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HUMAN POWER CAR DESIGN 3

VIEWS: 15 PAGES: 26

									the Design concept for a




                                                                         the Design concept for a

                                              Compact Human Powered Vehicle or City Pedal Car .
                                             with a good Turning Circle and Linear Drive that is safe




                                                                  PDF Free e-book 2010 by jonovid.com

                                                    ergonomics & adaptability is central to this pedal car design.
                                                                 the Monocoque all in one body has
                                                    two Cargo spaces 10 Litres in the rear. 20 Litres in the front.
                                                                       need more Cargo space?
                                                           you can use it as a shopping-trolley if you like.
                                                        Just set it in PARK and load the Seat with grocerys.
                                                        this narrow compact pedal car will go most places a
                                                               shopping-trolley or wheelchair can Go.
                                                                handles, handles and more handles.
                                                         this pedal car has handles on the side of the Seat.
                                                                            back & front .
                                                            Also a Steering & Parking handle at the rear.
                                                         so you can push it or park it like a shopping-trolley.
                                                        this pedal car design is NOT like the most tricycles.


                                                  Most Recumbent tricycles use derailers bicycle crank & Pedals
                                                                        with up front steering.
                                                             this system works well on the open road.
                                                          but there are problems in City driveing/rideing.
                                                  mostly due to a poor Turning Circle when you need it the most.
                                                          Also the width of a pedal car can be a problem.
                                                                     in a suburban environment


                                                      doorways, gates and the bollards found in city parks.
                                                     all are a problem for most wide front steering tricycles.
                                           bicycle lanes are made for 2 foot wide bicycles. Not 4 foot wide tricycles

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                                              So tricycles may need to merge with traffic Going at 45 to 60kmph.
                                                this is not a problem for this pedal car with a Fit & Healthy rider.
                                                        yes you can use it as fites equipment. like rowing.
                                                                 to use as a fixed seat rowing vehicle
                                                         just push both pedals together at the same time.
                                            this pedal car design uses a compact Linear Drivetrain to save space.
                                                      one more thing if you need to go in Reverse you can.
                                                as long as your on a hard level road or floor there's no problem.
                                                    just flick the button on the PARK lever & pump the lever.
                                                    a set of wheels lift the vehicle & then drop in to Reverse.

                                                                      See this two in one spit photo art




                                                                                art work by JONOVID

                                             To Test* the five known HPV Pedal drive systems. ( theory ) .
                                         you may need to put sensors on ( both ) Pedals to log push/pull data.
                                             know the weight of the all rotateing & reciprocating mass's.
                                               know the weight of the riders legs ( reciprocating mass )
                                                         1 bicycle crank & Pedals ( benchmark ) .

                                                 2 crank with connecting push rods to sliding Pedals on rails.
                                          3 crank with connecting push rods to recip- pivot & swinging arms Pedals.
                                          4 reciprocating loop to sliding Pedals on rails with 2xOne way Clutchs+idler.
                                          5 recip- Pedals pivot & swinging arms to 2x 1 w Clutchs+Return Springs*.

                                                                                           NOTE

                                     that all Pedal drive systems have sum Friction and power losses

                                       a bicycle crank & Pedals has power losses as the other foot is

                                           is lifte'd "Returns" using sum of the power of the 1st foot.

                                            in MY system A "Return Spring" Returns The other Foot.


                                             article posted is 90% untested design & may have technical glitches,

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                                                                     The Human Powered Vehicle Project


                                                                                Vehicles Back Story

                                                           This Design concept started way back in 1994.
                                                     that led to a home project to see if a Human Powered Car
                                                                   would work as a useful Vehicle.
                                                              Joking..! No.. Ok . not the Flintstones car.
                                                               but a working Vehicle for every day use.

                                                 as my brother and I had the use of Dads shed along with all the
                                                       tools needed for most work. on motorbikes & cars.
                                                       and as we had sum exterior time most week ends.
                                                   we cut & welded up the first design using old bicycle parts .
                                                     set up as a three wheel trike with a tubular steel frame.
                                               it had two linked bicycle forks with 700' Wheels for steering at the
                                              Rear and a cut & bent upside-down BMX bicycle frame at the front.
                                                               using a standard BMX wheel & pedals.
                                               the frames body is just a 2m long 10cm tube ending with two 45o
                                                        uptubes at the back for the two bicycle headsets.
                                                            the 4m 13ft long steel tubular trike worked
                                                      we rode it up and down the public road outside home
                                                             it had a lot of design problems as its long
                                                   and steering it with a overhead tiller-arm proved to be tricky.

                                                      Old School project ? more about having Fun at the time.
                                                sum Friends sed at the time that they'd like to buy it. for $200 AU
                                                         this got me thinking there may be a market for this.
                                                                       as a new vehicle Design.
                                                  If people like the Design of an basic steel trike made out of old
                                                                    bicycle parts with crap steering
                                                 then how much more there like a all new sleek compact vehicle
                                                      as the basic bicycle engineering is over a 100 years Old.
                                                  and may be that there's a all new design is needed new days,
                                                          say one that drives more like a car then a bicycle
                                                 with a wide soft car seat design not a hard seat as on a bicycle.
                                                                 also why stop there ? go all the way.
                                                          in a all new Design that looks and feels like a car
                                                    not just a sit down trike like the Schools use for HPV racing.




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                                                            So in 1998 I set out to Design an all new Vehicle.

                                         The Design had to be compact. so it fit throw a standard doorway .
                                        with good aerodynamics and have a turning circle that is less then 4m
                                                                or 12feet with a reverse gear.
                                                       this is more for city cruising then all out racing.
                                                       in mid 1999 I had the idea of selling it to China
                                                      But first you need to make a fully working model
                                                         and do a lot of research and development.
                                              a year later and I still only got 10% of the parts that I need for a
                                                                        working prototype.
                                                       as it is more difficult then I thought at the time.

                                                       This is one Design that works but its not my design
                                                                   Steering geometry concept -




                                             the Design has been updated over the years. looking into improving it


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                                                            But time and changes in life got in the way.
                                                                      in 2003 the project ended .
                                                         - so to date I don't intend on building this design.
                                                               lack of time, money, tools, workspace
                                                   mostly Due to mechanical engineering and fabrication costs
                                                 This is open to all Engineering nuts to have a Go at making this.
                                                               that's why its on the web for all to see.

                                                     It is possible to have a rear steering tricycle that is stable
                                                                           at all speeds. ?
                                                  also It is possible to have a Linear Drive train without suffering
                                                              from high power losses in the Drive train.?




                                                            The use of standard bicycle parts
                                           in a standard Recumbent Designed Human Powered Vehicle.
                                                         this leads to the need to run a drive chain
                                                 looping to the Rear going on the underside of the seat.
                                               this limits how low the vehicles seat can go to the ground.
                                                             the more the seat is off the ground
                                            the more wheel track width is needed to keep the vehicle stable
                                              the human siting in the seat is up to 80% of the total weight.
                                                                if a vehicle is to be compact.
                             a human powered vehicle needs to be designed around the human siting in the seat
                                            not as a bicycle that you sit On its seat riding on top of a frame.
                                large numbers of human powered vehicle designs use a tuber frame that you sit on.
                                                 also large numbers use a standard bicycle chain drives
                                     the front wheels get used for Steering but as Steering needs a lot of space.
                                      more wheel track width is needed. so most have a width of 90cm or more.
                                                                 riders legs need space also.
                                       this is ok for H.P.V. racing as there on wide tracks with sweeping bends
                                    but a problem if you need to fit the vehicle throw a standard doorway at home
                                                or ride in a city with traffic on your way to work or school.
                                                 racing design H.P.V.s are for racing only. in line speed

                                                But for a vehicle design that is for fun and comfort not just speed.


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                               a Kids Vehicle or City vehicle with a good Turning Circle at a radius of under 3m or 12"ft
                                           and a total width of just 66cm. then this Design concept is for you
                                                                                .
                                           " it never got made as I had big problems with cost and time
                                                  all the research and development that is needed.
                                      more improvements are needed to fix known problems in the design.
                                               in the end it stoped me going further with this project.
                                                          its an expensive project to work on ."
                                                                                .
                                                   but if this is not a problem for you then give it a Go.
                                      the information on this web site should be all that is needed to get started
                                                                          as a project.




                                                           if you think you can profit from this
                                            my investigations show that a fully working vehicle has a market.
                                             just that the unit cost may be a problem in the first two years.

                                                   use lower costing Fibreglass in non-load bearing body panels

                                                                      like the nose-cone or rear cargo bin




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                           With the growth in would population and some companies looking for new Green eco projects
                                               the companies that can most benefit by using this Design
                                         are bicycle manufactures , sports or fitness equipment manufactures
                                  manufactures that use carbon fibre and or machined aluminium in making parts.
                                                        as aircraft equipment or boat manufactures
                                    selling a new compact human powered vehicle to the would should be easy
                                        Only if it is sold as Safe and reliable easy to use everyday eco vehicle
                                                as a way to keep fit or save the would from greenhouse.
                                               ether way its got a lot more comfort to ride then a bicycle.
                                           ultimately the hi cost of a compact H.P.V. will go down over time
                                                       as the number of units sold worldwide go's up.
                                             the research and development cost can be payoff over time.
                                       the aesthetics of a monocoque body should help but make allowances
                                              for new trends in H.P.V. design. colours taste all get choice
                                   this is Not just a Kids toy but a Design for a fully working street or road vehicle




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                                                 see MY HPV Videos at http://www.youtube.com/user/JONOVID
                                                   recommended Frame material be monococque carbon fiber
                                                    body with aluminium front and Rear bolt on subassemblys
                                                             holding all the Wheels and moveing parts.
                                                      the Seat is part of the Vehicles body with a air mattress
                                                   cushion liner and a floating 6 spring head rest as part of the
                                                   Rear rollbar. the Rear rollbar is part of the Rear subassembly
                                                    The Trike uses box pedals or boots to hold the Riders feet
                                                                          with a heel support.
                                                 in a Recumbent tricycle a full leg and heel support is more
                                                      comfort. for the rider. as No pedal clips are needed.
                                                  box pedals or boots are made of carbon fiber -recommended.
                                                  as there is a lot of forces at play. and the need to save Weight
                                                 pedal force is transmitted through a pedal side drive chain and
                                                    When force is no longer applied to the pedal a long return
                                                                  spring pulls the drive chain back.
                                                            and returns the pedal to its starting position.
                                                              The two pedals are Not Linked together.
                                                       The pedals can be pushed independently or both can
                                                                     be pushed at the same time.
                                                          But the Gear shifting is linked to both the pedals.
                                                 by two chain loops that ride up & down the two solid drive Bars.
                                                  on two 8 tooth sprockets on both drive Bars. 4 sprockets in all.
                                                     at the bottom is a transverse mounted axle that is used to
                                                 shift Gear and pivot the pedal linkage to the front subassembly.
                                                     A rack and pinion setup is used for Gear shifting with the
                                                  pinion Cog centre of the Gear shift axle. in front of Riders Seat
                                                                 between the two Pedal yoke/arms.
                                                 The Gear shift slides on two rods with rack rod moving over the
                                                   Gear shift axles Cog. a locking pin and button is used on the

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                                                      Gear lever to lock the slide at one of 15 or 25 notches
                                                this moves geometry pivot of the drive chain. setting the Gearing
                                                     The Gear lever is between the Seat and the pedal box's
                                                                        its just room for it.




                                    this Design theory calls for all new Custom made aluminium parts to save weight.
                                   but to prove it works as shown parts may need to be made-up with steel just to test
                                                                           the theory works.
                                                  if all is OK then you can later replace with aluminium one,s
                                                                                    .
                                             the monocoque carbon fiber body should be a three part body mold
                                                  a iner body liner is the seat bottom , back and wheel archs
                                               and the two outer skins make the L& R sides of the vehicle mold.
                                        the body has inclosed wheel archs at the front. as this is for added strength
                                                         as the front of the seat is held by the wheel archs
                                                and the wheel archs are held by the outer vehicle body skins.
                                                 two parallel tubes or bars sit at the top and sides of the seat.
                                                           there to help the rider get in or out the vehicle
                                       To Access the front Wheels and pedals is from the underside of the vehicle.
                                          the vehicles nose-cone is a separated part that is used for carrying stuff
                                       a bulkhead or divider should used if the nose-cone is used for carrying stuff.
                                           the divider should be set just in front of the pedals with a gap of 30mm
                                          at full pedal Stroke. the divider allso adds strength to the vehicles body.
                                    the full vehicle body measurements are not shown as this is just a Design theory.




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                                                                               .
                                 the pedals are two flat plates that the riders feet push on with 80mm heel supports
                                at the bottom of the pedals as support this holds the riders feet and legs up in place.
                                          carbon fiber should be used to make the all-in-one part box pedals.
                                the two box pedals should have 80mm inclosed sides to keep the riders feet in place
                                                             also to add strength to the pedal.
                                        as there is a lot of ( Torque ) twisting forces on the pedals box frames.
                                     the pedals back or spine should have a fiat flange that runs up the back,s to
                                               add support the top of the pedals aluminium mounting plate .
                                          it is the pedals top mounting plate that holds the three ball bearings
                              that hold the top ends of the 40cm long swing arms that link back it to the vehicles frame.
                                     two of the three swing arms per pedal should be linked top and bottom as a
                                  yoke for add strength with the outer most arm by the front wheel as the drive Bar.
                                                        the pedal swings in the centre of the yoke.




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                                                         the drive Bar is part of the vehicles power-train setup

                                                                                 .
                                            The Pedal geometry concept there are two sides to this setup.
                                               A pedal swings on three 420mm pivot arms that are part of the
                                                   pedal linkage. The upfront pivot arm is the leveller arm.
                                                         that sets the Pedal Stroke Rollover geometry.
                                                   two back one's are linked as a yoke with the outer most
                                                               arm by the wheel as the drive Bar.
                                                     The drive Bar is a solid 350mm long aluminium Bar.
                                              with a 2mm deep & 6mm wide groove or track cut in to it for the
                                                     drive blocks twin skateboard ball bearings to run on.
                             The drive Bar is 12mm wide X 15mm wide the groove runs all a long one 12mm side only
                                           top to bottom. this groove is for the drive blocks two sealed bearings
                                        the twin sealed ball bearings work as rollers that ride on the The drive Bar.
                                                         drive block is 14mm X 20mm wide 80mm long
                                                     with a 6 or 7*mm wide opening slot machined in to it
                                   for the two skateboard bearings inside it held by two steel pins and spacing shims
                                    a triad steel pin gos through the centre as a pivot two more skateboard bearings
                             sit on the two ends of the pin that are held on the outside bearing rims the two ends of the
                                          drive bracket a 'U' shaped aluminium block with two 100mm long arms
                                                           made by a 16mm gap is cast or machined.
                                the drive bracket holds one end of the drive chain and the two outer pivot bearings on
                                                                         the drive block.
                                 the drive bracket needs to clear the The drive Bar on both sides by as much as 3mm
                                              allso clear the looping chain at the back as seen looking forward
                                          as drive Bar will pivot over a full 110 degrees. to the the drive bracket .
                                      so the drive bracket needs to clear at 55 degrees. in low Gear & pedal at rest
                                      allso clear at 55 degrees. at the top in high Gear. with the pedal at full Stroke
                                                       the pedal will swing a full 90 degrees. in a Stroke
                                               but the Gear shift will add 10 degrees at the top or the bottom.




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                                                                    Gear ride up effect
                                                this is why the need for a gap at the top of the drive Bar
                                                              a limit on the top Gear setting.
                                       as the two bottom sprockets on the Main Gear shift axle are locked by the
                                                                          Gear shift
                                   the two pedals swing a full 90 degrees on this Main Gear shift axle making both
                                              Gear shift chain loops move on the locked bottom sprockets
                                    both drive blocks are pulled up the there drive Bars by 25mm as there pedals
                                                                         are pushed
                                  so the Gear ride up effect makes the Gear setting move up over the pedal Stroke.
                               a Gear setting of 1 will end up at say setting 3 at full pedal Stroke in a 15 speed setup
                            the top Gear setting will ride up 2 more speeds 15 speed is 15+2 speed over a pedal Stroke
                                this is why the drive blocks and the top sprockets all need ball bearings as that move
                                                          with the pedal Stroke under full load.

                                                  The drive block is sandwiched between the two parts of the
                                                 drive bracket that is part of the shock absorber and drive chain
                                                         coupling that holds one end of the drive chain.
                                               then the drive chain loops the Ratchet on the front Wheel hub then
                                                     gos back to a idler sprocket before looping back to the
                                                           pedal Return Spring at the back of the Trike.

                                                 The Reverse gear setup is by two 7" mini Wheels that are just
                                              in front of the front two Drive Wheels on a transverse mounted axle
                                               the mini Wheels are offset from the axle so that will lift the Vehicle
                                                               off the ground. by 50mm for parking or
                                                      roll under the two Drive Wheels for a Reversing gear.
                                                  The Reverse lever is set on the side of the front subassembly
                                                 with a two way Ratchet for moving in to Reverse, park or drive.
                                                  The parking is a freewheeler mode so that the Vehicle can be
                                                             pushed back with out locking up its Wheels.
                                                    The two front Drive Wheels and there hub's are part of a
                                                                      transverse mounted axle .
                                                           there are three axles in the front subassembly.




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                                                         Steering geometry is by the use of two forks
                                       the 1st fork is the "Steering Fork" this set's the rear wheel tracking and tow-out
                                           thats needed for the ideal angle for cornering. using a Bicycle Head-set.
                                            but this one fork has maximum oversteer making the Vehicle unstable.
                                           So a 2nd fork the "Suspension Fork" is added linking back to the Frame.
                                                               Its this fork that holds the rear wheel .
                                    Its job is to remove the oversteer by adding understeer from the "Suspension Link"
                                   that is linked as a upside-down pendulum that swings from the bottom of the Vehicle.
                                                    the Steering gets heavier the more you turn the Vehicle.
                                                              But if its to heavy then that's a problem.
                                                  So to fix this problem the "Suspension Link" is made longer.
                           as a resolution the "Suspension Fork" is bent-up 45o to give the longer"Suspension Link"more space.
                                    Control is vir two control rods that are attached to the bottom of the "Steering Fork"
                                                   at the other ends are attached to the vehicles handlebars
                              the handlebars are split to go around the rider but work as one . moving in opposing directions.
                                                                Steering shud feel just like a Bicycle.




                                      a bicycle pedal can be made to stop and start. as there a low speed operation
                                                                                .
                                                                       to fix a problem
                                                      adding length to the pedal arms can add torque
                                             but human limbs are a set length so a reciprocating pedal is used
                                                       a bicycle pedal can be made to stop and start.
                                   the two pedals and there arms can be made to move in the zone of maximum torque
                                          the rider can now row the two pedals as one or over-lap pedal Strokes
                                   giveing a pumping motion but the speed of pedal Return can be a lot higher then the
                                                                    power Stroke speed.
                                                   The pedals can be pushed independently or both can

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                                                                           be pushed at the same time.




                                                    The Need for Gears is a must for a vehicle like this.
                                            this is the drive ratio mechanics system that I will describe here.
                            as this vehicle uses reciprocating components so a reciprocating Gear mechanics system
                                        must be used to In order for a system to operate at maximum efficiency
                                               the pedal arms pivot on the vehicles frame ( pedal linkage )
                                 the drive chain is held half way up the arm ( the drive bar ) links back to wheel hub.
                               by moving the ( drive block ) up or down the the drive bar. the Gear Ratio is changed.
                           as the drive bar is moving with the pedal linkage a chain loop is used to move the drive block
                                 the chain loop is a bicycle chain that go up the two sides of the the drive bar that is
                                                              part of the moving pedal linkage.
                                  at the top and at the bottom are 8 tooth sprockets. the top sprocket is an idler that
                                                                    gust loops the chain.
                                    the bottom sprocket is held or locked to the end of a transverse mounted axle.
                                                                  the Main Gear shift axle.
                                       This is the axle that holds half the of the two pedal linkages to the vehicle.
                                ten separate ball bearings run on it 4 hold the axle to the subassembly/vehicle body
                                   two hold the left pedal linkage or yoke. two hold the right pedal linkage or yoke.
                                           at the centre is two more bearings that hold a yoke or flange body.
                               this flange is a rack and pinion setup is used for shifting Gear. two rods are hold by it
                                                      running front to Rear of the front subassembly.
                                     the Gear shift slides on this. a triad rod is a rack that is held by the Gear shift
                                     and runs over the centre of the Main Gear shift axle and a centre pinion Cog.
                                                                               .

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                                                    so to shift Gear you just freewheel by stoping pedalling.
                                              then just grab the Gear shift press a button move it back or forward.
                                                            let go then start pedalling in a new gear.
                                                                  the button is just a locking pin




       .
                                   the drive block is a block of machined aluminium with two slots machined in to it
                                          from side to side that holds two bearings. as a tandem set of rollers
                              the two ball bearings. run in a 3mm deep machined channel in the drive bar top to bottom
                                   to keep the drive bracket cantered so it will not contact the side of the drive bar .
                                     at the centre of the drive block and between the bearings. is a steel pivot pin
                                      the two ends of the pin hold two more bearings set outside the drive block.
                                     the drive bracket is a machined aluminium U bracket that holds the outsides
                                   of the two bearings on the steel pin. its end holds the drive chain by a steel bolt.
                                                     drive bracket swings inline with the drive chain.
                                    but the drive block moves with the drive bar. so all 4 bearings have a job to do.
                                                     its a pivot setup. describe here is just one side,
                                        there two drive blocks and drive brackets. for left and right pedal drives.

                                                                             note this text gaps or error




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                                                                           .
                                                               Linear Drive problems
                                        Friction and other losses are important in human powered vehicles,
                                               as they reduce the amount of power which is expended
                                                 which is not applied to propelling a vehicle. "losses"
                                                These losses could be categorized as friction losses,
                           Return spring losses, and dynamic losses due to constant acceleration and deceleration of the
                              reciprocating components of the one-way clutches and associated chains, pulleys, etc.
                                   as an apparatus for the transfer of linear human power to a rotating member




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                                                                                     .
                                     pedal Return spring losses should be no more then standard bicycle pedals
                               as power is moveing to the opposing pedal to lift opposing foot up on a bicycle crankshaft.
                                                      a Return spring in a reciprocating system must be light
                                                but have the power to push the pedal back lifting the riders knee.
                                                  The weight of the reciprocating components is also important.
                                                  a lighter weight reduces the dynamic losses due to reversals.
                                                  The most efficient system will have few and lightweight parts.
                                                         reciprocating dynamic losses should be kept low.
                                                               in this human powered vehicle design.
                            the riders knee and leg swing as a pendulum in the pedal box's on ball bearing links and yokes
                           a pedal rebound spring or dynamic pedal Stop should kick the pedal back 20mm if rapid pedalling
                                            a dynamic rebound spring design pedal Stops should keep losses low.
                             as a dynamic or air piston spring design should let the pedal swing to a stop at slow pedalling
                                            with a minimum of losses. but give a good kick back at rapid pedalling.
                                 all the pedal swing arms must use all ball bearings to keep friction losses to a minimum.
                               the hubs , one way clutchs and the drive blocks all must use ball bearings in there design.
                                                                                     .
                                             the Two Front Wheels should be set at 6 or 7 degrees of Camber
                                                 so that there rims are closer together at the top then the bottom
                                  this lets the two front wheels bottom tire and rims track at the outer limits of the vehicle
                                                          as this vehicle has a Total Width of just 660 mm
                                             so any added tracking Width makes the vehicle just that more stable.
                                       also makes for the two front Wheels alignment procedure a lot easier as all that
                                        is needed is to twist the front Axle and retighten the 4 bolts under the vehicle
                                                                                     .
                                                  The Front Drive Axle is machined or cast in to a U shape .
                                                         so that it will go down and around the rider's legs
                             on the underside of the vehicles front and bottom part of the seat that is part of the bodywork.
                                therefore the front 40cm long drive axle has two 15cm upright flanges at its ends that the
                              two front Wheel axle steel stubs are bolted or threaded in to it. at a 6 degree angle of offset
                                     allso the two upright flanges hold the two disc-brake pad units at the bottom ends.
                                                the front Axle and the two pedals and there pedal-linkage are all
                                                                  part of the front subassembly unit.
                                          this subassembly units back end must fit under the front of the rider's seat.
                             in a space of no more then 10 to 5 cm going back sum 17cm on the underside of the vehicles
                                                                                  seat.

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                                              the back and bottom part of the seat rides just 8 cm off the ground
                                       this is the vehicle bodys lowest Point a just 80 mm -Bottom of Seat to ground
                                       the front subassemblys front end gos up to and under the front of the vehicle.
                                             this subassembly unit should be made of aluminium tubing with two
                                                      hinges that are bolted under the vehicles bodywork
                                                   by the bottom and back of the vehicles front wheel archs.
                                                        that also is the front and side of the rider's seat.
                                               the front wheel subassembly should swing out for maintenance .
                                         two more flanges at the front of the Vehicle hold the subassembly in place
                                                                      with clamps and bolts.




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                                                                                 .
                                                                 The Two Front Wheel Hubs
                                           should be made with machined aluminium in two interlocking parts
                                       the outer part is the wheels hub with its two flanges for the wheels spokes.
                                   this also holds the outer wheel ball bearing that is countersink in to the outer hub.
                                        so that its end will not contact the inside of the vehicles outer wheel arch,
                          the space or clearance between the wheel arch and the wheel may be as little as 15cm in places
                              also it may not be possible to fit the inner-side ball bearing that must go over the axle stub
                                       but also go inside the one way clutch or Ratchet there is just not the space.
                                                              so a 2nd part is used in the Hub.
                                                    this should be made with machined aluminium also.
                     its job is to hold the inner-side large ball bearing that must go over the axle stub and slide to the big end.
                                                      but also fit inside the one way clutch or Ratchet .
                        the two interlocking parts of the hub should be threaded in to each. with the clutch unit in the middle
                                     but one side wheel hub must be Reverse threaded in its two interlocking parts.
                          also keyways outer cuts or a way to unscrew the two halves should be made in the outer flanges
                                                          along with the tools to unscrew them with.
                                        so the one way clutch/sprocket in the middle can be repaired if need be.
                            the outer part of the wheels hub with its two wheel flanges also needs the inner most flange to
                         have locking pins pressed in to it a long with a keyway to lock the one way clutch/sprocket in place
                                                                   a long with the brake disc.
                           so that the brake disc and clutch/sprocket are held between the two interlocking parts of the hub
                                           with the locking pins pushed in to the wheel flange side of the hub.




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                                                                                 .
                                    producing a reliable and safe Clutch is key to this vehicle Design working.
                              its the part that converts linear motion into rotational motion and connects or disconnects
                                                  between Wheel and Pedal each and every foot Stroke .
                                 using a bicycle 18 tooth sprocket freewheeler as a One Way Clutch has its problems
                                            1st the 18 tooth sprocket may set the Gears to low for the vehicle.
                                 a sprocket with 16 or 14 teeth may be what is needed for the vehicle to get top speed
                                  and for that to work the Clutch or Ratchet must sit beside the sprocket not inside it.
                                                            as with a bicycle 18 tooth freewheeler.
                                                    also there's the need for a reliable and safe Clutch .
                                          its got to work for thousands hours of riding and wear without failing
                                              and if it did it must do it safely by letting the Wheel freewheel.
                                                      it must Not lock up the Wheel in a Clutch failure.
                             the Pedal Return Spring should be designed to fail at its mounting flange if over stretched
                                                              letting a Clutch failure do so safely .
                             so I Recommended that the Pedal Return Spring ends should be held by two large rubber
                                                         grommets or links at the back of the vehicle.




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                                                                                .
                              to add reliably to the system a shock absorber should be connected between the drive Wheel
                                                                         and the Pedal.
                           the shock absorbers job is to pretension the Clutch before the full force of the Pedal is applied to it
                             the shock absorber can be set beside the brake disc as a flat rubber ring with interlocking teeth
                                                                            or pegs.
                                       that lets the Clutch unit rotate up to 15 degrees on the hub for added reliably.
                                              this rubber ring works is a Spring between the Wheel and Pedal.
                                  its Spring resistors give should be set at 50% of the value of the Pedal Return Spring.
                           as its all about pretensioning the Clutch /Ratchet pawls before the full force of Pedal is supplied to
                                                the toothed ring or rack wheel inside the one way clutch unit.




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                                                                          .
                              Designing Custom one way Clutch units for this vehicle is just one of the bigger costs.
                           must HPV projects use standard bicycle parts. as that are a lot easier to get hold of and have
                                                           proven reliably over the years.
                                 but to use all new custom Designed parts in a more complex or unknown design
                             is a riskey undertakeing as most need a lot of R&D before there Ok to use in a vehicle.
                             this is a Human Powered vehicle project that is 90% custom fabricated if it works at all.
                                     geometries and configurations are all custom and most are not tested a all
                                         mechanical efficiency of the two complex drivetrains are unknown
                                                    and so is the Rear wheel Steering geometry.
                                            vehicle has two cargo zones as you can see its a compact
                                       layout for the Human Powered vehicle is that of a three wheeled trike




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                                                                                                .

                                         ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  1998 Design Specifications: as set out may have errors
                                                                       Wheelbase: 1000mm
                                                      Track: 620 mm -will fit throw a standard doorway
                                                 Total Width: 660 mm 860 mm -with the mirrors swing out
                                                                 Seat Height: 600 mm back 45o
                                                                     Seat Width: 400 mm back
                                          Seat Pockets: 110 mm Width Depth 140 mm Shoulder & elbow zone
                                                       Wheel size: 20" x 1.75 all round ( bicycle tyres )
                                                          Reverseing Wheels: 7" (approx) solid tyres.
                                                                      Total Length: 2200 mm
                                                              Max Height: 1000 mm -top of rollbar
                                                       Lowest Point: 80 mm -Bottom of Seat to ground.
                                                                    Turning Circle: 2.5 m radius
                                                     Gears: 15-25 speed, low 1- 2.5 high 1- 6.8 (approx)
                                                             Return Cogs 2x 18 tooth idler sprocket
                               One way Clutches 2x bicycle 18 tooth sprocket freewheeler or use custom One way Clutches
                                             Return Spring 2x 350 mm x 10 mm max Stetch Length 650mm
                                                          Crank Length 450 mm Pedal Stroke radius
                                                                    Pedal Stroke: 320 mm max
                                           Pedal Rebound: 2x Stop & Rebound Spring 40mm rest 20mm push
                                            Pedal Stroke Rollover: foot at rest- 45o to max stroke- 5o degrees
                                                   Pedal height above ground: 150 mm (approx) Bottom
                                                           Weight Distribution: 40 % rear, 60 % front
                                                               Weight (approx) 25 kg, 50 pounds
                                                                                     .
                                                           This list of Specifications is out of date.

                                                          Testing the concept with Old basic bicycle parts




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                                                        Testing the concept with Old basic bicycle parts 2




                                                                                using bicycle sprockets

                                                      THIS IS JUST one part of A TEST RIG To prove it works




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                                                               Maintenance on a concept Design H.P.V.

                                         To Access the front Wheels and pedal boots. recommended steps: E Book

                       1 flip the parked vehicle over on its side using a ground mat under it to keep marks off the body work .
                               2 unhook the two pedal chain return springs from there flanges at the back of the Vehicle.
                          3 Unscrew the two clamp collar nuts that hold the front Wheel assembly to the vehicles front. and
                                                    swing out the full Drive assembly on its hinges.
                                        the two hinges are under the vehicles seat at the Front by the gear shift.
                                     4 check the two front Wheels run smoothly and are free of buckles in the rims



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                                                               front Wheel alignment. recommended steps:

                                                           1 Have the rider sit in the vehicle.
                                  2 then check the Rear suspension ride level is at the 50/50 setting. if not reset it.
                                                       ( the vehicle must be on level Ground.)
                             3 Access the 4 bolts under vehicle that hold the clamps the front Axle to the front assembly.
                                                               and untighten them a bit-
                                      do not remove them only just so the front Axle can be twisted if need be.
                                           4 have the rider sit in the vehicle to relevel suspension before
                                              Wheel alignment .and chock the Rear Wheel to stop the
                                                                     vehicle moving.

                                      5 clamp the two Laser Wheel alignment tools to the two front Wheel rims set
                                                       test the red Laser dots in front of vehicle then
                                           go step back 15M in front of the vehicle and see that the two sets of
                                               Laser red dots are aimed the same. use a timber as a target
                                                 If there not. then the front Wheels are out of alignment .
                            to realign slot a big screwdriver from the top inside the vehicle in to the 8mm alignment hole in
                                                                 the centre of the front Axle.
                                     ( that's beside the gear shift.) and twist the Axle until Wheels are in alignment.
                                           [ Never Look in to the eye of a Laser or Point at ones the Eyes ]
                           6 retighten the 4 bolts under the vehicle that hold the clamps the front Axle to the front assembly.
                                      7 remove the two Laser Wheel alignment tools. and pack away in there box.

                                                          one way to save Weight is to use Toothed-Belts
                                                        that can handle the same forces as a bicycle chain.
                                                               But it must be really thin and flexible.
                                                 all so sum sprocket redesign is needed for the 25mm wide belts




                                                      this Vehicle Design is for fun and comfort not just speed.
                                                                        a Kids Vehicle esc..

                                                       Build your own project? Go for it . But.
                                       just a few important guidelines this is a concept only 75% shown there.
                                                                part of 40 A4 pages...


                                                           THIS IS SHOWN "AS IS". A CONCEPT IDEA
                                                   NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.
                                                            YOU USE OR MAKE AT YOUR OWN RISK.
                                                   THE AUTHOR WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR LOSS, DAMAGES,
                                                     LOSS OF PROFITS OR ANY OTHER KIND OF LOSS BY
                                                  USING IN PART OR IN HOLE AND OR BUILDING THIS DESIGN.
                                                Mechanical Engineering Knowledge and or Skills Recommended
                                                        Have the money, tools, workspace as needed.



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