CELLS THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE by ert554898

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									CELLS: THE BUILDING
  BLOCKS OF LIFE
   By: Ms. Ahne Hernandez
       Early Discoveries

1665         1674          1831

1835         1838          1858
          Robert Hooke
Thin slice of call and he found small
compartment which he called as “CELL”
    Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
He observed red blood cells, and myriad
a single cell organism in pond water. He
observed the nucleus.
        Robert Brown
He discovered that all cells contain a
fundamental structure called the nucleus
         Felix Dujardin
He discovered an internal substance that
is colloidal in structure. He named it
sarcode.
Matthias Schleiden and Theodore
            Schwann
He proposed that all plants are composed of
cells. After a year, Schwann concluded that all
animals are made up of cells
        Rudolph Virchow
He proposed all that cells came from pre-
existing cells.
            Cell Theory
1. All living things are composed of one or
more cells.
2. All living cells came form pre-existing
cells by the process of cell division.

3. Cells are basic unit of structure and
function
What are the functions
  inside the cell?
Nutrition – obtain food molecules
Digestion – food particles are broken down
Absorption – cells absorb water and minerals
Biosynthesis – organize chemicals to form
  substances
Excretion – waste are eliminated
Movement – locomotion of cells
Respond to stimulus
Respiration – process of breaking
down food to produce energy for
other cell function.
Reproduction – process by which
cells copies and replicates DNA
PARTS OF CELL AND
   FUNCTIONS
         Cell Membrane

Structure: Double layer of phospholipid
layer;
(Phosphate group and Lipid Group).
           Proteins and Carbohydrates
         FUNCTIONS

1. Serve as boundary between the
cell and its environment.
2. Gives form and shape to the cell
3. Connects one cell to another cell
4. Locomotion
      Cytoplasm/ Protoplasm

Structure: Jellylike material, colorless to
translucent, viscous material capable of
flowing. 20% C, 10% H, 62% O, 3% N and
5% other elements.
         FUNCTIONS

1. It is where organelles are
   suspended.
2. It is where one process of
   cellular respiration happens.
  ORGANELLES
  Membrane – bound
structure inside the cell
           ORGANELLES
  MITOCHONDRIA           CENTRIOLES

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM   CYTOSKELETON

 GOLGI APPARATUS          NUCLEUS

    VACUOLES             CELL WALL

    LYSOSOMES             PLASTIDS
    MITOCHONDRIA
Structure: Rod – shaped
organelle. Has two parts the
matrix and the cristae.
        Functions
1. It is where the process of
   CELLULAR RESPIRATION
   happens.
2. “POWERHOUSE” because it is
   where ATP is produced.
 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Structure: Long strands of
membrane. That connects the
nucleus to the plasma
membrane.
    SMOOTH E.R.   Rough E.R.
           FUNCTIONS
Has a ribosome attached to it. It is
where protein synthesis happens.


Has no ribosome attached to it. It is
  where lipid synthesis happens.
     GOLGI APPARATUS

Structure: Series of vesicles
that are membrane bound.
         FUNCTIONS
1. It is where the proteins and
   lipids are packed for
   distribution.
2. Called as the “packaging
   counter”
           VACUOLES
Structure: Fluid – filled cavity
that are membrane bound.
It is where food and water are
stored for future use.
           LYSOSOMES
Structure: a membrane bound
organelle that is full of
hydrolytic enzymes
“Suicidal Bag”. It causes the cell
death or apoptosis.
         CYTOSKELETON
Structure: It is consist of
microtubules in a complex
network.

Give shape and support to the cell
            NUCLEUS
Structure: Spherical structure
usually located at the center of
the cell.

Controls all the cell functions
It is where the DNA Molecules
        CHROMOSOMES
           are found.

           NUCLEAR
It is wher ethe chromosomes
         MEMBRANE
       are suspended
          CELL WALL
Structure: Made of tough
substance called “cellulose”

The same function as the cell
membrane
           PLASTIDS
Structure: double – membrane
found in plants

Involves in manufacturing food
during photosynthesis
   Nuclear membrane

   Membrane that
separates the nucleus
environment form the
     cytoplasm.
  Has no nuclear membrane; therefore
chromosomes are scattered everywhere.
 Has nuclear membrane
   that separates the
    nucleus from the
cytoplasm, thus the DNA
    is well protected
           RIBOSOMES
Structure: It is not an organelle
because it is not membrane –
bounded.

Involves in Protein synthesis
COMPARISON BETWEEN
 PROKARYOTIC, PLANT
  AND ANIMAL CELL
CATEGORY         PROKARYOTE       PLANTS             ANIMALS
1. Size          Smaller          Larger             Larger
2. Nuclear       Absent           Present            Present
   membrane
3. Cell Wall     Present:         Present:           Absent
                 Peptidoglycan    Cellulose
4. Membrane      Absent           Present            Present
   Bound
   Organelles
5. DNA          Circular or linear Double stranded   Double stranded
                loop               Large             Large
6. Ribosomes    Small              Present           Present
7.Mitochondria Absent
8. Chlorophyll                     Present           Absent
9. Vacuoles     Some present       Larger            Smaller
10.             Present            Sexual and        Sexual and
   Reproduction Asexual            asexual           asexual
          CELL CITY ANALOGY
    In a far away city called Grant City, the
main export and production product is the
steel widget. Everyone in the town has
something to do with steel widget making
and the entire town is designed to build and
export widgets. The town hall has the
instructions for widget making, widgets come
in all shapes and sizes and any citizen of
Grant can get the instructions and begin
making their own widgets.
   Widgets are generally produced in small
shops around the city, these small shops can
be built by the carpenter's union (whose
headquarters are in town hall).
   After the widget is constructed, they are
placed on special carts which can deliver the
widget anywhere in the city. In order for a
widget to be exported, the carts take the
widget to the postal office, where the
widgets are packaged and labeled for export.
   Sometimes widgets don't turn out right,
and the "rejects" are sent to the scrap yard
where they are broken down for parts or
destroyed altogether. The town powers the
widget shops and carts from a hydraulic dam
that is in the city. The entire city is enclosed
by a large wooden fence, only the postal
trucks (and citizens with proper passports)
are allowed outside the city.
1. Mitochondria
2. Ribosomes
3. Nucleus
4. Endoplasmic Reticulum
5. Golgi Apparatus
6. Protein
7. Cell Membrane
8. Lysosomes
9. Nucleolus
THANK YOU FOR
  LISTENING!!

								
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