CELLS: THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE By: Ms. Ahne Hernandez Early Discoveries 1665 1674 1831 1835 1838 1858 Robert Hooke Thin slice of call and he found small compartment which he called as “CELL” Anton Van Leeuwenhoek He observed red blood cells, and myriad a single cell organism in pond water. He observed the nucleus. Robert Brown He discovered that all cells contain a fundamental structure called the nucleus Felix Dujardin He discovered an internal substance that is colloidal in structure. He named it sarcode. Matthias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann He proposed that all plants are composed of cells. After a year, Schwann concluded that all animals are made up of cells Rudolph Virchow He proposed all that cells came from pre- existing cells. Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells. 2. All living cells came form pre-existing cells by the process of cell division. 3. Cells are basic unit of structure and function What are the functions inside the cell? Nutrition – obtain food molecules Digestion – food particles are broken down Absorption – cells absorb water and minerals Biosynthesis – organize chemicals to form substances Excretion – waste are eliminated Movement – locomotion of cells Respond to stimulus Respiration – process of breaking down food to produce energy for other cell function. Reproduction – process by which cells copies and replicates DNA PARTS OF CELL AND FUNCTIONS Cell Membrane Structure: Double layer of phospholipid layer; (Phosphate group and Lipid Group). Proteins and Carbohydrates FUNCTIONS 1. Serve as boundary between the cell and its environment. 2. Gives form and shape to the cell 3. Connects one cell to another cell 4. Locomotion Cytoplasm/ Protoplasm Structure: Jellylike material, colorless to translucent, viscous material capable of flowing. 20% C, 10% H, 62% O, 3% N and 5% other elements. FUNCTIONS 1. It is where organelles are suspended. 2. It is where one process of cellular respiration happens. ORGANELLES Membrane – bound structure inside the cell ORGANELLES MITOCHONDRIA CENTRIOLES ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM CYTOSKELETON GOLGI APPARATUS NUCLEUS VACUOLES CELL WALL LYSOSOMES PLASTIDS MITOCHONDRIA Structure: Rod – shaped organelle. Has two parts the matrix and the cristae. Functions 1. It is where the process of CELLULAR RESPIRATION happens. 2. “POWERHOUSE” because it is where ATP is produced. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Structure: Long strands of membrane. That connects the nucleus to the plasma membrane. SMOOTH E.R. Rough E.R. FUNCTIONS Has a ribosome attached to it. It is where protein synthesis happens. Has no ribosome attached to it. It is where lipid synthesis happens. GOLGI APPARATUS Structure: Series of vesicles that are membrane bound. FUNCTIONS 1. It is where the proteins and lipids are packed for distribution. 2. Called as the “packaging counter” VACUOLES Structure: Fluid – filled cavity that are membrane bound. It is where food and water are stored for future use. LYSOSOMES Structure: a membrane bound organelle that is full of hydrolytic enzymes “Suicidal Bag”. It causes the cell death or apoptosis. CYTOSKELETON Structure: It is consist of microtubules in a complex network. Give shape and support to the cell NUCLEUS Structure: Spherical structure usually located at the center of the cell. Controls all the cell functions It is where the DNA Molecules CHROMOSOMES are found. NUCLEAR It is wher ethe chromosomes MEMBRANE are suspended CELL WALL Structure: Made of tough substance called “cellulose” The same function as the cell membrane PLASTIDS Structure: double – membrane found in plants Involves in manufacturing food during photosynthesis Nuclear membrane Membrane that separates the nucleus environment form the cytoplasm. Has no nuclear membrane; therefore chromosomes are scattered everywhere. Has nuclear membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm, thus the DNA is well protected RIBOSOMES Structure: It is not an organelle because it is not membrane – bounded. Involves in Protein synthesis COMPARISON BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC, PLANT AND ANIMAL CELL CATEGORY PROKARYOTE PLANTS ANIMALS 1. Size Smaller Larger Larger 2. Nuclear Absent Present Present membrane 3. Cell Wall Present: Present: Absent Peptidoglycan Cellulose 4. Membrane Absent Present Present Bound Organelles 5. DNA Circular or linear Double stranded Double stranded loop Large Large 6. Ribosomes Small Present Present 7.Mitochondria Absent 8. Chlorophyll Present Absent 9. Vacuoles Some present Larger Smaller 10. Present Sexual and Sexual and Reproduction Asexual asexual asexual CELL CITY ANALOGY In a far away city called Grant City, the main export and production product is the steel widget. Everyone in the town has something to do with steel widget making and the entire town is designed to build and export widgets. The town hall has the instructions for widget making, widgets come in all shapes and sizes and any citizen of Grant can get the instructions and begin making their own widgets. Widgets are generally produced in small shops around the city, these small shops can be built by the carpenter's union (whose headquarters are in town hall). After the widget is constructed, they are placed on special carts which can deliver the widget anywhere in the city. In order for a widget to be exported, the carts take the widget to the postal office, where the widgets are packaged and labeled for export. Sometimes widgets don't turn out right, and the "rejects" are sent to the scrap yard where they are broken down for parts or destroyed altogether. The town powers the widget shops and carts from a hydraulic dam that is in the city. The entire city is enclosed by a large wooden fence, only the postal trucks (and citizens with proper passports) are allowed outside the city. 1. Mitochondria 2. Ribosomes 3. Nucleus 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum 5. Golgi Apparatus 6. Protein 7. Cell Membrane 8. Lysosomes 9. Nucleolus THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!
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