Docstoc

Age of Exploration _1453-1700_

Document Sample
Age of Exploration _1453-1700_ Powered By Docstoc
					           UNIT II
The 16th Century & Absolutism
  Age of Exploration (1453-1700)
• First Global Age

• Commercial Capitalism

• Racism
Causes:
  -Renaissance
  -trade routes ($)
  -Christianity
  -growth of
    nation-states
  -“gold, God,
    & glory”
Columbus
                     New Spain
Class Structure              Bartolome De Las Casas

  -peninsulares, creoles,
   mestizos, & mulattos

Encomienda System
  -viceroys
  -plantations

Native Americans & Slaves
Columbian Exchange
Portuguese & Dutch warfare against the Arabs in the Indian Ocean
               Mercantilism
-expand trade at the expense of other nations
   (colonies were good for resources & markets)
-state intervention
   (tariffs)
-large focus on bullion
   (gold & silver)
            The Dutch Republic
• smaller & faster ships
• charter & joint-stock companies
      (Dutch East India Co.)
• banking & investing
      (Fuggers)
• stock exchange develops
       (Antwerp & Amsterdam)
• a republic
• religious toleration (rare)
• Clean city; poor shipped
       to colonies
Philip II vs. Elizabeth I
Philip II vs. Elizabeth
           French Wars of Religion
1562-1598
   -9 civil wars
   -Valois vs. Guise
   -nobility (50% Huguenot ) vs.
     crown (Catholic)

1572 – St. Bartholomew’s Day
   Massacre
   -Politiques

1589 – War of the Three Henries
   -Henry IV (Navarre) became 1st
    Bourbon king

1598 – Edict of Nantes
Thirty Years War
             Thirty Years War
4 Phases:
  -Bohemian
  -Danish
  -Swedish
  -Franco/Swedish
Treaty of Westphalia
              Absolute Monarchs
-Divine Right
  -Bodin & Bossuet

-monarchs replaced Papacy
  -search for order
  -state took precedence
    over salvation of souls




                              Louis XIV
                         France
1624-1642: Cardinal Richelieu
  -brought legitimacy to
     the crown again

  -network of spies
      -intendants

  -3pt Plan
                            France
1643-1715: King Louis XIV
  -Fronde revolts
  -Versailles Palace
      -manipulated nobles
      -spies & informants
  -Edict of Fontainebleau
  -Colbert & mercantilism
  -War of Spanish Succession
      -Treaty of Utrecht
Versailles
The Hall of Mirrors
                  Brandenburg-Prussia


1640-88: Frederick William (Great Elector)
   -allowed Junkers to have great control
      over middle class & peasants
   -son became King Frederick I of Prussia
                                   Russia
1689-1725: Peter the Great
   -wanted westernization
   -built St. Petersburg –“window to the west”
   -technical process; reorganized gov’t along
          western lines & etiquette
   -attempted a nobility based on merit
   -never summoned the Duma or Zemsky
          Sobor
   -created Holy Synod; control Orth. Church
   -his methods led to a distrust of the west
          and were not continued
                 Weaker States
Poland; example of what
   happens without
   absolutism.

Voting in their parliament
 had to be unanimous;
 led to a weak central
 government/army.

Italy, Spain, & Austria
          The English Civil War
1642-48: Example of
  resistance to absolutism
-Parliament vs. crown
-eventually led to the
  English Bill of Rights
  and a constitutional
  monarchy
                The English Civil War
1603-1625: James I
   -alienated Parliament

1625-1649: Charles I

1628 - rejected Parliament’s Petition of
   Right

1629-40: dissolved Parliament

1640 – ‘Long Parliament’ met
   -severely limited king’s power
   -king eventually wanted them arrested

1642-48: The English Civil War



                                           James I
           The English Civil War
1646 – Parliament won the first
  phase w/ the capture of
  Charles I

  -Oliver Cromwell &
   the New Model Army

1648 – Parliament split over
  support of Charles I
-Rump Parliament beheaded
  the king and establish a
  commonwealth (republic)
              The English Civil War
1654 – Cromwell became Lord
       Protector (dictator)
   -dispersed Rump Par.
   -crushed rebellions in
      Ireland, Scotland, &
      against Levellers
   -used military often harshly,
      usually even worse than the
      king
1660 – Upon his death, Parliament
   asked Charles II to restore the
   throne
                      The Restoration
1660-1685 - Charles II
   -Par. kept much power
   -Anglican Church was
     made the official religion;
     strict laws against
     Puritans & Catholics
   -Charles II tried to resist
     these laws; would bar his
     brother, James II
   -Whigs against James II
          (want Protestant king)
   -Tories support James II
          (want natural succession)
                                      Charles II
                 Glorious Revolution
1685-88: James II
   -devout Catholic
   -English nobles (Par.)
     eventually invited
     William of Orange to
     invade
   -James fled; bloodlessly
   -William & Mary became
     monarchs
1689 – Parliament got more power
    -English Bill of Rights; laid the
   foundation for constitutional
   monarchy
              Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes
 -wrote Leviathan
 -rebuttal of rationalism
 -humans were guided by
     animalistic instincts
 -people needed a single
     leader
                     John Locke
• architect of basic democracy
• humans lived in a state of
     equality
• if gov’t breaks agreement,
     people could revolt
• freedom of opportunity
  (life, liberty, & property)
• inalienable rights
• tabula rusa
• Laissez-faire
              Witchcraft Hysteria


• traditional pagan practices
• became connected to the
     devil by Church
• viewed as scapegoats
• lower class, single, and poor
                    The Arts
Painting:                Literature:
  -Mannerism               -Montaigne
  -Baroque                 -Shakespeare
  -French Classicalism     -Cervantes
  -Dutch Realism
Mannerism




El Greco - Laocoon
                                 Baroque




Gentileschi - Judith Beheading Holofernes   Bernini - The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
    Dutch Realism




Rembrandt – Syndics of the Cloth Guild
French Classicalism




  David – The Oath of Horatio
                  Shakespeare

• open to all classes
• codified English
      language
• incredible insight into
      psychology & the
      human condition
                   Cervantes

• Don Quixote
• identified realism &
    idealism as BOTH
    being necessary parts
    of the human
    condition

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:4/30/2012
language:English
pages:48