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					This Organization Management document is a comprehensive document describing the
process of planning, organizing, leading, coordinating, and controlling the efforts of
organization members and resources to achieve stated organization goals. The
document is broken down into four easy steps, making it easy to read and informative.
The organization management plan contains standard language commonly used in any
industry. This document is useful, and is a must have documents for business owners
and entrepreneurs.
   Organizational Management Primer
   Table of Contents




Special Drawing Rights

Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 1
Step 1: Planning ............................................................................................................................. 1
   Strategic Planning........................................................................................................................ 2
Step 2: Organizing ......................................................................................................................... 5
   Traditional Organizational Structures ......................................................................................... 6
   Divisional Structures.................................................................................................................... 6
   Matrix Structures ........................................................................................................................ 6
Step 3: Leading .............................................................................................................................. 7
Step 4: Coordinating ...................................................................................................................... 8




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  Organizational Management Primer
  The Fundamental Necessities of Organizational Management




Introduction

Developing a complete skill set that allows one to be well-versed in organizational management
takes years and lots of practice. That does not mean, however, that the basic foundation of this
critical set of skills cannot be learned by study, and that is the purpose of this Primer – to provide
you with an introduction to the fundamentals of organizational management.

                                            Organizational management means being able to
                                            appropriately select priorities and goals and to build a
When planning for a year,
plant corn. When planning                   comprehensive plan for meeting those goals. This
for a decade, plant trees.                  type of planning encompasses the use of resources –
When planning for life,
                                            human, financial, physical and knowledge-based – in
train and educate people.
                                            its effort to achieve a company’s stated goals. It is a
            Chinese Proverb
                                            tall order, but one that pays off in spades when the
                                            organization begins to realize the benefit of proper
planning.

The four key elements in organizational management are: (1) planning; (2) organizing; (3)
leading; and (4) coordinating. We will look at each of these elements separately.




Step 1: Planning

There are several types of planning, however those that apply most closely to business are
strategic planning, project planning, program planning, and business planning, each of which can



Organizational Management Primer                                                                      1
be made up of bits and pieces of other planning methods. For our purposes here, we will focus
primarily on Strategic Planning.

Strategic Planning

The following ten-steps in strategic planning can help you to begin to set company goals and to
meet them using a logical approach.

A Communication Strategy consists of making a determination as to which team members will
be involved in the planning process and what each member’s level of involvement will be in that
process. The subcommittee formed for this purpose should be tasked with figuring out how to
disseminate information to the proper people in your organization and the proper time for doing
so. Consideration must be given to which teams, units or departments will need which pieces of
information in order to continue day-to-day operations, but also who will assist in facilitating
planned growth of or changes to the business.

Establishing a Strategic Planning Task Force from key members who represent all relevant
departments and business units is an important step in the planning process. This work group
must be just that – a group that works during each regularly scheduled meeting. There must be
clearly defined goals on which the group is expected to focus, and there should be the
expectation that each member makes every effort to attend the meetings, complete tasks assigned
during the meetings in accordance with the expected delivery date, and keep the group apprised
of issues or barriers they may encounter while attempting to effect such assignments. Minutes,
agenda, and working documents are essential to keeping the group on track, and should reflect
concrete goals and accomplishments throughout the process.

One of the first tasks the Strategic Planning Task Force should undertake is creation of the
company’s Vision Statement. A Vision Statement should concisely set out the company’s
desired achievements at some point in the future. A Vision Statement can address how the
company would like to see its profits increase, how it would like to be viewed by its workforce
and partners, and even how it wishes to be viewed in general as a responsible organization.




Organizational Management Primer                                                                   2
Concurrently with the development of a Vision Statement, the Task Force should create a
Mission Statement, which should be more than just a slogan that your workers are required to
memorize, but should embody your company’s values, summarize the service you provide, and
describe who you serve. Mission Statements should be short and sweet, and while not too
detailed, should provide enough detail to make them meaningful. Once the Mission Statement is
complete, the Task Force must develop a plan for rolling it out to the workforce – to inspire its
workers to learn it, believe it, and live by it in their actions on the job, and to be able to
communicate it accurately to friends and family outside of the work place.

Company Values may seem easy to establish – what company does not have “integrity,”
“loyalty,” and “excellence” in its set of core Values? The problem, however, is that the entire
organization must embrace and believe in company
Values – everyone from the chief executive officer               “We do not act rightly because
to the front line worker must understand and live by             we have virtue or excellence,
the Values set for the company. When the Task                    but rather we have those
                                                                 because we have acted rightly.”
Force begins the process of setting out its Values, it
must consider establishing Values that will resonate                                     Aristotle

with each, individual employee. Yes, integrity,
loyalty and excellence may seem like the obvious choices, but building them around the real
sentiment can accomplish much more. For instance, “Management will communicate with
integrity,” is good, but, “Management will tell it like it is,” is more likely to resonate with front
line staff, particularly if the organization means it and backs it up by its actions.

Setting Goals for your organization may be the most difficult and the most rewarding task of all.
In order to set realistic goals, you must have a concrete idea of where you are going. Goals must
be measurable – you will never be able to determine if you’re meeting your goals if they have
been written abstractly. Laying your goals out along time-lines can significantly increase your
company’s chances of meeting those goals, and seeking the input of everyone who will be
responsible for meeting individual components of them can help you to avoid running up against
barriers that you did not previously consider. You will need to determine whether your goals
seek to take the organization in a new direction, solve problems that have been identified, or
maintain a certain level of production or job satisfaction. In all cases, when setting the goals,


Organizational Management Primer                                                                        3
determine when and how you will check to ensure that you are accomplishing them. Your
Strategic Planning Task Force may wish to form a subcommittee that is tasked with the sole
priority of establishing goals and bringing them back to the main group.

Tasks are the smaller “chunks” of what needs to be done in order to reach goals. While tasks can
                                                       be created by the work group responsible
                                                       for determining the path for achieving
“It is for us to pray not for tasks
                                                       larger goals, care must be taken to assign
equal to our powers, but for powers
equal to our tasks, to go forward                      the tasks to the correct department or
with a great desire forever beating                    individual, and that the feasibility of each
at the door of our hearts as we
                                                       task is considered. Many organizations
travel towards our distant goal.”
                                                       make the mistake of “ivory-tower
                         Helen Keller
                                                       assignment” of tasks, which happens when
an idea sounds good to those in leadership positions, but when those leaders do not possess
adequate lay knowledge to know whether it is possible to carry them out. Seeking input from
employees in the field as to whether tasks can be accomplished as they are envisioned, and
within a realistic time frame can save a company from making this mistake. When it is
determined that tasks are reasonable, they should carry with them a method by which
accomplishment can be measured, and have a specific time frame for completion.

Once your company’s goals and objectives have been set, you must determine how they will be
carried out, and that is where an Implementation Strategy comes in. As was mentioned in the
paragraph above, implementing your goals should include involvement by those who will be
responsible for doing so. Additionally, you will need to ensure that you have, and are willing to
commit, appropriate resources that will be needed for implementation. Your organization may
need to consider developing policies and procedures in support of how you intend to carry out
the functional components of your goals, and developing rewards for workers who not only
adhere to those policies and procedures, but who go above and beyond in striving to meet them.
Finally, having the right leader in the right place and at the right time can mean all the difference
in whether your goals will be reached.

Monitoring the Strategic Plan is going to be a critical element in reaching your goals – if you
don’t know how well you’re doing along the way, you may be quite shocked to realize, as you

Organizational Management Primer                                                                      4
near your deadline, that you’ve gotten way off track. This can be an unpleasant and costly
realization. Ensure that your time line is formally reviewed on a regular basis, as well as just
before and just after key deadlines are set to be
accomplished. If you are involving your entire                “Organizing is what you do
workforce in the implementation of your plan,                 before you do something, so
                                                              that when you do it, it is not all
consider posting charts in high-traffic areas and
                                                              mixed up.”
keeping them updated on your progress, or holding
                                                                                      A.A. Milne
contests that permit your employees to feel as
though they are a part of the organization’s
achievements. Consider developing a SharePoint site or page on your intranet where your
workers can view updates and see how their contributions are making your goals a reality.
Although the business of reaching your strategic goals is serious business, you do have the
option of being creative and injecting a sense of adventure and fun into the endeavor and may
find that your employees will work extra hard to reach those goals with you, if they are a part of
the action.




Step 2: Organizing

This step is going to be very dependent on the goals you have set for your company. How you
have your core structure set up will play a key role in how the work, the ideas, and the successes
of your business flow. Organization, as we discuss it here, is not merely the process of keeping
your supplies, files, and information clean and readily available, although those things are very
important, but deals more with how you structure your organization in order to allow every
member of your team to function at top capacity and to enrich the working environment with
appropriate expertise applied at the correct time. It means that you have the right people
working in the right positions and that you eliminate or avoid redundancies in your workforce.

The three main types of organizational structures are: (1) traditional; (2) divisional; and (3)
matrix. Within each of these types, there are several variations. While we could create another
entire primer devoted to all the nuances of each structure, we will hit the highlights here, in order
to offer you food for thought in determining the best structure for your company.

Organizational Management Primer                                                                     5
Traditional Organizational Structures

The company modeled on a Line Structure will have a top-to-bottom line of command. There
are generally fewer departments or units in this type of structure, and this can provide an
environment that enhances decision making. This form of structure is sometimes referred to as a
hierarchal structure, which has a set chain of command, with the military being the best example.

More effective for larger companies is the Line and Staff Structure, which still features a top-
to-bottom line of command, but where there are staff departments injected that offer support and
specialization. This structure slows down decision making somewhat, but does offer a more
formal structure that can be beneficial to organizations that are large and spread out over
different geographic regions.

A Functional Structure will be designed to have key leaders, such as vice presidents, over each
functional area of the organization, such as Accounting, Human Resources, Sales, etc. This type
of structure can allow the company to put subject matter experts at the helm of each department,
which can increase meaningful communication within those departments.

Divisional Structures

Just as the name implies, these structures are organized according to divisions, and can be set up
according to different criteria.

A Geographic Structure may be based on regions throughout the country or the world, and there
will be a compartmentalized leadership team within each region that reports to a corporate leader
or even directly to the company head.

A Product Structure will be based on different product or service lines offered by the
organization, and will have leadership over each of those lines, and again will report to a
centralized leader or to the company head.

A Market Structure is much like a Geographic Structure with the exception being that there
could be several markets within one geographic area. In this type of structure, each market will
have its own leadership unit.

Matrix Structures

Organizational Management Primer                                                                     6
Also known as “flat management,” Matrix Structures combines function and product structures
into the most complex of all management organization structures. These can be developed in a
myriad of different ways and are generally developed by applying the specific needs of the
company, using managers and leaders with mixed experience in different positions, with
different functions, often resulting in those managers reporting to different leaders for different
projects.




Step 3: Leading

There are three general styles of leadership
within organizations: (1) autocratic; (2)
                                                         “Management is doing things right;
democratic; and (3) laissez-faire. In the
                                                         leadership is doing the right things.”
following paragraphs, we will touch briefly on
                                                                                Peter Drucker
each of these management styles. The best
leaders will often employ each of these
methods at one time or another, knowing instinctively which method works best for each of his
or her employees.

The hallmark of an Autocratic leader is the exertion of unchallenged power over subordinates.
This can be an effective leadership style in factory-type settings where a lower-level workforce
performs more rote functions. Even in such situations, however, there are pitfalls in this style of
managing people, because as people, most of us typically resent having the rules crammed down
our throats. An autocratic leader does not seek input or feedback from his or her workers, which
can lead to a level of resentment that ultimately results in a high rate of employee turn-over or
absenteeism. This leadership style, however, nets the fastest decision-making results of any of
the three.

The Democratic leader, on the other, hand, invites input and feedback from the work force, but
he or she will ultimately make the final decision on matters. With this leadership style, however,
there is much more give and take, and employees generally end up feeling more satisfied with
their working environment. This satisfaction results in fewer absent employees on a regular


Organizational Management Primer                                                                      7
basis and does not tend to generate the same employee turn-over problems from which the
autocratic style suffers.

In organizations that employ highly-skilled and trained workers, the Laissez-faire style of
leadership may work best. This is the leader that most refer to as the “hands off” supervisor. He
                                                    or she will communicate what needs to be

 “Coming together is a beginning.                   done, but will allow workers to determine the
 Keeping together is progress.                      best method for doing it without interference.
 Working together is success.”
                                                    This leadership style does have its pitfalls,
                        Henry Ford                  however, particularly in situations where the
                                                    work force cannot be trusted to use time and
resources wisely, or who are not skilled enough to carry out the functions necessary to get the job
done.

Step 4: Coordinating

The last of our organizational management skills is being able to coordinate effectively so as to
meet company goals and deadline, avoid redundancy, and to know about issues early enough in
any process so as to avoid additional costs to correct them. The key to coordination is effective
communication at all levels of the organization. With today’s advanced technology,
communication has become almost too easy, and one of the more recent challenges businesses
face these days is when to draw the line and refrain from communicating too much, or to keep
proprietary information from leaking out into the wrong hands. There is a fine line that
companies must walk in order to communicate the right things at the right time, and to keep
certain information protected.

The first step in developing a culture that encourages employees to communicate is to implement
policies that protect workers from retaliation when they raise an issue. Such policies, however,
will only be effective if they are rigorously enforced, but with “he-said / she-said” problems, that
is not always such an easy task. Management must swiftly deal with blatant issues of retaliation
and apply patience and careful investigation to those allegations that are not so easily
discernable. It will sometimes be necessary to make an example of even a good manager, if that



Organizational Management Primer                                                                     8
manager has the poor judgment to retaliate against an employee who reports a concern up the
chain.

Providing your workforce with methods of communication that reward them for good ideas is
another step in establishing a coordinated work force. Today’s intranet and SharePoint sites are
ways that information can quickly be distributed to all levels of the organization. Some
companies find that “town meetings” or “lunch with the CEO” that brings lower-level employees
together with leadership periodically also opens up lines of communications, resulting in
information being shared that may never have worked its way up the chain of command to the
ear of top management.

While the butt of many a joke about getting out of doing productive work, committees and task
forces are excellent ways to improve the coordination of effort among different departments and
units. Rather than simply encouraging staff meetings within individual departments, department
heads should come together monthly, or at the very least, quarterly, to share information across
the company. Discourage the building of “silos” within departments, as this can result in more
than one unit working on the same function, without any communication or collaboration.

Shared calendars, hand held personal digital assistants (PDAs), and information technology are
also excellent communication tools to which the organizations of today have access. Putting
these tools to work for your organization can drastically increase output, decrease duplication of
effort, and encourage your employees to engage in open, productive communication.




Organizational Management Primer                                                                     9

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: This Organization Management document is a comprehensive document describing the process of planning, organizing, leading, coordinating, and controlling the efforts of organization members and resources to achieve stated organization goals. The document is broken down into four easy steps, making it easy to read and informative. The organization management plan contains standard language commonly used in any industry. This document is useful, and is a must have documents for business owners and entrepreneurs.
This document is also part of a package Effective Leadership Starter Kit 9 Documents Included