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					                                                                                                                               7-07-2011 final JDR
            SECTION C – Description and Specifications for Optical/Scene
                         Monitoring and Data Analysis



Contents
List of Tables, Figures, and Exhibits............................................................................................................. 2
C.1      BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION........................................................................................ 3
C.1.1                 Transmissometer Monitoring .................................................................................................. 5
C.1.1.1              Network Operations ................................................................................................................ 5
C.1.1.2              Monioring Locations ............................................................................................................... 5
C.1.2                 Nephelometer Monitoring ....................................................................................................... 8
C.1.2.1              Network Operations ................................................................................................................ 8
C.1.2.2              Nephelometer Locations ......................................................................................................... 8
C.1.3                WebCam Locations .................................................................................................................. 8
C.l.4                Visibility Exhibits .................................................................................................................... 8
C.1.4.1              Visibility Exhibit Locations .................................................................................................... 8


C.2      OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE ..................................................................................................................... 8


C.3      SCOPE OF WORK .............................................................................................................................. 9
C.3.1                Network Operations ................................................................................................................. 9
C.3.1.1              Field Responsibilities ............................................................................................................ 10
C.3.1.2              Datalogging and Editing........................................................................................................ 11
C.3.1.3              Data Reduction ...................................................................................................................... 12
C.3.1.4              Digital WebCam Support ...................................................................................................... 14
C.3.1.5              Visitor Center Interpretive Exhibit Support .......................................................................... 17


C.4     CONTRACT CONFIGURATION ENHANCEMENTS - Options ................................................ 18
C.4.1 Option - IMPROVE Steering Committee Support ............................................................................... 18
C.4.2 Option - Air Quality Modeling............................................................................................................. 18
C.4.3 Option -Purchase, modification, performance assessment, and Deployment of Equipment …....….. 19

C.4.4 Option - Configuration Enhancement—Nephelometer........................................................................ 19
                                                                             1
C.4.5 Option - Configuration Enhancement—Scene Monitoring & Real-time Visibility Displays ............ 20
C.4.6 Option - Configuration Enhancement— Station visits for non-routine service ................................. 20
C.4.7 Option - Configuration Enhancement—Visual Air Quality Modeling............................................... 20
C.4.8 Option - Configuration Enhancement—Meteorological Measurements ............................................ 21
C.4.9 Option - Configuration Enhancement—Data Analysis ...................................................................... 21
C.4.10 Option - Special Studies...................................................................................................................... 21
C.4.11 Option - Configuration Enhancement—Purchase, Installation, and Operation of Particulate Nitrate,
          NOy and Wet Deposition Monitor ...................................................................................................... 22
C.5        INCORPORATION OF TECHNICAL PROPOSAL .................................................................. 23
C.6        OTHER ……………………………………………………………………………………………24


List of Tables

Table 1             NPS Optical and Scene Monitoring Network Configuration                                                                          7

Table 2             Network responsibilities and performance goals                                                                                  9

Table 3             Deliverables                                                                                                                  10

Table 4             List of sites for which there is archive transmissometer data.                                                                12

List of Figures


Figure 1            Map of optical monitoring locations.                                                                                            6

Figure 2            Schematic of system for filter-based collection of NO2 + alkyl nitrates + peroxy nitrates 21


List of Exhibits

J.1.                Acronyms list

J.2.                Inventory summary of government supplied equipment

J.3.                Example of quarterly progress report




                                                                           2
C.1    BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION

        The National Park Service (NPS) is responsible for the protection and enhancement of air quality
related resources in the areas it manages by ensuring compliance with directives, regulations, and applicable
requirements of the NPS Organic Act of 1916 and the 1970 Clean Air Act and its amendments. The
Organic Act mandates the National Park Service to

               “. . . conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife therein and
               to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave
               them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.”

        The 1977 Clean Air Act amendments assigned to the Federal Land Management (FLM) agencies,
the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Bureau of Land Management
(BLM), and the National Park Service (NPS), “. . . the affirmative responsibility to protect the air quality
related values of Class I lands.” Sections l60–169A of the act established a detailed policy and regulatory
program that provides guidance to the FLM in meeting these mandates. The 1990 Clean Air Act
amendments and subsequent Regional Haze Rule further exemplified this affirmative responsibility.

        To carry out these responsibilities, the NPS has developed an air quality program that involves a
wide rage of activities, including air quality monitoring and modeling, technical review of Prevention of
Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit applications, coordination with states and other federal agencies, air
quality related values inventories and effects analyses, policy formulation, visibility perception, visitor
enjoyment/values research and air quality public awareness programs.

        Within the NPS, 48 areas, totaling approximately 13 million acres of land, are designated Class I air
quality areas by the amended Clean Air Act PSD regulations. These areas are to be protected from air
pollution impacts on air quality related values, including those of flora, fauna, culture, historic land geologic
resources, and atmospheric visibility. Most of these Class I areas are located in rural areas. However, even
in these areas, traditionally clean air quality is frequently degraded by human-made pollution. Visitor
enjoyment of the national parks is often synonymous with the opportunity to clearly view the spectacular
park scenery. Scenic beauty is directly impacted or reduced by increases in air pollution resulting from both
natural and human-made sources. Introduction of extremely small amounts of fine particulate matter into
the atmosphere can cause noticeable reductions in visual air quality in pristine Class I areas. Congress
singled out the protection of visibility in the national parks as one of the major goals of the Clean Air Act.
In order to achieve the goal of “preventing any future and remedying existing visibility impairment” in the
48 Class I areas, the NPS objectives are to:

                establish baseline data on existing visibility conditions in NPS areas;
                identify trends of improvement or deterioration in visibility;
                determine the relative importance of various atmospheric aerosols to visibility impairment;
                apportion those aerosols contributing to visibility impairment to sources of particulate matter
                 and precursor gases that form secondary aerosols; and
                determine the perceptibility of changes in air pollutant concentrations on specific scenic
                 landscape features.




      To defray the substantial cost of deploying and operating a national program, the four Federal Land
Management (FLM) agencies and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into a joint national
                                                         3
visibility monitoring program, IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments). The
five participants are represented on a technical steering committee that has the overall responsibility of the
IMPROVE program. This program was designed in response to the visibility provisions of the Clean Air
Act of 1977, which affords visibility protection to 156 federal Class I areas (certain national parks and
wilderness areas). State regulatory agencies also participate in the operation of the IMPROVE program.
The program objectives are to provide data needed to assess the impacts of new emission sources, identify
existing human-made visibility impairments, and assess progress toward the national visibility goals as
established by Congress, including the Regional Haze Rule that resulted from the 1990 Clean Air Act
amendments. These objectives are in general agreement with the goals of the NPS monitoring effort as
outlined above.

        The visibility monitoring program can be thought of as consisting of three separate components.
The first component, referred to as scene monitoring, is designed to document the visibility impairment of
specific unique vistas under degraded air quality conditions. Component two, referred to as optical
monitoring, measures basic electro-optical properties of the atmosphere independent of specific vista
characteristics, while component three, referred to as aerosol monitoring, measures the concentrations of the
atmospheric aerosols responsible for reduced visibility.

        To meet the objectives of the aerosol component of the monitoring program, IMPROVE currently
operates fine particle samplers. Samples are collected on various substrates and in two size ranges (fine,
0.0–2.5 micrometers [µm] and PM10—particles between 0.0 and 10 µm). The fine fractions are analyzed for
mass, nitrates, carbonaceous material, and trace elements. The elements analyzed are sodium, magnesium,
aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese,
iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, gallium, germanium, arsenic, selenium, bromine, rubidium, strontium,
zirconium, molybdenum, ruthenium, silver, and lead. Total mass is the only variable measured for the PM 10
material.

       While the IMPROVE aerosol monitoring program is a joint effort of the federal participants, each
FLM is responsible for collecting scene and optical data at their own Class I areas. The NPS operates scene
and optical monitoring sites under a single (this) contract. The USFS and EPA individually operate scene
and optical sites under separate contracts. Currently the BLM does not operate any scene or optical
monitoring sites.

       Apportionment of source emissions to visibility impairment requires an understanding of emission
transport and transformation. Therefore, field measurement programs are required that measure all phases
of emissions as they transport between source and receptor.

        In addition to visibility, concern is increasing about pollutant deposition to sensitive ecosystems.
Current U.S. approaches to monitoring pollutant deposition in such environments are limited in the species
they measure and lack adequate time resolution to clearly associate deposition “events” with specific
transport patterns or source regions. It is not uncommon for meteorological transport patterns to change
dramatically multiple times during a week, making associations between weekly average deposition fluxes
and pollutant source regions difficult to draw. The time resolution provided by the IMPROVE network
measurements (24-hour; one-in-three-day sampling) is much better suited than Clean Air Status and Trends
Network (CASTNET) or National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) to source attribution analysis
using back-trajectories or other techniques; however, IMPROVE measures only particles, not wet deposition
nor concentrations of gas species. Typically, total deposition is dominated by contributions from
precipitation and deposition of gases and not by particles.

        Visibility impairment, depending on observer-vista geometry, tends to appear in two ways: as a
ground-based or elevated-haze layer or as uniform haze. Both uniform and layered hazes degrade the
overall texture and color of landscape features. However, a haze layer is characterized by a spectral
discontinuity between itself and a background. Scene monitoring documents the visual appearance of
                                                      4
layered and uniform haze impacts on specific vistas.

       Optical monitoring attempts to measure a basic electro-optical property of the atmosphere.
Currently, the NPS uses transmissometers and ambient integrating nephelometers to measure either
atmospheric extinction (bext) or ambient aerosol scattering (bsp). Relative humidity (RH) and air temperature
(AT) are also recorded at each of the transmissometer or nephelometer monitoring sites.

        The NPS monitoring network currently operates (1) transmissometer, (12) nephelometers, (12)
AT/RH sensors, and (18) digital web cameras, at (25) monitoring locations (Table 1, Figure 1). This
contract contains options to increase the number of regular and/or research optical monitoring sites should
funds become available. For general information on the IMPROVE program the web site should be visited:
http://vista.cira.colostate.edu/improve/Default.htm .

C.1.1    Transmissometer Monitoring

C.1.1.1 Network Operations

       One transmissometer, located at Grand Canyon National Park, is to be operated in the NPS network
(see Table 1). The instrument is maintained to support the visitor center display only.

C.1.1.2 Monitoring Locations

        One instrument is currently installed in the NPS network and used primarily to support web data on
visual range at the Grand Canyon. Each instrument’s location as of June, 2011 is listed in Table 1 and
locations shown in Figure 1. The number of transmissometer sites is anticipated to be very limited.




                                                       5
           Hawaii Volcanoes NP




Figure 1              Map of optical monitoring locations.




                                                    6
Table 1              NPS Optical and Scene Monitoring Network Configuration
                                            June 2011
                                                         OPTICAL                         SCENE
Park        Park Name                      Data access       Trans Neph AT/RH    HRDC/      Visibility
code                                                                             WebCam      Exhibit
ACAD        Acadia NP                   phone modem                   1**   1      1             1
BIBE        Big Bend NP                  Phone modem                   1    1      1
DENA        Denali, NP (Seasonal)        Phone modem                               1
GLAC        Glacier NP                   Phone modem                   1    1
GRBA        Great Basin NP               Phone modem                   1    1
GRCA        Grand Canyon NP                 DSL soon             1*    2    2      1             1*
GRSM        Great Smoky Mtns.            Phone modem                   1    1      2             1
HAVO        Hawaii Volcanoes NP           Internet/cell                           1***
JOTR        Joshua Tree NP               Phone modem                               1
MACA        Mammoth Cave NP              Phone modem                   1    1      1
MORA        Mount Rainier NP             Phone modem                   1    1      1
NACA        National Capital             Phone modem                   1    1      1
NOCA        North Cascades NP            Phone modem                               1
OLYM        Olympic NP                       Park net                              1
PORE        Point Reyes NSS                  wireless                              1
ROMO        Rocky Mountain NP            DSL available                1**   1
SHEN        Shenandoah NP                Phone modem                   1    1     1***
SEKI        Sequoia/Kings                 Cell modem                               1             1
            Canyon NPs
THRO        Theodore Roosevelt           Phone modem                               1
YOSE        Yosemite NP                  Phone modem                               1
                                                                 1    12    12     18            4

NP = National Park
NM = National Monument
Trans = Transmissometer
Neph = Nephelometer
AT/RH = Air Temperature/Relative Humidity
HRDC/WebCam = High-Resolution Digital Camera for Web Site
* Limited support and data processing
** Operated by NPS ARD with nephelometers on loan from USDA-FS
*** Funded by park


                                                                 7
C.1.2    Nephelometer Monitoring

C.1.2.1 Network Operations

       In total, twelve (12) nephelometers are currently operating in the NPS network (see Table 1 and
Figure 1).

C.1.2.2 Nephelometer Locations

         NPS has a total of 20 Optec NGN-2 nephelometers plus two on loan from USDA-FS and one from
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (AZ-DEQ) at Indian Garden, Grand Canyon. Nine NPS are
deployed at parks, 2 are spares, 6 are permanently assigned to the IMPROVE Special Studies Mobile
Research Facility, two are test units for use during transmissometer calibrations, and the last unit is a
prototype instrument not suitable for use at an operational site. Twelve (12) instruments are operated at 11
sites as listed in Table 1 and Figure 1.

       The nephelometer at Indian Gardens is owned by AZ-DEQ and units are on loan from USDA-FS at
Acadia and Rocky Mountain NPs. These 3 loaner nephelometer sites are operated and supported under the
NPS contract.

C.1.3    WebCam Locations

       NPS operates 18 webcams as listed in Table 1. The webcam sites consist of an Olympus digital
camera in a weatherproof housing, a laptop PC, and communication equipment to transfer images every 15
minutes. The software to manage the images and the communication costs are handled by the contractor.
Laptops at the site are owned by NPS ARD and usually have a 3-year extended warranty. The polling
computer and web served are provided by the contractor.

C.l.4    Visibility Exhibits

C.1.4.1 Visibility Exhibit Locations

       The Air Resources Division provides support for real-time air quality exhibits that present visibility
information located in the visitor centers at Acadia NP, Grand Canyon NP, Great Smoky Mountains NP,
and Sequoia NP as listed in Table 1. The exhibits need maintenance and support for continual operation.
Each visitor display has an on-site PC, monitor(s), and communication equipment in addition to the fixed
display portion. PowerPoint presentation materials are usually updated annually. Other equipment is
updated or replaced as needed.



C.2     OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE

        The purpose of this contract is to assist NPS in deploying, operating, and maintaining on-going
scene, optical, and specialized aerosol monitoring programs to reduce, validate, analyze, and report data
collected and deploy, operate, reduce, validate, and report data for special studies. Standard operating
procedures and instrument descriptions for the monitoring program are available on-line at the IMPROVE
web site, http://vista.cira.colostate.edu/improve/Publications/IMPROVE_SOPs.htm .




                                                     8
C.3     SCOPE OF WORK

C.3.1    Network Operations

The contract and network operations should meet the performance goals and deliverables outlined in tables
2 and 3. Further details on operations are given in the following sections.

Table 2       Network responsibilities and performance goals
       category           Expected service               Goal                    Metric
Site maintenance and Annual maintenance         Instruments are fully    98% stations visited
calibration            visits; on-going         calibrated and           with 12-month period
                       station support and      operational most of      Nephelometers
                       daily data review        the time                 operational >95% if
                                                                         time
                                                                         Accuracy of ±10%
                                                                         >95% of time for
                                                                         nephelometers
Data processing and     Daily data polling,     Validate data within 3   >98% if hourly data
validation              where applicable;       month of collection      validated within 3
                        calibrated response;                             months
                        validation of data
Quality assurance       Follow all QA/QC        Data completeness        >90%     capture at
                        procedures listed in    Annual QA doc            better than 95% of
                        SOPs; QMP, QAPP,        updates                  stations
                        and SOPs up to date
                                                Data that is valid       Network data that is
                                                                         valid exceeds 80%
Archive data and        Archive both legacy     Images are retained      100% of images are
images                  slides and digital      for future               retained and
                        images                  comparisons              accessible
Webcam support          On-going support for    Cameras in service       >95% per week
                        cameras and systems     Image capture per        15-min images >90%
                                                camera                   of daytime images
                                                                         Pages active and
                                                Up time for web          updating >90%
                                                pages
Visitor display         On-going support and    Respond within 3         Visitor displays
support                 bring visitor display   workdays; fix            operational > 95% of
                        back into service;      problems within 14       time centers are open
                        periodic upgrades       days




                                                    9
Table 3       Deliverables
Deliverable            Content                   Frequency                  Due dates
Weekly report          Current problems;         Weekly was new and         Tuesday of week
                       changes; what the         current – no boiler        following
                       COTR should know          plate or recurring text.
Annual data report     Summary of data           Annual –                   120 days from end of
                       processed and QA          demonstrates               year
                       statistics; full year     completion of data
                       valid data transfers      collection task
Inventory report       Listing of sites; site    Semi-annual                July 10; Jan 10
                       metadata, and
                       equipment
Database and transfers On-going database;        quarterly                  Transfer data to
                       transfers of formatted                               VIEWS/FEDS using
                       valid data                                           ASCII, CSV, or Excel
                                                                            formats
Station visit reports    PDF report; station     monthly                    20 days after return
                         overview; visit                                    from visit – web
                         schedule                                           posted report in PDF
                                                                            format
IMPROVE                  PDF report;             quarterly                  PDF and hardcopy;
Newsletter               IMPROVE news;                                      April 10 and Oct. 10
                         analysis reports                                   on Jan 15, Apr 15, Jul
                                                                            15, and Oct 15
IMPROVE network          Handle meeting          annual                     timely
support                  details
Security and disaster    Complete plans for      Once; annual reviews       60 days from start of
plans                    retention of data and                              contract; Jan 10 each
                         recovery from                                      year
                         unexpected events


C.3.1.1 Field Responsibilities

C.3.1.1.1 Scene and Optical Monitoring Network

       Oversee and maintain, within the required standard operating procedures, the scene and optical
monitoring network, which will consists of one transmissometer, nephelometers, AT/RH sensors, webcams,
and three visibility exhibits (Table 1). FLM personnel are responsible for routine operation of the sites;
however, the Contractor shall be responsible for training personnel and maintaining the instruments in
operable condition.

C.3.1.1.2 Quality Assurance Program

        The Contractor shall be responsible for implementing a network quality assurance (QAPP) program
and a QC SOP that can be carried out by the site operators on a routine basis. The offerer’s proposal should
detail all tasks to be performed by the operators so that network goals can be obtained. The QMP and
QAPP should be delivered within 60 days of contract start; SOPs should follow within 2 months. The full
path for calibration of instruments and validation of data should be documented.

                                                    10
C.3.1.1.3 Site Maintenance and Calibration Visits

        The Contractor shall conduct site maintenance and calibration visits once per year at all monitoring
sites. As a minimum, following elements shall be included in these site visits:

          Check alignment of camera or webcam systems.
          Calibrate nephelometer/transmissometer
          Service transmissometer
          Verify that physical structure are in good condition
          Calibrate AT/RH sensors.
          Verify operational integrity of all monitoring support systems.
          Train site operators
Proposals should detail everything they do and check to keep network instruments and accessories in good
repair and meet the network performance objectives. The contractor must maintain and tracking NPS
equipment. A summary inventory is provided in Exhibit J.2 of government provided equipment.

C.3.1.1.4 Instrument Backup System

       To maintain a high degree of data recovery and network operation, the Contractor shall keep fully
operational device in backup for swapouts. When a component breaks down in the field, the Contractor will
exchange that component with a calibrated backup unit. For instance, if the nephelometer fails, a whole
device with known operational characteristics will be shipped by mail to the monitoring site where the site
operator will replace the unit and ship back the defective unit to the Contractor for repair. Similar
procedures should be implemented for all on-site equipment: nephelometers, digital cameras, etc.

C.3.1.1.5 Notification of Trips

       The Contractor shall be responsible for notifying the appropriate park personnel and the Contracting
Officer’s Technical Representative (COTR) of pending trips to parks at least two weeks in advance. The
COTR will notify the Contractor if there are any changes to be made in planned travel. An annual expected
schedule of visits should be made up and reviewed with the COTR.

C.3.1.1.6 Decommissioning Systems

       The contractor shall be responsible for decommissioning units as directed.



C.3.1.2 Datalogging and Editing

C.3.1.2.1 Daily Data Retrieval

        At nephelometer sites with Campbell dataloggers (21X or 23X), data are collected and stored as
hourly averages including aerosol scattering (bscat), standard deviation (), temperature, relative humidity,
and instrument operating codes. The Contractor is responsible for daily data retrieval via telephone modems
                                                     11
and for methods of data editing and validation.

C.3.1.2.2 Quality Assurance/Quality Control

        The Contractor shall be responsible for quality assurance. Quality control procedures are contained
in Exhibit J.2, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Technical Instructions (TIs). These documents
are in Portable Document Format (PDF). In addition, these SOPs and TIs can be obtained from the
IMPROVE web site: http://vista.cira.colostate.edu/improve/ .



C.3.1.3 Data Reduction

C.3.1.3.1 Photographic Slides

        Photographic slides are used primarily to show in a qualitative way the effects of pollutants and
meteorological conditions on the appearance of scenic vistas. Slides from all the scene monitoring sites
shall be archived in a manner that facilitates access to slides representing specific air quality episodes as
defined by other monitoring data.

C.3.1.3.2 Transmissometer/Nephelometer Data

The contractor shall be responsible for the data back to the beginning of data collection at each site. The
data and metadata on each site shall be stored in a database. Refer to the metadata database at
http://www.nature.nps.gov/air/monitoring/MonHist/index.cfm for information on previous optical
monitoring at NPS locations. Table x is a list of previous transmissometer sites and length of service. An
estimate of the number of data records can be estimated from the records of prior monitoring.




                                                     12
Table 4 List of sites for which there is archive transmissometer data.
Park Name                           State   Site Name                              Start Date        End Date         Years
Acadia National Park                ME      Park Headquarters                           11/12/1987         6/9/1993      5.6
Badlands National Park              SD      Badlands                                     1/13/1988       9/30/2006      18.7
Bandelier National Monument         NM      Bandelier                                    10/5/1988       9/30/2006       18
Big Bend National Park              TX      Grapevine Hills                              1/27/2000       10/1/2005       5.7
Big Bend National Park              TX      Lone Mountain                                12/1/1988       8/28/2003      14.7
Canyonlands National Park           UT      Island in the Sky                           12/20/1986       9/30/2006      19.8
Chiricahua National Monument        AZ      Entrance Station to Lookout                  2/17/1989         1/1/1999      9.9
Chiricahua National Monument        AZ      Entrance Station to Water Tank               1/23/1999         7/1/2001      2.4
Chiricahua National Monument        AZ      Water Tank to Entrance Station                7/1/2001      12/16/2003       2.5
Crater Lake National Park           OR      Crater Lake                                   9/1/1988       9/10/1991
Glacier National Park               MT      Lake McDonald                                 2/2/1988       9/30/2006      18.7
Grand Canyon National Park          AZ      In Canyon - Yavapai Museum                  12/13/1989       10/1/2007      17.8
Grand Canyon National Park          AZ      South Rim - Grandview Point                 12/18/1986       10/1/2007      20.8
Great Basin National Park           NV      Great Basin                                  8/20/1992       9/30/2006      14.1
Guadalupe Mountains National Park   TX      Federal Aviation Administration             11/17/1988       9/30/2006      17.9
Mesa Verde National Park            CO      Soda Canyon Rim                              7/19/1991       7/28/1993        2
Mesa Verde National Park            CO      Water Tank                                   9/15/1988       7/23/1990       1.9
Petrified Forest National Park      AZ      North of Park Headquarters                   4/17/1987         7/6/1987      0.2
Petrified Forest National Park      AZ      South of Park Headquarters                    7/1/1987      11/30/2004      17.4
Pinnacles National Monument         CA      Pinnacles                                    3/23/1988       7/25/1993       5.3
Rocky Mountain National Park        CO      Beaver Meadows                              11/25/1987         7/8/1997      9.6
Rocky Mountain National Park        CO      Entrance Station                             10/3/1998       9/30/2006        8
Shenandoah National Park            VA      Big Meadows - Long Path                      9/15/1991      10/30/2003      12.1
Shenandoah National Park            VA      Big Meadows - Short Path                     12/8/1988       3/22/1991       2.3
Tonto National Monument             AZ      Tonto                                        4/12/1989       9/17/1991       2.4
Yellowstone National Park           WY      Mammoth Hot Springs                          7/18/1989       7/28/1993        4
Yosemite National Park              CA      Turtleback Dome                              8/18/1988       9/30/2006      18.1




                                                                              13
C.3.1.3.2.1 Availability of Electronic Files

         Electronic files of ten-minute or six-hour average extinction/scattering relative humidity and air
temperature shall be made available on a seasonal basis via methods such as web query, FTP transfer,
CD_ROM, or other electronic means. Data shall be stored in a relational database for easy access. Output
files in a column formatted ASCII format, csv, or Excel shall be available. Data shall be made available on
a quarterly basis and be accessible no later than three (3) months after the end of the calendar quarter that is
being reported. Final quality assurance/quality control shall be performed on a yearly basis and results shall
become available no later than three (3) months after the end of the calendar year that is being reported.

C.3.1.3.2.2 Instrument Records

        The Contractor shall maintain records of transmissometer and nephelometer accuracy and sensitivity
for the duration of the contract (see Exhibit J.2 and the IMPROVE web site referenced above for SOPs and
TIs).


C.3.1.4 WebCam Support

        Provide technical support to operational digital cameras at air quality monitoring sites to maintain
acquisition of high resolution images and Internet upload of images and associated data to a contractor-
hosted File Transfer Protocol (FTP) site. Images are provided in 3 sizes that go into an NPS provided web
page template. The local operator is responsible for routine operation of the sites; however, the Contractor
shall be responsible for training personnel and maintaining the systems in operable condition.

The camera support breaks out into 4 areas outlined below:

           A: Camera System Technical Support
           B: Camera System Internet Access Management
           C: Image Archive
           D: Webcam Server Software Support

           Area A - Technical Support
               Provide site operator telephone/e-mail technical support
               Evaluate and repair system hardware components as appropriate
               Procure expendable hardware components as needed
               Maintain system software and provide upgrades when available
               Verify digital camera system and Web site operation daily
               Verify operation of data integration software on FTP server daily
               Coordinate with ARD to resolve Web site display problems
               Provide technical support to sites with on-site visibility exhibits

           Area B - Internet Access Management
               Pay all ISP and satellite communications billings
               Maintain secure dial-up or satellite ISP access for Webcam sites without network
                  connection
               Provide technical support to resolve ISP problems and set up new ISPs if required
               Maintain FTP site for upload of images
                                                      14
      Maintain security and Air Resource Division (ARD) accessibility on FTP site

Area C - Image Archive
    Provide portable hard drives to site operators for original image retrieval
    Provide technical support to site operators during image retrieval

Area D - Webcam Server Software Support

ARD is responsible for the design of the site and to provide the contractor with templates for
each camera site, as well as supporting CSS and image files. Contractor is responsible for
development of the content generation software. This new software runs on contractor servers.
Some key points:

   - The NPS webcam sites use the ARD designed templates and the contractor-developed
   content generation software. These two components will require continuing maintenance,
   support, bug fixes, and minor changes annually to assure continuous and reliable operation
   critical for high availability and usability of the web site.

   - Starting in May 2011, the image archiving methodology changed. Instead of archiving
   original images to CD/DVD, the contractor uploads images to the ARD development server
   for archive by NPS. NPS intends to put the images in a database for easier access by end
   users. When the database is established, the existing site-specific archive web pages will be
   updated with a new design. The image archive will occur continuously, and contractor will
   continue to retrieve current images from each site and upload them to NPS for archive.

   - ARD will continue to be responsible for the web site design, layout, color scheme, and
   overall look and feel of the site.

   - The contractor must maintain, support, fix and upgrade the content generation software.
   This software consists of the following programs and functionality:

              Obtains air quality and meteorological data from camera-site data files, the NPS
               database, AirNow, and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
               (NOAA) internet sites.
              Saves data in a local database for use the Content Generation software.

              Polls NOAA internet data sources for meteorological data not available from NPS
               sources.
              Provides polled data to the Data Provider for inclusion in the local database.

              Continuously scans the FTP site for images and data files uploaded from
               individual camera sites.
              Copies images and data from the FTP site to server for processing by the
               Content Provider.

              Continuously scans for images and data files uploaded from individual camera
               sites.
              Creates resized images from the original image.

                                          15
                        Manages "Archived Images" Access database, including images, relative
                         humidity, and visual range.
                        Merges air quality and meteorological data from local database into web page
                         templates.

                        Creates and updates 10-day air quality and meteorological timeline charts from
                         data save in the local database by the Data Provider.

                        Continuously scans the FTP server for newly created content, images, and
                         timeline charts.
                        Transfers content files from the server to ARD development server.

                        Copies files transferred by the Data Grabber from the ARD development server to
                         the NPS staging and production servers.

          Software maintenance includes:
             - Upgrading the software to resolve problems noted by NPS staff, site operators, or users.
             - Working with ARD to modify the dynamic content of existing sites such as adding new
             parameters or features.
             - Adding new sites or removing discontinued sites.
             - Maintaining the software configuration specifying data source(s), FTP site links, and other
             site specific parameters.

          The software controls only the dynamic components of the web pages. The static components
          (look and feel) of the web site are the responsibility of the NPS. Changes to the static
          components of the web pages may require changes to the software.

          For the Data Grabber and Data Uploader programs running on the ARD development server, the
          contractor must log in to that server via a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection to
          resolve operational issues. Any problems that are not specific to the development server or are
          associated with the transfer of files to the staging and public Web servers will require action by
          the NPS staff.

          Designated contractor personnel must obtain security credentials for access to the ARD
          development server via the VPN connection (connection made using a single computer provided
          and maintained by NPS). Use of this computer will is restricted to authorized staff identified in
          the screening clearance process. These personnel maintain their secure access by adhering to all
          DOI and NPS training and certification requirements.


        Proposals may define their own methods operation, maintenance, and support of the webcams.
Refer to the ARD webcam pages for what the pages must look like.
http://www.nature.nps.gov/air/webcams/index.cfm .




                                                    16
C.3.1.5 Visitor Center Interpretive Exhibit Support

        Provide technical support to operational real-time air quality exhibits at park visitor centers to
maintain optimal operation and an educational park visitor experience. National Park Service personnel are
responsible for the routine operation of the exhibits; however, the Contractor shall be responsible for
training personnel and maintaining the systems in operable condition.

       The Contractor shall be responsible for providing the following technical support:
           a) Telephone technical support to exhibit staff to assist with problem troubleshooting or to
              upgrade system software.
           b) Repair of malfunctioning hardware components shipped to the Contractor for repair and
              coordination of warranty repairs of covered components.
           c) Fixes and upgrades to existing exhibit system software. This does not include major
              software changes or operating system upgrades.
           d) Updates to Internet security software, including virus and spyware detection and firewall
              protection.

C.3.2 Contract Support

C.3.2.1 Configuration Documentation

       The Contractor shall maintain up-to-date records of the system configuration of the NPS optical/scene
monitoring networks and of the computer software used for data retrieval, editing, reduction, validation, and
reporting. Current SOPs and TIs for the NPS scene/optical monitoring program can be found at:
http://vista.cira.colostate.edu/improve/Publications/IMPROVE_SOPs.htm. The Contractor shall be
responsible for regular review, maintenance, and revision of the SOP/TI database. The Contractor shall
notify the COTR and obtain concurrence in writing of any changes in system configuration, operational
procedures, or data editing/reduction algorithms before the change occurs. The configuration control should
include both field and laboratory documentation of network changes and changes in computer software. The
Contractor shall be responsible for notifying the IMPROVE web site manager of any changes and for
providing a digital copy of revised SOPs and TIs to the web site manager. The Contractor shall also be
responsible for providing the IMPROVE web site manager with all meteorological data including site
photographs and annotated maps in digital form for any new or modified monitoring site.

C.3.2.2 Quarterly Progress Report

        The contract shall provide a quarterly report with current map of monitoring locations, table of
parameters and sites, information on activities and progress, site visit plans, and other details on network
operations. Twice per year an inventory shall be provided of all NPS equipment being tracked and their
location. See Exhibit J. 2 for an example of the quarterly report and Exhibit J.3 for an inventory example.


C.3.2.3 Weekly Summary of Activities Report

       The Contractor shall provide a short weekly summary of events, issues, problems and proposed
                                                      17
resolutions, and other information of interest to the COTR by the second work day of the following week.
This summary report can be delivered by e-mail, Internet, or hard copy and should be kept short and
concise.

C.3.2.4 IMPROVE Newsletter

        The Contractor shall publish an IMPROVE newsletter quarterly a year on January 15, April 15, July
15, and October 15. The four- to eight-page newsletter shall provide a summary of the IMPROVE
monitoring configuration, pertinent visibility news, and special studies. It shall include a feature article
pertaining to monitoring technique evaluations, data analyses results, and other IMPROVE-related technical
information. The current mailing list consists of over 500 interested scientific, technical, and policy
subscribers. The Contractor shall also provide a PDF file of each newsletter to the IMPROVE web site
manager and EPA for Internet posting. The desire is to move the Newsletter away from hardcopy and make
delivery of a PDF file the preferred method. The web site at
http://vista.cira.colostate.edu/improve/Publications/news_letters.htm provides recent IMPROVE Newsletter
examples.


C.3.2.5 Data Requests

       The Contractor shall respond within 10 days to requests for scene, optical data, and analyses as
approved by the COTR. Most requests will be reviewer to the VIEWS web site.



C.4     CONTRACT CONFIGURATION ENHANCEMENTS - Options
        (Subject to availability of funds)

       There will be changes to the contract during its five-year term to keep pace with and respond to
emerging air pollution issues. Assume that the following changes will take place. Respond in a generalized
fashion in your technical and price proposals to the following changes. Price proposals must reflect these
enhancements (optional tasks) as a separate line items (see Section B).



C.4.1   Option - IMPROVE Steering Committee Support

        The Contractor shall work with the IMPROVE Steering Committee Chairman to plan and organize
the annual meeting, plus attend, and report on meetings of the IMPROVE Steering Committee. The
Contractor will be responsible for compiling and publishing the minutes of these meetings. PDF files of the
minutes shall be provided to the IMPROVE web site manager for Internet posting. For pricing purposes,
this effort will entail one half (.5) man-years of efforts.


C.4.2   Option - Air Quality Modeling

       The contractor shall conduct air quality modeling (including processing of meteorological data
through the air quality modeling preprocessing models), review air quality modeling protocols, review
modeling aspects of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permits and other regulatory programs
such as Best Available Retrofit Technology (BART), develop modeling protocols, develop guidelines on
how to run models, and analyze model results. This work might be ongoing or defined on an as-need basis.
                                                     18
The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system will generally be used. Some analyses with PLUVUE-II are
also anticipated. Other air quality models will be used as appropriate. For pricing purposes, this effort will
entail one half (.5) man-years of effort.

C.4.3 Option - Configuration Enhancement— Purchase, modification, performance assessment, and
Deployment of Equipment

      The Contractor may be asked to deploy one or more nephelometer sites. The Contractor shall be
responsible for the following tasks at each monitoring site:

      Recommend monitoring site consistent with enclosure and instrument power requirements for
       COTR approval.
      Design shelter requirements of instrumentation configuration.
      Install and calibrate instruments.
      Establish data collection, editing, and reduction procedures.

For purposes of pricing, the following should be included in the per installation price and the prices shall be
identified separately under this option item in Schedule B responses:

      Price per site for shelter requirements
      Price per site for installation and calibration procedures

The contractor shall assume that all capital equipment has been purchased and is readily available to the
Contractor.


C.4.4 Option - Configuration Enhancement—Nephelometer

       The Contractor may be asked to operate and perform extensive testing and reconfiguration of
nephelometers. The Contractor would be required, but not limited, to

                  fit current nephelometers with an inlet with a 2.5 µm cutpoint;
                  retrofit existing nephelometers with “green” light emitting diode (LED) light sources
                   rather than the current incandescent source;
                  establish the accuracy and precision of its ability to measure atmospheric scattering;
                  expand and further develop calibration procedures; and
                  conduct tests to refine standard operating procedures.

       With concurrence of the COTR, the Contractor would be responsible for documenting findings, and
reporting data for a test and field implementation program. For purposes of this contract, assume the test
location would be at CSU in Fort Collins, Colorado.

       For purposes of pricing, assume that all capital equipment has been purchased and is readily available
to the Contractor.


                                                      19
C.4.5 Option - Scene Monitoring & Real-time Visibility Displays

      The Contractor may be asked to deploy and operate digital real-time camera systems for scene
monitoring. The Contractor would be required, but not limited, to

                  review state-of-the-art digital camera systems;
                  develop protocols for collecting and archiving digital images;

                  design, specify, and develop hardware, software, and electronic systems to allow digital
                   images to be combined with real-time air quality and visibility data for onsite interpretive
                   displays; and
                  design, specify, and develop hardware, software, and electronic systems for web-based
                   access of digital images.
       For purposes of pricing, assume that all capital equipment has been purchased and is readily available
to the Contractor and that the station is to be deployed at a site in California 3 hours from a major airport.

C.4.6 Option - Configuration Enhancement— Station visits for non-routine service

        The contactor may be asked to provide maintenance, repair, replacement, or installation of new
equipment existing at monitoring sites. To the extent possible, extra travel will be handled by minor
adjustments in the annual visit schedule, with approval of the COTR/CO, at no additional cost. When an
extra station visit is required, the contractor shall obtain authorization from the CO after submitting a cost
proposal and work plan. This option is subject to funding availability and approval by the Contracting
Officer.

        For purposes of comparison for this contract prepare a proposal for the option, assume a lightning
strike at a webcam and nephelometer site in southern California that requires troubleshooting, onsite repair
of instrumentation, and replacement of a phone modem, a nephelometer power supply, a light source lamp,
and the communication board between the digital camera and the laptop PC.

C.4.7 Option - Visual Air Quality Modeling

       The Contractor shall be responsible for maintaining and upgrading Visual Air Quality simulation
software: WinHaze, Visual Haze and PlumeView. The Contractor shall add images to these programs as
directed by the COTR. The Contractor must describe methods for

                  general familiarity with Visual Air Quality Simulation procedures and models;
                  procedures for preparing and adding images to the Visual Air Quality Modeling software;
                  calibration of color film scanners and densitometers; and
                  use of image digitization techniques to extract quantifiable information from 35 mm
                   slides and digital images taken during web camera network and monitoring efforts,
                   including procedures for calculating relative and calibrated vista radiance field, contrast,
                   modulation depth, modulation transfer function, and advanced color indices from
                   calibrated digital images.

      For purposes of pricing, assume that all capital equipment has been purchased and is readily available
                                                       20
to the Contractor.

C.4.8 Option - Configuration Enhancement—Meteorological Measurements

        The Contractor may be asked to deploy surface meteorological monitoring equipment, including
wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, and relative humidity. At some surface monitoring sites the
Contractor may be asked to make upper-air soundings of air temperature, wind direction, wind speed, and
relative humidity. The Contractor shall be responsible for the following tasks:

                    Assisting in selection of each monitoring site
                    Installing and calibrating instruments
                    Establishing data editing and reduction procedures

For purposes of pricing, the following should be included in the per installation price and the prices shall be
identified separately under this option item in Schedule B responses:

       Price per site for shelter requirements
       Price per site for installation and calibration procedures

Assume capital cost of equipment to be provided by the Contractor at $25,000 per site. Although travel may
be involved, it will be reimbursed in accordance with Government Travel Regulations.

C.4.9 Option - Data Analysis

        The Contractor may be asked to perform data analysis procedures such as back-trajectory and
streakline analysis, receptor modeling, and simple deterministic type air quality model calculations.

        In particular, the Contractor should prepare a brief proposal on how the Contractor would address
the following sample scenario:

       The NPS requires primary and secondary pollutant concentration estimates (including short
       averaging times, e.g., 24-hour) due to an industrial source proposed to be located approximately 150
       kilometers from a national park. These estimates should reflect a consideration of long-range
       transport, chemical transformation, stagnation conditions, and complex terrain. Assume an emission
       rate of 5,000 tons per year of sulfur dioxide and a tall stack. Include estimates of the potential impact
       on visibility assuming a moist atmosphere (relative humidities greater than 70%) and existing 24-
       hour sulfate concentrations as high as 6 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3).

       For purposes of pricing, assume that all capital equipment has been purchased and is readily available
to the Contractor.

C.4.10 Option - Special Studies

        NPS also participates in special studies where a variety of scene, optical, aerosol, and meteorological
monitoring systems are used at multiple sites. Typical installations include multiple still and time-lapse
film, video and digital camera systems, and transmissometer and nephelometer instrumentation. These
installations typically are fitted with a variety of meteorological sensors. Special studies are typically added
as “contract enhancements”, depending on funding availability and research needs.

       For this option assume the mobile lab is to be deployed at Rocky Mountain NP with NH3 denuders,
                                                        21
NOy, NO, NO2, HNO3, PM2.5 monitoring, CO, SO2, and additional daily modules for sulfate and nitrate.
Study will last 4 weeks. All lab analysis and filter preparation will be handled at CSU. All the
instrumentation is available but must be configured, calibrated, and setup for data collection. No on-site
operator is available. Power and a DSL phone line are nearby.


C.4.11 Option - Configuration Enhancement—Purchase, Installation, and Operation of Ambient
Reactive Nitrogen and Wet Deposition Monitor

        The deposition measurement system has been designed to measure additional nitrogen species that
are not characterized by IMPROVE, CASTNet, or NADP monitoring networks.
        The measurement approach includes use of three sampling systems: a precipitation sampling system
capable of collecting up to seven daily precipitation samples, a multi-channel aerosol/trace gas sampler
capable of obtaining daily denuder and filter samples of key PM2.5, and gas (ammonia [NH3], sulfur dioxide
[SO2], and nitric acid [HNO3) species, and a thermal converter + filter system for obtaining measurements
of key nitrogen-containing gases that may represent important contributors to nitrogen deposition fluxes in
pollution-impacted environments.

        Wet deposition samples are collected at daily time resolution using an automated precipitation
collector (Eigenbrodt Model NSA 181/KS). A precipitation sensor determines the start and stop of each
collection period, opening and closing a cover to prevent contamination by dry deposition. Precipitation is
collected by a polyethylene funnel and directed to one of eight sample bottles, permitting weekly site
operator attendance while collecting daily precipitation samples. The precipitation sensor, funnel, and
sample bottles are heated as necessary to permit year-round operation.

         PM2.5 and trace gas samples for determining dry deposition fluxes will be collected using a multi-
channel denuder/filter-pack sampler (Thermo Electron RP Model 2300). The sampling configuration will
include, in series, a PM2.5 impactor, an acid coated denuder for ammonia collection, a base coated denuder
for SO2 and HNO3 collection, a nylon filter for particle collection, and a backup acid-impregnated cellulose
filter for collecting any ammonia that volatilizes off collected particles (results from the IMPROVE nitrate
special study demonstrate that no HNO3 is lost from particles collected on nylon filters).

        Method description- A new approach is implemented to measure concentrations of other gas phase
nitrogen species that can be important contributors to deposition. This system (see schematic in Figure 1)
measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2) plus other important forms of organic NOy, including alkyl nitrates and
peroxynitrates. The system works by heating a filtered air stream to 350 C. At this temperature both alkyl
nitrates and peroxy nitrates are thermally converted to NO2. The original NO2 in the air stream plus the NO2
formed in the converter are then sampled onto a filter or denuder coated with an appropriate sorbent. The
NO2 is later extracted from the filter and oxidized to nitrite ion. The nitrite ion is measured by ion
chromatograph (IC), using the same technique routinely used for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate measurement.
Heaters and filter packs will be supplied by the Colorado State University Atmospheric Science Department
staff.




                                                    22
                 Peroxy nitrates + alkyl nitrates  NO2




                   Thermal converter (350 C)

                                                                        Pump +
      Particle                                               NO2         flow
       filter                                             collection    control
                                                            filter

Figure 2         Schematic of system for filter-based collection of NO2 + alkyl nitrates + peroxy nitrates.

       For the purposes of costing this enhancement, assume the purchase, installation, operation, and
maintenance of these instruments for the period of one year at Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Park.
Weekly filter substrates, denuders, and liquid water samples are to be shipped to Colorado State University
(CSU) Atmospheric Chemistry Department. CSU will be responsible for preparation of replacement
denuders and filter substrates. Coordination will be necessary with CSU staff.
Contact person:        Dr. Jeff Collett
                       Colorado State University
                       Atmospheric Chemistry Department
                       Fort Collins, CO 80523
                       Collett@lamar.ColoState.EDU - (970) 491-8697




C.5       INCORPORATION OF TECHNICAL PROPOSAL

       (a) The Contractor’s technical proposal is incorporated herein by reference. In the event of conflict
           between the provisions of the technical proposal and any other clause of this contract (including,
           but not limited to, the statement of work), the conflict will be resolved in accordance with 52.215-
           33, Order of Precedence. For this contract, the Contractor’s technical proposal will be deemed to
           be subitem (f) (last in order of precedence). The detailed technical content of the Contractor’s
           proposal is an important factor in the selection of the contractor for award of this contract. It is
           agreed, therefore, that in performance of this contract, the Contractor shall not change or otherwise
           deviate from the content of the technical proposal without prior written approval of the Contracting
           Officer. If it is necessary for the Contractor to change the performance, design, configuration, or
           other items specified in the technical proposal in order to comply with the requirements of the
           Statement of Work, contract clauses, or special contract requirements, the contract shall be
           modified at the discretion of the Government to reflect the changes at no increase in contract
           cost/price or extension of the delivery schedule.

       (b) The Government, upon award of this contract, shall have full rights of ownership in the technical
           proposal and the data contained therein.

C.6       OTHER

          The contractor shall be able to provide services under the terms of this contract relating to, but not
          specifically identified in the scope of work, as directed by the NPS. Such services will be identified
          and negotiated on a task order basis as needed.

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