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A model for implementing BPR based on strategic perspectives an

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A model for implementing BPR based on strategic perspectives an Powered By Docstoc
					Ch.6 – Roadmap for Workflow System

                    2007. 11. 08
               POSMIS Lab. Daegeun Hong

                  MEIE881, Business Process Management
 Development Methods
        Why a specific method for WFM?
        Business process re-engineering
        Rapid application development

 The “IPSD” Method
          Basic principles
          Preparation
          Diagnosis
          Process redesign
          Requirements
          Architecture
          Component design
          Construction
          Integration
          Delivery
          Enactment
          Monitor and improve
          Integrating WFMS with legacy systems
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Development Methods

              MEIE881, Business Process Management
               Development Methods
 The previous chapters
            What workflows are
            How you can model them
            The ways in which workflow management systems can play a part in
             the realization and management of business processes

 In this chapter
        A specific development method
            A "roadmap" for developing workflow systems based upon workflow
             management software
            A sequence of phases and per phase the activities to be carried out
             and the deliverables

        IPSD, standing for interactive, process-oriented system

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               Why a specific method for WFM?
 The existing methods for IS
            A strong emphasis upon defining data structures and the user

 The development of a new generation of workflow
        Focusing upon the business process and embracing both the
         organization and the technology
        Involving the "users" as much as possible in the design of
         processes and systems

 As a basis
        The integration of RAD (Rapid Application Development)
         techniques within the BPR cycle
            An evolutionary approach

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                Business process re-engineering
 BPR lifecycle
          The lifecycle starts with the diagnosis phase
          Once the diagnosis has been made, the redesign phase follows
          The redesign phase is followed by a reconstruction phase
          During the operational phase the performance of the processes is
           measured and assessed using predefined performance criteria


                 Operations                      Diagnosis

                 Reconstruction                  Redesign

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                 Rapid application development
 Rapid Application Development
            A method for developing systems which is characterized by a cyclical
             development process, close collaboration with users, and the use of
             modern rapid-development tools
        Main objectives
            Speed, cost reduction, and quality improvement, thanks to a high
             degree of user participation

        A number of term
              Cyclical
              Iterative
              Development process
              Prototyping
              Evolutionary development
              Incremental development

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          Rapid application development
 The phases of RAD

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The “IPSD” Method

              MEIE881, Business Process Management
                The “IPSD” Method
         Interactive, process-oriented system development

 ISDP Lifecycle

                                                                          1.    Preparation
  Operations                                            Diagnosis         2.    Diagnosis
                                                                          3.    Process redesign
                                                                          4.    Requirements
                                                                          5.    Architecture
                                                                          6.    Component design
                Delivery                                                  7.    Construction
                Integration                                               8.    Integration
                                                                          9.    Delivery
                                                                          10.   Enactment
                           Design                                         11.   Monitor and improve
Reconstruction                   Architecture           Redesign

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                Basic principles (1/2)
 A number of basic principles (1/2)

         The focus is on the business process.

         By definition, radical change will occur that has consequences for
          the entire organization—or, at least, for parts of it.

         As far as possible, decisions are taken within the development

         The developers and (representatives of) the user organization
          work as a team to improve processes and develop the
          information systems.

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                Basic principles (2/2)
 A number of basic principles (2/2)

         When planning and organizing the development path, the
          emphasis is placed upon (project) targets and not so much upon
          performing (or assigning) activities.

         The system's specifications are not defined and "frozen" in
          advance, but evolve during development.

         Errors are permissible during development.

         Experience shows that no system is ever perfect the first time.

         At the end of each phase the overall planning is updated
          according to the latest information.

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 Activities
           Appointing the (core) project team

           Drafting the project plan

           Obtaining approval for the project

           Communication of the mission statement, approach and timetable

 Deliverables
           Overall project plan

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                 Diagnosis (1/4)
 Three groups of activities: analysis, scoping, and

 When analyzing a process, particular attention has to be
  paid to the following aspects:
           Unnecessary sequential and bureaucratic activities
           The formation of "island computerization"
           The need for excessive forms and approvals
           Paper usage and redundant stipulations
           Policy guidelines and rules (either formal or informal) that are not
            being observed or do not appear to work

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               Diagnosis (2/4)
 Activities (1/2)
         Analysis
            Analyze the reasons for change, the strategy, and the critical success

            Objectives to be met after transformation, formulated in a qualitative

            Definition of key performance indicators to be able to quantify the
             objectives and to measure the intended improvements

            Null measurement: determination of the performance indicators in
             the existing situation.

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                Diagnosis (3/4)
 Activities (2/2)
         Scoping
            Identification of parts of the organization, processes, and systems
             that should remain unchanged and which fall in the scope of the
            Determination of boundary conditions on time frame and money to be

         Visioning
            Artist view of the new organization, processes, and systems
            Specification of the targets to be realized in the project, that is, the
             quantification of the objectives in terms of the key performance
            Generation of ideas and guidelines for redesign.

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                Diagnosis (4/4)
 Deliverables
         Document describing the reasons for change, objectives, and the

         A set of use cases

         The null measurement

         A list of processes, parts of the organization, and information
          systems to be re-engineered

         Boundary conditions on time and money

         Artist's view of the new situation, ideas for improvement

         Specification of the targets in terms of KPIs
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                Process redesign (1/3)
 Activities
         Modeling and calibration of the existing situation

         Development of alternatives for the new business process

         Analysis of the selected alternative: determination of correctness
          properties and logistical KPIs (by simulation)

         Analysis of functional KPIs by means of gaming workshops using
          a workflow management system (optional)

         Description of the consequences for the organization

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                Process redesign (2/3)
 The consequences for the organizational structure and
  human resource management (HRM)
         The redefinition of tasks and functions

         Self-managing teams and the associated management skills

         Appraisal systems

         Salary structures

         Education and training

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                Process redesign (3/3)
 Deliverables
         Calibrated model of existing processes

         Set of use cases

         Models for the preferred new processes

         Test results of simulations and gaming

         Requirements for data-processing applications

         Organizational model

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                Requirements (1/2)
 A series of (two or three) workshops
         The data model of the systems

         Interaction between process steps and data-processing

         Supplementary data processing functions for such matters as
          (application) management and data exchange with others

         Requirements to be made of the systems in terms of speed,
          processing capacity, flexibility, and so on.

         The development and enactment strategy, and the schedule

         Risks and risk management strategy

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                Requirements (2/2)
 Activities
         Preparation and staging of requirements workshops

         Development of risk-management measures

         Development of the project schedule and budget

         Drawing up of a detailed project plan

 Deliverables
         Rough data model (entities and relationships)

         Rough functional model of the applications to be developed

         Matrix of functions for each process (step)

         Detailed project plan for the subsequent course of action
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                Architecture (1/3)
 “Architecture"
         To describes the various components in the system
         To communicate with one another (interface descriptions)
         To distinguish between the functional architecture and the
          technical architecture

         Examples of matters addressed in the description of the
             Technical infrastructure
              (hardware, networks, OS, and communication protocols)
             Workflow management software
             Development tools
             Interface descriptions (workflow management system versus
              components, components versus one another, and components
              versus data bases)
             Standard graphical user interface

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                 Architecture (2/3)
 Activities
         Description of the functional architecture

         Description of the technical architecture

         Illustration of the functional and technical architecture

         Establishment and description of standards and guidelines

         Development and testing of prototypes

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                Architecture (3/3)
 Deliverables

         Description of architecture

         Prototype

         Standards and requirements for components

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                 Component design (1/2)
 Activities
         Harmonization of the data model and the user interface

         Design/generation/harmonization of the functionality of the data-

         Component and workflow definitions using prototyping and
          simulations of use cases

         Establishment of specifications for specific links with office
          systems and/or other components

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                Component design (2/2)
 Deliverables
         Standard for the user interface

         Specification of the workflow within the workflow management

         Specification of the data-processing components in a CASE tool;

         Final system prototype(s) and list of components to be completed

         Description of links which still need to be made with office
          systems and/ or other components

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                Construction (1/2)
 Activities
         Integration and optimization of the workflow management

         Setting up of the test environment

         Completion of the system documentation

         System test

         Preparation of the integration and acceptance test

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                Construction (2/2)
 Deliverables
         Components ready for the integration test

         System documentation

         Integration and acceptance-test plan (including use cases)

         conversion software

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 Activities
         Test conversion

         Performance of integration test

         Rectification of faults

         Production of test report

 Deliverables
         Environment and software prepared for acceptance test

         Test scripts (for future regression tests)

         Test report

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                Delivery (1/2)
 The objective of the acceptance test
         to establish whether the system operates in accordance with the
          specifications and fulfills all the requirements made of it to
          support the day-to-day business process in the best way possible

         An acceptance test addresses the following matters:
             Functionality (user interfaces, input, internal processing,
             Everyday use of the system by means of use cases chosen in
              the redesign phase
             (day-to-day) management
             The system documentation supplied

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                 Delivery (2/2)
 Activities
         Performance of the acceptance test using scenarios

         Rectification of faults

         Production of an acceptance-test report

 Deliverables
         Environment and software ready for use and management

         Formal acceptance by the user organization

         Formal acceptance by the management organization

         Acceptance-test report

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                 Enactment (1/2)
 Activities
         Communication about the progress of the project
         Communication about forthcoming changes

         Description of the organizational structure

           Preparation of case descriptions
           Preparation of manuals
           Preparation of training materials
           Provision of training

         Planning and enactment of the technical infrastructure
         Preparation and supervision of conversion
         Supervision of the change process

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                Enactment (2/2)
 Deliverables
         Enactment plan

         Communications plan

         Conversion plan

         Organizational model

         Case descriptions

         Manuals

         Information and training materials

         Infrastructure

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                 Monitor and improve
 BPR versus CPI


                          BPR               Chaos


                         Stagnation         CPI


                   low                                high

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                Integrating WFMS with legacy
 When integrating an existing system
         One needs to maintain established components rather than to
          create new ones

         Another aspect of working with existing systems is the
          elimination of old workflow aspects from legacy applications

         A more serious problem is the "mismatch" between the process
          steps and the system architecture of the existing applications
             Object wrapping
                 Existing code can be "rewrapped“
                 The development of standards for distributed environment Object
                  architectures such as DCE and CORBA

             Enterprise application integration (EAI)
                 EAI tools identify, capture, integrate, and deliver data and system
                  functionality to users under a series of cross-functional, multi-platform

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