                                        • Be aware of the lift mechanism
                                             on scissor lifts and other
                                             equipment pinch points.
                                        • Make sure the swing radius of
                                             cranes and other rotating
                                             equipment is barricaded.
                                        • Ensure that trenches are properly
                                             sloped or shored.
                    P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
 Workers were ordered out of the trench (left) just
moments before a portion collapsed (right), avoiding
          possible injury or loss of life.




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Confined Space, Excavations, or Hazardous
             Environments
• Where unusually hazardous gases present,
  advise employees, contractors, and service
  company supervisors of hazards
• Fill the cellar if it is not needed
• Definition of confined space
• Testing, permit system before entry
• Declassification of confined spaces


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            Drilling Fluid Tanks
• On land: Pits and tanks used to circulate
  flammables located 100 feet from well, or
  equivalent
• Drilling fluid tanks treated as confined spaces
• Ventilation, ventilation alarms, gas detectors
• Blowers with appropriate electrical
  classification



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     Pressure Release / Explosion
• Employee was attempting to clean out the
  coils from the hot oiler truck by pushing hot
  water through with the burners lit on the
  truck. Without uncoiling the hose, employee
  began pumping out the crude oil into the
  wash pit in the yard. The hot water caused a
  volatile steam cloud to form which was blown
  into the burners causing a flash fire.


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       Fall from Elevation
• The derrickman fell while holding onto the elevator
  after attempting to latch a drill pipe from the fingers
  of the board. He had his harness on but was not tied
  off.
• Fall from derrick board: Employee grabbed the
  elevator and held on for a few minutes but then let
  go, grasping a 4.5" vertical pipe. Employee slid
  partially down the pipe joint until he reached the
  pipe collar from where he free fell approximately 65
  ft.


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              Electrocution
• Repairing cables that had been damaged by a
  truck, employee was holding cable while
  another employee energized line (incorrect
  line).
• Pump jack, being moved with a gin pole truck,
  came into contact with or came near an
  electrical line.


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   Emphasis on New Regulations
• The regulatory agenda recently outlined is
  very aggressive.




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 Rig Electrical Systems Equipment

• Designed for use in hazardous locations if
  used there
• Maintain: manufacturer recommendation
• Flexible cord, resistant to dampness and
  petroleum
• Protect wiring from damage; replace or
  properly repair when insulation damaged

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Crane contacts overhead lines; causes fire;
           tires begin to burn




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           Electricity - The Dangers
• About 5 workers are
  electrocuted every week
• Causes 12% of young worker
  workplace deaths
• Takes very little electricity to
  cause harm
• Significant risk of causing fires




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          Electrical Shock Injury;
         Note entry and exit point
• These accidents can be
  prevented with
  improved supervisor
  and worker safety
  training and better
  coordination of work
  with all utilities
  involved.


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Same injury a few days later




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         At-Risk Workers
• Equipment operators for mobile equipment, dump
  trucks, drill rigs, cranes, etc. and employees who
  work around this equipment
• Emergency service personnel who respond to car
  crashes involving power poles and overhead lines,
  downed power lines, respond to fires involving
  electrical lines near structures
• Employees working from ladders

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Worker subjected to arc flash




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Don’t Put Your Life on the Line!




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                Housekeeping
                KEEP IT CLEAN
• Clean work areas; remove trip hazards
• Avoid / clean up wet floors (from leaks, spills,
  or pulling wet pipe)
• Keep cellar clear of fluids or loose
  equipment/material
• Keep egress routes unblocked
• Store tools & equipment to avoid falling
• Keep fire fighting equipment accessible

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     A good health & safety program
     provides regulatory compliance
Compliance with
regulatory standards
alone does not qualify as
a “good Safety and
Health program”
         Injuries on the job

• If you are injured on the job, you
  must report the injury to your
  supervisor immediately.
• Even if you don’t need medical
  treatment, report all accidents, near
  misses and injuries to your supervisor
  when they occur.
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Without a Safety Program You Could Go…




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Questions?




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Description: worker safety