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PowerPoint Presentation - Panda - GSI

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PowerPoint Presentation - Panda - GSI Powered By Docstoc
					                    Kai-Thomas Brinkmann
                    Sep. 17, 2003
                    VERTEX 2003
                    Low Wood, Lake Windermere




      PANDA at the GSI Future Facility
                                                 supported by BMBF


 •   The future GSI facility
 •   Physics with antiprotons at the GSI future facility
 •   The PANDA detector
 •   Target options and vertex detector, triggers
 •   Summary and outlook


Sep. 17, 2003                                                  KTB
    Press Release 16/2003, http://www.bmbf.de
    05.02.2003
    Bulmahn gives green light for large-scale research equipment
    "We are securing an international top position for German basic
    research"
    ...Basic research in the natural sciences has a long tradition
    in Germany. Its success is inseparably linked with the use of
    large-scale equipment at national and international research
    centres. "With the new concept, basic research in Germany will
    start from an excellent position when entering a new decade of
    successful work", Minister Bulmahn said.
    Together with European partners, the Gesellschaft für
    Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt shall extend its
    equipment in a phased approach and become a leading European
    physics centre. At least 25% of the costs amounting to €675
    million are to be supplied by foreign partners.

Sep. 17, 2003                                                         KTB
                                Primary Beams
           http://www-new.gsi.de/zukunftsprojekt/index_e.html


       Intensity upgrade of the existing accelerator complex
                                       1012/s, 1.5 A GeV 238U28+

                         SIS 100/200   Acceleration in SIS 100
                                       2(4)·1013/s 30 GeV protons
                SIS 18
                                       1010/s 238U73+ to 25 (- 35) A GeV
                                       Storage in SIS 200
                                       Technical prerequisites
                                       Beam cooling
                                       Fast-ramping superconducting magnets




Sep. 17, 2003                                                                 KTB
                       Secondary Beams


                               Secondary beams
                               Radioactive beams from 1.5 to 2 A GeV,
                               104 more intensive than at present
                               Antiprotons from 3 (0) to 30 GeV

                               Storage rings, beam cooling
                               Radioactive beams
                CR
                               e – A collider
                               1011 stored and cooled antiprotons of
                NESR           0.8 to 14.5 GeV/c




Sep. 17, 2003                                                          KTB
            Secondary Beams – Antiprotons
                   Extraction into HESR for experiments




                1011 stored antiprotons
                0.8 to 14.5 GeV           L = 2·1032 cm-2s-1 p/p ≥ 10-4
                x/x ≥ 100 µm             L = 1·1031 cm-2s-1 p/p ≥ 10-5
Sep. 17, 2003                                                              KTB
antiProton ANnihilation experiment located at the new
accelerator facility at DArmstadt ..in short: PANDA
 • Many open questions in non-perturbative QCD
           - Charmonium spectroscopy     - Hybrids   - New states

 • Chiral symmetry in SU(3) and SU(4)
           - Hadrons in nuclear matter

 • Hypernuclei: “3rd dimension of the chart of nuclides“
 CP violation in the charm sector, virtual Compton scattering,
 baryon spectroscopy, antiproton physics at low energies ...

Sep. 17, 2003                                                       KTB
     Structure of Hadrons: Quark-Gluon Dynamics

                Charmonium spectroscopy

                                                 e  e  Crystal Ball




                                                             pp
                                                         100 keV




                             Superior resolution in formation
Sep. 17, 2003                                                           KTB
     Structure of Hadrons: Quark-Gluon Dynamics

                         Hybrids
Quarks in mesons are well-
localized objects connected
  by gluons which can be
 excited (qqg, gg states)




                              Expectation: Hybrid states
                              better separated from fewer
                              states in charm region
Sep. 17, 2003                                           KTB
                Mesons in Nuclear Matter

Hadrons in nuclear matter and chiral restoration
 Mesons in cold baryonic matter: production with antiprotons


                       SPS


                   RHIC           g,p,p - beams


                 LHC                      SIS 18

                                            SIS 200
                  T [MeV]
                     300




Sep. 17, 2003                                                  KTB
                 Mesons in Nuclear Matter

                                        Interpretation: effective mass in the
                                         medium differs from the free mass



                                           GSI CBM and PANDA


                                            FOPI, KaoS, ANKE

                                                 pionic atoms
    SIS: increased K- yield in nuclei
     through medium modification

Sep. 17, 2003                                                            KTB
                Mesons in Nuclear Matter

  Hadrons in nuclei       D effective mass opens strong
                          decay channels
                          → properties of (vector) mesons
                          changed




Sep. 17, 2003                                             KTB
                         Detectors

                                               Fixed-target experiment
                                                Forward-backward
                                               asymmetry required
                                                Solenoid + dipole
                                                Granularity increase
                                               with decreasing
                                               scattering angle
                             C. Schwarz, GSI



Lower quality requirements for backward hemisphere
 Access to most detectors will be possible through the
upstream end of the detector (e.g. DIRC) only.
Sep. 17, 2003                                                        KTB
                          Detectors




        PANDA, top view




                                      PANDA, side view
Sep. 17, 2003                                            KTB
                                  Targets

 Pellet target: 1016 atoms/cm2 , pellets of 20-40 µm diameter




                                                            1 mm




  L = 1031 cm-2s-1 with 5·1010 p in HESR, suited for high resolution
                mode, Dp/p ~ 10-5, with e--cooling (up to 8 GeV)
Sep. 17, 2003                                                      KTB
                                    Targets

  Cluster jet target:
  Up to 1015 atoms/cm2
  about 1 cm long in
  interaction region

     L=2·1032/cm2s with
      2·1011 p in HESR
      (Dp/p ~ 10-4 with
    stochastic cooling)
                                                                     A. Khoukaz, U Münster


         Superfluid Helium targets: 1015 atoms/cm2, droplets, 0.5-100 µm ø
                                    with little divergence only (<0.1°)
         Heavy ion targets:       heavy gases, wires, and foils
Sep. 17, 2003                                                                            KTB
                    Targets and Trigger


• Panda will have to cope with an extended interaction region
• Primary vertex often unknown
• Wires and (perhaps) pellets
define z with ~20 µm accuracy,
displacement observable




• 107 interactions per second have to be handled and efficiently
searched for events of desired shape


Sep. 17, 2003                                                   KTB
                Detectors: Forward Spectrometer

                                                Forward dipole:
                                                • Max. B-field 2 Tm,
                                                actual field given by
                                                beam energy
                                                • 1 m gap
                                                • Tracking with drift
                                                chambers
                                                • PID with Cherenkov
                              C. Schwarz, GSI
                                                • e-m calorimeter
                                                • Hadronic calorimeter
                                                • Muon chambers

Sep. 17, 2003                                                        KTB
       Detectors: e-m Calorimeter Barrel


                                        APD readout,
                                        fast scintillator to
                                        handle high rate


                                    material                PbWO4
                                 size of crystals      3.5 X 3.5 X 15 cm3
                                   thickness                 17 X0
                                energy resolution   1.54% / (E/GeV) + 0.3%
                                 time resolution           < 150 ps
                                 no of crystals              7150
                                angular coverage           96% of 4π


Sep. 17, 2003                                                               KTB
                       Detectors: DIRC

PID (e, m, p, K, p):
below 50 hadronic calorimeter
50<Θ<220 aerogel Cherenkov counter
         or forward RICH
220<Θ<1400 DIRC (BABAR@SLAC)


                                         Simulated
                                         DIRC
                                         response:
                                         p / K sep.

Sep. 17, 2003                                         KTB
                         Detectors




  DIRC provides particle ID above 700 MeV/c only,
  but dynamic range of particles extends down to much lower
  momenta, esp. in backward direction
   Time-of-flight and/or energy loss measurement required!
  Add plastic barrel, use Silicon detector pulse height …
Sep. 17, 2003                                                 KTB
                  Detectors: Outer Tracker

            Straw tubes        Alternating tilted layers
                               • 15 double layers
                               • 9000 tubes
                               • Layers 2-14 are inclined with skew
                               angles between 4-9o
                               • Tube length –1.5 m
                               • Tube diameters – 4, 6, 8 mm
                               • 20 µm aluminized mylar, anode wire
                               20 µm thick


                               • Light materials
                               • Self-supporting structure
                               • High rate capability due to
                               single-straw readout
Sep. 17, 2003                                                  KTB
                    Detectors: Outer Tracker

                                      Performance
                                     studies (GEANT4)
                                     Transverse resolution 150 µm
                                     Longitudinal resolution 1 mm




     pp  
   Sep. 17, 2003                                               KTB
KTB Feb. 04, 2003
                 Detectors: Inner Vertex

 Micro-vertex detector
 Conceptual design adopts state-of-the-art silicon sensor
 techniques (ATLAS/CMS/ALICE inner tracker layers)

                                         Design features:
                                         • 5 layers forward of 90°
                                         • Barrel and forward disk
                                         structures
                                         • Smallest possible inner radius
                                         • Fast readout

                       A. Sokolov, GSI




Sep. 17, 2003                                                         KTB
                              Detectors: Inner Vertex

      barrel                                          forward wheels
      pixels 50 µm X 300 µm                           pixels 100 µm X 150 µm


                                                ToF


    beam pipe

                                  pellet pipe



                                                          total area < 0.2 m2
    7.2M barrel pixels, 50 μm x 300 μm
    2M forward pixels, 100 μm x 150 μm
    5 layers, 200 μm thick sensors (0.25%X0)
    Bump-bonded readout, 300 µm thick (0.37% X0)
Sep. 17, 2003                                                                   KTB
                        Detectors: Inner Vertex

                        p(8.5 GeV )p  p  p  p  p 
               Radial deviation                Longitudinal dev.


                                                              track
                                                          y
                                                                      z



                                                                      x




      D  51µm                             Z  82µm
Sep. 17, 2003                                                             KTB
  KTB April 24, 2003
                    Detectors: Inner Vertex

                Micro-vertex detector optimisation
  Minimum distance Beam pipe diameter needed for
  to vertex “point” accelerator reasons, exhaust rate of
                    targets, radiation load
  Number of track      Detector thickness (scattering, g
  points               conversion)
  Pixel size           Extrapolation of present-day technology;
                       estimation of potential of technologies
                       which are currently under development




Sep. 17, 2003                                                     KTB
                    Detectors: Inner Vertex

                Micro-vertex detector optimisation

Change in beam
pipe diameter
2 cm  4 cm
(may be needed
for vacuum and
pumping)




                       p(Pc  2GeV ) p  m  m  m  m    distance / mm
Sep. 17, 2003                                                              KTB
                Detectors: Inner Vertex




Barrel 90 staves, forward 120 staves
Thickness: staves 0.32% X0
           cooling 0.4% X0
           TOTAL 0.96% to 3.6% X0
Beam pipe now BeAl alloy, 500 µm


Sep. 17, 2003                             KTB
                      Detectors: Inner Vertex

         Present
         round of
       simulations




                                                                 (A. Sokolov, GSI)

           Conversion probabilities (from pp  3p0 at 8 GeV/c)
           Beam pipe               0.9%
           Vertex detector         3.1%
           Straw tracker           3.5% (2% from support)
           DIRC                    20%
Sep. 17, 2003                                                                        KTB
                    Detectors: Inner Vertex




                 / mm




                                                              / mm
Spatial
resolution
                                                / deg                                         / deg

                         Layer (or   Detector Resolution          Multiple scattering for
                         disk)              [mm]                different polar angles [mm]
                         number
                                                   Z(R)              90o   30o       9o
 Multiple scattering         1       12 (40)       70 (25)            0      0         8
 of µ with                   2       12 (40)       70 (25)            5     14        35
 Pc = 1 GeV                  3       12 (40)       70 (25)            13    38       120
                             4       70 (40)       12 (25)            26    68       180
Sep. 17, 2003                5       70 (40)       12 (25)            45    132      250          KTB
                      Detectors: Inner Vertex
       Modification of pixel orientation (size 50 µm x 400 µm)
       1st and 3rd – 5th layers with pads  to beam
       2nd layer || to beam direction
       Pad intrinsic resolution 12 µm x 70 µm
                Mean resolution for pp4m events at 8 GeV




Sep. 17, 2003                                                    KTB
                       Detectors: Inner Vertex


                Y(3770)  D+D-  K++K-+2p++2p-




                            D [mm]                         Z [mm]

                Only longitudinal coordinate sensitive to D-mesons

Sep. 17, 2003                                                        KTB
                Detectors: Inner Vertex




                                8 GeV/c




Sep. 17, 2003                             KTB
                               Hypernuclei

            pp   
        Detectionof one 
      Capture of the other 




Sep. 17, 2003                                KTB
                      Detectors: Inner Vertex

                Considerations on radiation hardness
Multiplicity of neutrons/protons, p+Fe, 7 GeV/c, about
10 (total particle multiplicity 30)
           [UrQMD, Galoyan&Polanski hep-ph/0304196]

Neutron flux: HI targets aiming at 107 interactions/s,
                     Mn = 10
           => Φn  106 cm-2s-1 in innermost layer (r = 1 cm)
3·1013 neutrons per year, probably less in case of
Hydrogen targets
Sep. 17, 2003                                                  KTB
                       DAQ and Trigger


      • Self-triggered detector readout
      • Flash ADCs
      • Synchronization via distributed clock, 50 ps resolution
      • NO trigger signals, but FPGA-based flexible data
      reduction, feature extraction and filtering on the fly
      • High-performance computer nodes and high-
      bandwidth connections, Gbit Ethernet
      • Hardware: PC memories and FPGAs


      Self-Triggered Data Push Architecture to allow
      parallel selection of different event types
Sep. 17, 2003                                                     KTB
                                Summary

  PANDA @ GSI will have a rich physics programme.
  A broad range of physics topics will be covered with
  one multi-purpose detector setup.
  For most of these topics, a micro-vertex detector is
  essential.
  Studies for the detector layout are under way.
  Also under investigation: alternative
  designs, e.g. employing MAPS
  and/or strip detectors.



Sep. 17, 2003                                            KTB
                      40 Institutes (32 Locations) from 9 Countries:
                     Austria - Germany – Italy – Netherlands – Poland
                      – Russia – Sweden – United Kingdom – USA

 U Bochum                                        KVI Groningen
 U Bonn                                          IKP Jülich I + II
 U & INFN Brescia                                U Katowice
 U Catania                                       LANL Los Alamos
 U Cracow                                        U Mainz
 GSI Darmstadt                                   TU München
 TU Dresden                                      U Münster
 JINR Dubna I + II                               BINP Novosibirsk
 U Erlangen                                      U Pavia
 NWU Evanston                                    U of Silesia
 U & INFN Ferrara                                U Torino
 U Frankfurt                                     Politechnico di Torino
 LNF-INFN Frascati                               U & INFN Trieste
 U & INFN Genova                                 U Tübingen
 U Glasgow                                       U & TSL Uppsala
 U Gießen                                        ÖAdW Vienna
                                                 SINS Warsaw

Sep. 17, 2003                                                        KTB

				
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