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									                                                                    International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
                                                                                                        Vol. 4, No. 3, 2012


        Performance Analysis of RC5 and RC6 Block
                    Cipher Algorithms
                       Ravindra Kumar Singh                                            Harsh Kumar Verma
         Department of Computer Science & Engineering                       Department of Computer Science & Engineering
                   NIT Jalandhar, Punjab (India)                                    NIT Jalandhar, Punjab (India)
                  ravindra1987singh@gmail.com                                            vermah@nitj.ac.in


Abstract - In this paper, Performance analysis of RC5 and              RC5 is a block cipher notable for its simplicity. Designed
RC6 block cipher algorithms have been done on the basis of             by Ronald Rivest in1994, RC stands for "Rivest Cipher",
execution time and resource utilization. CPU utilization and           or alternatively, "Ron's Code". It is suitable for hardware
memory utilization both are considered for determining                 and software implementation, because it uses only those
resource utilization. Both of these algorithms are fast
symmetric encryption algorithms and make heavy use of
                                                                       operations which are available in typical microprocessor
data dependent rotations and mixture of different                      [6].
operations, which provide the security. In particular, the use         RC6 is derived from RC5 [7]. There are two main new
of data-dependent rotations helps defeat differential and
                                                                       features in RC6 compared to RC5: the inclusion of integer
linear cryptanalysis. RC5 uses two w-bit registers for
carrying out the operation in encryption procedure while
                                                                       multiplication and the use of four w-bit working registers
RC6 uses four w-bit registers. Allowable choices for w are 16          instead of two w-bit registers as in RC5. It was designed
bits, 32 bits, and 64 bits. Both are parameterized algorithms          by Ron Rivest, Matt Robshaw, Ray Sidney and Yiqun
with a variable block size, a variable key size, and a variable        Lisa Yin to meet the requirements of the Advanced
number of rounds. Performances of these two algorithms                 Encryption      Standard (AES)     [8] competition.   The
have been evaluated on key size of 128-bits, 192-bit and 256-          algorithm was one of the five finalists and was also
bit in this paper.                                                     submitted to the NESSIE [9] and CRYPTREC [10]
                                                                       projects. It is a proprietary algorithm, patented by RSA
Keywords - Cryptography,         Block     cipher,   Symmetric
                                                                       Security.
encryption, RC5, RC6.
                                                                                       II.   RC5 BLOCK CIPHER
                  I.    INTRODUCTION
                                                                       The RC5 encryption algorithm is a block cipher that
In cryptography [1], the use of the symmetric key                      converts plain text data blocks of 16, 32, and 64 bits into
encryption is common to ensure data confidentiality, it                cipher text blocks of the same length. It uses a key of
uses same key for both encryption of plain text and                    selectable length b (0, 1, 2, ..., 255) byte. The algorithm is
decryption of cipher text. Symmetric encryption is                     organized as a set of iterations called rounds r that takes
illustrated in fig 1.                                                  values in the range (0, 1, 2, ..., 255) as illustrated in fig. 2.




                  Fig 1: Symmetric Encryption

Symmetric key encryption code can be divided into the
block cipher and stream one [1]. RC5 [2,3] and RC6 [4,5]
is a symmetric key block cipher.                                                        Fig 2: RC5 Encryption Algorithm




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                                                                           International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
                                                                                                               Vol. 4, No. 3, 2012

The operations performed on the data blocks include                   Tables 1 [2] show these magic constants in hexadecimal
bitwise exclusive-OR of words, data-dependent rotations               using several values of w. Which are calculated by above
by means of circular left and right rotations and Two's               expressions (1) & (2).
complement addition/subtraction of words, which is
modulo-2w addition/subtraction. RC5 is a fully                                      Table 1. Magic Constants values Pw and Qw
parameterized family of encryption algorithms, it is more                    W       16          32                   64
accurately specified as RC5-w/r/b where the word size is                     Pw     B7E1      B7E15163        B7E151628AED2A6B
w bits, encryption consists of a nonnegative number of                       Qw     9E37      9E3779B9        9E3779B97F4A7C15
rounds r and b denotes the length of the encryption key in
bytes. The original suggested choice of parameters were                Key-Expansion with RC5-w/r/b
w = 32 bits, r = 12 and b = 16-byte. For all variants,
RC5-w/r/b operates on units of two w-bit words using the               Input: b byte key that is preloaded into c word array
following basic operations.                                            L[0,1,…, c-1], r denotes the no of rounds.
                                                                       Output: 2r+2 w-bit round keys S[0, 1, …, 2r, 2r+1].
 The operations used in RC6 are defined as followings.                 Procedure:
       A+B integer addition modulo 2w                                 S[0] = Pw,
       A-B integer subtraction modulo 2w                              For i= 1 to 2r+1 do
       A⊕B bitwise exclusive-or of w-bit words                        {
       A<<<B rotation of the w-bit word A to the left                 S[i] = S[i – 1] + Qw
        by the amount given by the least significant lg w              }
        bits of B                                                      X=Y=a=b=0
       A>>>B rotation of the w-bit word A to the right                Iteration =3 * max(c, 2r+2)
        by the amount given by the least significant lg w              For i = 1 to Iteration do
        bits of B                                                      {
There are three routines in RC5: key expansion,                        X = S[a] = (S[a] + X + Y) <<< 3
encryption, and decryption [11]. We discus each of them                Y =L[b] = (L[b] +X + Y) <<< (X + Y)
in next sections, Key-Expansion algorithm is used to                   i = (a + 1) mod (2r + 2)
generate the round sub keys that will be use in both                   j = (b + 1) mod c
encryption and decryption algorithms. RC5 has different                }
algorithms for encryption and decryption, in encryption it
uses integer addition modulo 2w but in decryption it uses             B. Encryption Algorithm
integer subtraction modulo 2w. RC5 is a symmetric key                 Fig 3 illustrates the encryption procedure of RC5;
encryption so encryption and decryption algorithms uses               decryption procedure is just reverse of this structure by
same key.                                                             converting addition operation to subtraction operations.
A. Key-Expansion Algorithm
The user supplies a key of b bytes, copy the secret key
K[0...b-1] into an array L[0..c-1] of c = ceil(b/u), where u
= w/8 in little-endian order. In other words, we fill up L
using u consecutive key bytes of K. Any unfilled byte
positions in L are zeroed. In the case that b = c = 0, set c =
1 and L[0] = 0. The number of w-bit words that will be
generated for additive round keys is 2(r + 1) and these are
stored in the array S[0, ..., 2r + 1].
Magic Constants Pw and Qw are defined for arbitrary w as
follows:
Pw = Odd ((e -1) 2w)                           (1)
Qw = Odd ((v - 1) 2w)                          (2)
Where
e is the base of natural logarithms (e = 2.718281828459)
and                                                                                         Fig 3: RC5 Block Cipher
v is the golden ratio (v =1.618033988749)
Odd (x) is the odd integer nearest to x [2].                          RC5 works with two w-bit registers A and B which
                                                                      contain the initial input plain text as well as the output
                                                                      cipher text at the end of encryption. The first byte of plain




    March Issue                                             Page 9 of 68                                         ISSN 2229 5208
                                                                       International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
                                                                                                           Vol. 4, No. 3, 2012

text or cipher text is placed in the least-significant byte of       not present in RC5 in order to make the rotation
A, the last byte of plain text or cipher text is placed into         dependent on every bit in a word and not just the least
the most-significant byte of B. Pseudo code of encryption            significant few bits. Integer multiplication is used to
is given below; at first we load plain text in to registers A        increase the diffusion achieved per round so that fewer
and B then apply these operations to encrypt the plain text          rounds are needed and the speed of the cipher can be
[2].                                                                 increased. The base-two logarithm of w will be denoted
                                                                     by lg w.
 Encryption with RC5-w/r/b                                           Like RC5, RC6 is a fully parameterized family of
 Input: Plain text stored in two w-bit input registers A             encryption algorithms. A version of RC6 is more
 and B. r denotes the no of rounds and 2r+2 w-bit round              accurately specified as RC6-w/r/b where the word size is
 keys S[0, 1, ..., 2r + 1]                                           w bits, encryption consists of a nonnegative number of
                                                                     rounds r and b denotes the length of the encryption key in
 Output: Cipher text will be store in A and B.
                                                                     bytes. Since the AES submission is targeted at w = 32 and
 Procedure:                                                          r = 20, we shall use RC6 as shorthand to refer to such
 A = A + S[0]                                                        versions. When any other value of w or r is intended in
 B = B + S[1]                                                        the text, the parameter values will be specified as RC6-
 for i = 1 to r do                                                   w/r. Of particular relevance to the AES effort will be the
 {                                                                   versions of RC6 with 16-, 24- and 32-byte keys. For all
 A = ((A ⊕ B) <<< B) + S[2i]                                         variants, RC6-w/r/b operates on units of four w-bit words
 B = ((B ⊕ A) <<< A) + S[2i+ 1]                                      using the following basic operations [12].
 }
                                                                       The operations used in RC6 are defined as followings.
After applying these operations on registers A and B plain
                                                                            A+B integer addition modulo 2w
text get converted into the cipher text and we store it in
                                                                            A-B integer subtraction modulo 2w
any file that is called encrypted file.                                     A⊕B bitwise exclusive-or of w-bit words
C. Decryption Algorithm                                                     A*B integer multiplication modulo 2w
Pseudo code of decryption is given below; for decryption                    A<<<B rotation of the w-bit word A to the left
of cipher text load cipher text into registers A and B then                  by the amount given by the least significant lg w
apply these operations to convert cipher text into plain                     bits of B
text.                                                                       A>>>B rotation of the w-bit word A to the right
                                                                             by the amount given by the least significant lg w
 Decryption with RC5-w/r/b                                                   bits of B
 Input: Cipher text stored in two w-bit input registers A                   f(x) = x(2x+1)mod 2w
 and B. r denotes the no of rounds and 2r+2 w-bit round
 keys S[0, 1, ..., 2r + 1]                                           There are three routines in RC5: key expansion,
                                                                     encryption, and decryption. We discus each of them in
 Output: Plain text will be store in A and B.                        next sections, Key-Expansion algorithm is used to
 Procedure:                                                          generate the round sub keys that will be use in encryption
 for i = r down to 1 do                                              and decryption algorithms. RC6 has different algorithms
 {                                                                   for encryption and decryption, in encryption it uses
 B = ((B - S[2i + 1]) >>>A) ⊕ A                                      integer addition modulo 2w but in decryption it uses
 A = ((A - S[2i]) >>> B) ⊕ B                                         integer subtraction modulo 2w. RC6 is a symmetric key
 }                                                                   encryption so encryption and decryption algorithms uses
 B = B - S[1]                                                        same key.
 A = A - S[0]
                                                                     A. Key-Expansion Algorithm
                                                       w
This algorithm uses integer subtraction modulo 2 and                 Key-Expansion Algorithm of RC6 is similar as RC5, only
right rotation on registers for getting plain text; it does          difference is that RC6 will be generate 2r+4 additive
reverse operations on registers.                                     round keys rather that 2(r + 1) used in RC5 [12].
               III. RC6 BLOCK CIPHER                                  Key-Expansion with RC6-w/r/b
RC6 is very similar to RC5 in structure, using data-                   Input: b byte key that is preloaded into c word array
dependent rotations [5], addition modulo 2w and                        L[0,1,…, c-1], r denotes the no of rounds.
XOR operations; in fact, RC6 could be viewed as                        Output: 2r+4 w-bit round keys S[0,1, …, 2r + 2,2r+3].
interweaving two parallel RC5 encryption processes.                    Procedure:
However, RC6 does use an extra multiplication operation                S[0] = Pw,



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                                                                       International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
                                                                                                           Vol. 4, No. 3, 2012

 For i= 1 to 2r+3 do                                                   D = D + S[1]
 {                                                                     for i = 1 to r do
 S[i] = S[i – 1] + Qw                                                  {
 }                                                                     t = (B * (2B + 1)) <<< lg w
 X=Y=a=b=0                                                             u = (D * (2D + 1)) <<< lg w
                                                                       A = ((A ⊕ t) <<< u) + S[2i]
 Iteration =3 * max(c, 2r+4)
                                                                       C = ((C ⊕ u) <<< t) + S[2i+ 1]
 For i = 1 to Iteration do
                                                                       (A, B, C, D) = (B, C, D, A)
 {
                                                                       }
 X = S[a] = (S[a] + X + Y) <<< 3                                       A = A + S[2r + 2]
 Y =L[b] = (L[b] +X + Y) <<< (X + Y)                                   C = C + S[2r + 3]
 i = (a + 1) mod (2r + 4)
 j = (b + 1) mod c                                                   Operation (A, B, C, D) = (B, C, D, A) means the parallel
 }                                                                   assignment of values on the right to registers on the left.
B. Encryption Algorithm                                              After applying these operations on registers A, B, C, D
                                                                     plain text gets converted into the cipher text.
Fig 4 illustrates the encryption procedure of RC6;
decryption procedure is just reverse of this structure by            C. Decryption Algorithm
converting addition operation to subtraction operations.
                                                                     Pseudo code of decryption [12] is given below; for
                                                                     decryption of cipher text load these cipher text into
                                                                     registers A, B, C, D and then apply these operations to
                                                                     convert cipher text into plain text.
                                                                       Decryption with RC6-w/r/b
                                                                       Input: Cipher text stored in four w-bit input registers A,
                                                                       B, C, D. r denotes the no of rounds and 2r+4 w-bit round
                                                                       keys S[0, 1, ..., 2r + 3]
                                                                       Output: Plain text will be store in A, B, C, D
                                                                       Procedure:
                                                                       C = C - S[2r + 3]
                                                                       A = A - S[2r + 2]
                                                                       for i = r down to 1 do
                                                                       {
                                                                       (A, B, C, D) = (D, A, B, C)
                                                                       u = (D * (2D + 1)) <<< lg w
                    Fig 4: RC6 Block Cipher                            t = (B * (2B + 1)) <<< lg w
                                                                       C = ((C - S[2i + 1]) >>> t) ⊕ u
RC6 works with four w-bit registers A, B, C, D which
                                                                       A = ((A - S[2i]) >>> u) ⊕ t
contain the initial input plain text as well as the output
                                                                       }
cipher text at the end of encryption. The first byte of plain
                                                                       D = D - S[1]
text or cipher text is placed in the least-significant byte of
                                                                       B = B - S[0]
A, the last byte of plain text or cipher text is placed into
the most-significant byte of D [2]. Pseudo code of                   This algorithm uses integer subtraction modulo 2w and
encryption [12] is given below; at first we load plain text          right rotation on registers for getting plain text; it does
in to registers A, B, C, D and then apply these operations           reverse operations on registers.
to encrypt the plain text.
                                                                              IV. COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS
 Encryption with RC6-w/r/b
                                                                     A comparative analysis of RC5 & RC6 is performed to
 Input: Plain text stored in four w-bit input registers A,           provide some measurements on the encryption and
 B, C, D. r denotes the no of rounds and 2r+4 w-bit round            decryption. Effects of several parameters such as number
 keys S[0, 1, ..., 2r + 3]                                           of rounds, block size and the length of secret key on the
 Output: Cipher text will be store in A, B, C, D                     performance evaluation criteria are investigated.
                                                                     These two encryption algorithms were implemented in c#
 Procedure:
                                                                     in visual studio 2009. Performance was measured on a
 B = B + S[0]




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                                                                                      International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
                                                                                                                          Vol. 4, No. 3, 2012

3GHz Pentium®4 with 1GB of RAM running Windows                                        Table 5: Comparison on the basis of execution time for 32-bytes key
XP professional Version 2002, Service pack 3.                                           File Name                                    File Size                       RC5            RC6
                                                                                        (file type)                                  (in KB)
A. Parametric Comparison
                                                                                      A.doc                                                 712               109.375                 125
Table 2 summarizes the comparison of RC5 & RC6 for                                    B.pdf                                                 649               109.375             140.625
different design parameters such as word size, block size,                            C.jpg                                                 656                 93.75             109.375
number of rounds and secret key size.                                                 D.gif                                                1396                156.25             203.125
                                                                                      E.mp3                                                2068               234.375             296.875
            Table 2: Comparison on the basis of parameters                            F.avi                                                2800               328.125              406.25
       Parameters                           Algorithm Type                          Fig 5, 6 and 7 illustrate the execution time according to
                                      RC5                     RC6
 b (key length in bytes)       0 - 255                 0 - 255                      their file size for each files using algorithm RC5 & RC6
 r (no of rounds)              0 – 255                 0 – 255                      for 16-bytes, 24-bytes and 32-bytes key respectively.
                               (standard 12)           (standard 20)
                                                                                    Execution time of RC5 is represented by blue color and
 No of round keys              2r+2                    2r+4
 Block size in words           2w                      4w                           RC6 is represented by red color.
 w (word size in bits)         16, 32, 64              16, 32, 64
                               (standard 32)           (standard 32)
                                                                                    Graph shows that RC5 performs faster than RC6 for every
 Block size in bits            32, 64, 128             64, 128, 256                 key size. It can also be determined that RC5 performs
                               (standard 64)           (standard 128)               faster on 24-byes of key size.
 Transformation Function       Does not exist          F(x) = x(2x+1)
                                                       mod 2w
                                                                                                                   500
                               +, -, ⊕, <<<, >>>       +, -, ⊕, *, <<<,



                                                                                      Processing Time in ms
 Used Operation
                                                       >>>                                                         400

B. Performance Comparison                                                                                          300
                                                                                                                   200
In addition, to improve the accuracy of our timing
measurements, program was executed 10 times for each                                                               100
input file and we report the average of the times thereby                                                            0
obtained. In this observation key size have three values                                                                       712        649         656           1396   2068    2800
16-bytes, 24-bytes and 32-bytes while number of round(r)                                                             RC5
                                                                                                                     RC6                           File Size in KB
was fixed, 12 for RC5 and 20 for RC6.
1. Performance Comparison on the basis of Execution                                                                 Fig 5: Execution time of RC5 & RC6 for 16-bytes key
    Time
We compare the execution time of each algorithm on                                                                 500
                                                                                           Processing Time in ms




different-2 file types like text file, audio file & video files,                                                   400
for this purpose we mainly used 6 files and recorded their
                                                                                                                   300
execution (encryption or decryption) times in
milliseconds for both algorithms. List of Input files and                                                          200

their size are given in Table 3, 4 and 5.                                                                          100
                                                                                                                     0
 Table 3: Comparison on the basis of execution time for 16-bytes key                                                           712        649         656           1396   2068    2800
                                                                                                                         RC5
   File Name          File Size (in         RC5                RC6                                                                                File Size in KB
                                                                                                                         RC6
   (file type)            KB)
 A.doc                          712              125             140.625
 B.pdf                          649          109.375             140.625                                            Fig 6: Execution time of RC5 & RC6 for 24-bytes key
 C.jpg                          656           78.125               93.75                                           500
                                                                                        Processing Time in ms




 D.gif                         1396           156.25              218.75
                                                                                                                   400
 E.mp3                         2068          234.375              281.25
 F.avi                         2800            312.5             421.875                                           300
                                                                                                                   200
 Table 4: Comparison on the basis of execution time for 24-bytes key
                                                                                                                   100
   File Name          File Size (in       RC5                  RC6                                                  0
   (file type)            KB)                                                                                                  712       649         656            1396   2068    2800
 A.doc                          712         109.375                  125                                                 RC5
 B.pdf                          649           93.75                  125
                                                                                                                         RC6                       File Size in KB
 C.jpg                          656           93.75              109.375
 D.gif                         1396          156.25               218.75
 E.mp3                         2068         234.375              296.875
                                                                                                                    Fig 7: Execution time of RC5 & RC6 for 32-bytes key
 F.avi                         2800           312.5               406.25




     March Issue                                                          Page 12 of 68                                                                              ISSN 2229 5208
                                                                                International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
                                                                                                                    Vol. 4, No. 3, 2012

2. Performance Comparison on the basis of CPU                                 RC6 for 32-bytes key. Result also conclude that RC5
   Utilization and Memory Utilization                                         performs fastest for 24-bytes key while 24-bytes and 32-
                                                                              bytes key have same impact on RC6.
In this section a video file (.avi) of 2800KB was executed
by both algorithms RC5 and RC6. CPU utilization and
Memory utilization for each algorithm was also captured.                                                       250




                                                                                        Execution Time in ms
For the accuracy point of view we executed that file 5                                                         200
times and then taken the average of them.
                                                                                                               150
 120                                                                                                           100
 100                                                                                                             50
  80
                                                                                                                     0
  60
                                                                                                                         16-Bytes
  40                                                                                                                                    24-Bytes
                                                                                                                                                        32-Bytes
  20
   0                                                                                                                                16-Bytes       24-Bytes        32-Bytes
        1    3   5   7   9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35                   RC5 (no of round : 12)                           169.27         166.66          171.88
                                                                                    RC6 (no of round : 20)                          216.15         213.54          213.54
                             Per 1000 block of encryption
                          CPU utilization (avg : 79.92 %)
                          Memory utilization (avg : 518.17 MB)
                                                                                                               Fig 10: Average Execution Time in millisecond
            Fig 8: CPU Utilization & Memory Utilization of RC5
                                                                              In addition, if we consider on resource utilization then we
Fig 8 shows the CPU utilization and Memory utilization                        got that RC6 utilize 2% extra CUP usage compared to
for RC5 block cipher algorithm. Blue line represents the                      RC5 and memory utilization is approximately same for
CPU usage in percentage (0-100 %) and Red line                                both algorithms.
represents the Memory usage in 10MB (40 means
400MB). Average CPU utilization is 79.92 % and average                                                                    V.        CONCLUSION
Memory utilization is 518.17 MB for RC5.                                      In this research paper RC5 and RC6 block cipher
                                                                              algorithms were compared by using C# program in visual
 120
                                                                              studio 2009. Performance of both algorithms were
 100
                                                                              measured on a 3GHz Pentium®4 with 1GB of RAM
  80
                                                                              running Windows XP professional Version 2002, Service
  60
                                                                              pack 3. Comparative analysis of RC5 and RC6 have been
  40
                                                                              done with a set of input files and evaluated the encryption
  20
                                                                              & decryption time. Results conclude that RC5 is 1.27
   0
                                                                              times faster for 16-bytes key, 1.28 times faster for 24-
        1    3   5   7   9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35
                                                                              bytes key, 1.24 times faster for 32-bytes key than RC6.
                              Per 500 block of encryption                     Result also concludes that both algorithms perform fastest
                             CPU utilization (avg : 81.90 %)                  for 24-bytes key.
                             Memory utilization (avg : 517.82 MB)
                                                                              RC6 utilize 2% extra CPU usage while memory
            Fig 9: CPU Utilization & Memory Utilization of RC6                utilization is approximately same for both algorithms. So
                                                                              RC5 block cipher algorithm is a fast and better block
Fig 9 shows the CPU utilization and Memory utilization                        cipher algorithm for small application where security not
for RC6 algorithm. Blue line represents the CPU usage in                      play very crucial role.
percentage (0-100 %) and Red line represents the
Memory usage in 10MB (40 means 400MB). Average                                                                                 REFERENCES
CPU utilization is 81.90 % and average Memory                                 [1] W. Stallings, "Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and
utilization is 517.82 MB for RC6.                                                   Practice", Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1999.
                                                                              [2] Ronald L. Rivest, “RC5 Encryption Algorithm”, Dr Dobbs Journal,
C. Result Analysis                                                                  Vol. 226, PP. 146-148, Jan 1995.
RC5 performs faster than RC6. Fig 10 shows the average                        [3] Ronald L. Rivest, The RC5 Encryption Algorithm, MIT
execution time for both algorithms to execute the files                             Laboratory for Computer Science 545 Technology Square,
                                                                                    Cambridge, Mass.02139 (Revised March 20, 1997). Available at:
mentioned in table 3, 4 and 5. According to fig 10 RC5 is                           httu://theory.lcs.mit.cdu/-rivest/Rivest-rc5rev.pdf
1.27 times faster than RC6 for 16-bytes key, 1.28 times
faster than RC6 for 24-bytes key, 1.24 times faster than



       March Issue                                                  Page 13 of 68                                                                   ISSN 2229 5208
                                                                                  International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
                                                                                                                      Vol. 4, No. 3, 2012

[4] Ronald L. Rivest, M.J.B. Robshaw, R. Sidney, and Y.L.Yin, The                                        AUTHORS PROFILE
      RC6 TM Block Cipher , M.I.T. Laboratory for Computer Science,
      545 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, Version 1.1 -                                           Ravindra Kumar Singh received B.Tech
      August            20,          1998.       Available      at:                                       degree in Information Technology in 2009 from
      http://people.csail.mit.edu/rivest/Rc6.pdf                                                          Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College
                                                                                                          Ghaziabad affiliated to Utter Pradesh Technical
[5] “RC6®        Block     Cipher”,     “rsa.com”.       Available    at:                                 University, India. Currently he is pursuing
      http://www.rsa.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2512                                                         M.Tech, in Computer Science and Engineering
[6] “RC5”              “wikipedia.org”.            Available          at:                                 from National Institute of          Technology
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RC5                                                                    Jalandhar India in 2009 and 2011 respectively.
                                                                                His research interests include in cryptography and network security.
[7] “RC6”,              “wikipedia.org”.           Available          at:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RC6
                                                                                                      Dr. Harsh Kumar Verma has completed PhD in
[8] “Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard                                    Computer Science and Engineering from Punjab
      (AES).",              “csrc.net”.           Available           at:                             Technical University Punjab, India. Currently he
      http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/round2/r2report.pdf                                         is Associate Professor and Head of Department
[9]   “New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity, and Encrypt”.                                  of Computer Science and Engineering in National
      Available at: https://cosic.esat.kuleuven.be/nessie                                             Institute of Technology Jalandhar, India.
                                                                                                      His research interests include numerical
[10] “Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committees”. Available                                     computing, information security and computer
      at: http://www.cryptrec.go.jp/english/about.html                          networks. He has published various papers in national and international
                                                                                journals and conferences. He has attended various national and
[11] “What     are RC5 and RC6”,”rsa.com”.                Available   at:
                                                                                international workshops, training schools and other technical activities
      http://www.rsa.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2251
                                                                                during his academic carrier.
[12] Abdul Hamid M. Ragab, Nabil A. Ismail, Senior Member IEEE,
      and Osama S. Farag Allah, “Enhancements and Implementation of
      RC6TM Block Cipher for Data Security”, IEEE Catalogue No. 01
      CH37239-0-7803-7101-1/01 © 2001 IEEE.




      March Issue                                                     Page 14 of 68                                           ISSN 2229 5208

								
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