Tennis as we know the game today originated in the late 19th Century in the United Kingdom. Termed as -lawn tennis', the rules of the game were heavily borrowed from other field and lawn games and also from the royal version of tennis which is also called -real tennis'. Christopher Freville states that the rules of the game were more or less set by the year 1890 and very little has changed since then. The sport rapidly gained popularity and was soon played by people in almost all levels of society. Since the game was quite simple needing just rackets and a ball, even people in wheelchairs were able to play the sport. According to Christopher Freville, from the year 1908 until 1960 a rule was in effect which stated that at least one foot of the person serving the ball should be on the ground at all times. Another rule that is still followed even today, the tie-break was introduced in the 1970s. With the advancement of electronic technologies, an electronic review system which can be used by players to challenge an umpire's call has also been introduced. Apart from these few new introductions, the game has been virtually the same since its inception in the late 1800s. The four major tournaments in Tennis constitute the Australian Open, the French Open, the Wimbledon and the US Open. These are known as the Grand Slam tournaments and are at times referred to by the name -the majors'. Christopher Freville states that a man named Augurio Perera and his friend Major Harry Gem were one of the first people to play the sport in the mid-19th century. From 1859 to 1865, the duo developed a game similar to Basque ball game pelota that could be played with rackets. They also founded the World's First Tennis Club in 1872 in Leamington Spa. The year 1884 saw the first tennis tournaments being conducted in the grounds of Shrubland Hall. Simultaneously, one Major Walter Clopton Wingfield also developed a similar game in 1873. Christopher Freville maintains that he even patented the game which he named -sphairistike'. He based his game more on the real tennis from which he also borrowed the French vocabulary and the name of his game. A young socialite named Mary Ewing Outerbridge pioneered the sport in America in 1874 by laying out a tennis court in the Staten Island Cricket Club. The present day location of that court is under the Staten Island Ferry terminal. The United States Tennis Association of today was inaugurated on May 21, 1881 under the name the United States National Lawn Tennis Association. The first National Tournament played in 1880 was won by O.E Woodhouse, an Englishman who won the singles title. Today's US Open was born in 1881 and was called the U.S. National Men's Singles Championship. It took place in Newport, Rhode Island. Meanwhile in 1877 the first Wimbledon championships were played in London. A lot of debate ensued on how to standardize the rules of the game. The French Open commenced in 1891 and the Australian Open in 1905 in their respective countries. Christopher Freville states that a man named and his friend Major Harry Gem were one of the first people to play the in the mid-19th century.
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