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Cloning • Government representatives at the state, local, and national levels must make decisions on a daily basis that they feel are for the good of the people. • They must make informed decisions. • One issue that they have to debate is cloning What is cloning? • Cloning: A form of reproduction in which offspring result not from the chance union of egg and sperm (sexual reproduction) but from the deliberate replication of the genetic makeup of another single individual (asexual reproduction). Human cloning • Human cloning: The asexual production of a new human organism that is, at all stages of development, genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing human being. • It would be accomplished by introducing the nuclear material of a human somatic cell (donor) into an oocyte (egg) whose own nucleus has been removed or inactivated, yielding a product that has a human genetic constitution virtually identical to the donor of the somatic cell. (This procedure is known as "somatic cell nuclear transfer," or SCNT). Reasons (uses) for human cloning: • To produce children • For biomedical research Human embryo cloning: Stem cells-biomedical research Cloning to produce children • Cloning-to-produce-children: Production of a cloned human embryo, formed for the (proximate) purpose of initiating a pregnancy, with the (ultimate) goal of producing a child who will be genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing individual. Cloning-for-biomedical-research • Cloning-for-biomedical-research: Production of a cloned human embryo, formed for the (proximate) purpose of using it in research or for extracting its stem cells, with the (ultimate) goals of gaining scientific knowledge of normal and abnormal development and of developing cures for human diseases. What are stem cells and why are they important? • Stem cells are primal cells common to all multi-cellular organisms that retain the ability to renew themselves through cell division and can differentiate into a wide range of specialized cell types. • In a developing embryo, stem cells are able to differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues. • stem cells can be readily grown Purpose of lesson 1. Students will illustrate comprehension of the issues involved with human cloning and its effects on society 2. Students will practice scientific inquiry to make an informed decision for or against cloning How will they be accomplished? Students will research and discuss human cloning issues Issues to consider: • Ethical issues (moral outcomes of cloning) • Legal issues (how the government can regulate it) • Social issues (impact on society as a whole) Problem of investigation: • Should the government legalize human cloning in our society (US) • Think in your mind: Based on what you know about human cloning, do you support or reject legalization of human cloning? • After the discussion, you will relay your stance on human cloning Assessment: • Using the knowledge and information you obtain about cloning: – You will write an persuasive letter to your senator explaining whether you support or oppose legalizing human cloning and why? (using inquiry and reasoning skills) – Your essay will be 1 full page – Start on the first line (do not skip) – Finish on the last line – Must have at least 9 words/line or 225 words Embryonic stem cells • Embryonic stem cell lines (ES cell lines) are cultures of cells derived from the epiblast tissue of the inner cell mass (ICM) of a blastocyst. A blastocyst is an early stage embryo - approximately 4 to 5 days old in humans and consisting of 50- 150 cells Questions to think about: • Some questions to ponder. • The questions raised here have no clear right or wrong answer. Instead, your response will depend on your own set of values, as well as the opinions of those around you. • Who has the right to have children, no matter how they are created? Who doesn't? Why? • Is human cloning "playing with nature?" If so, how does that compare with other reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization or hormone treatments? • Does cloning to create stem cells, also called therapeutic cloning, justify destroying a human embryo? Why, or why not? • If a clone originates from an existing person, who is the parent? • What are some of the social challenges a cloned child might face? • Do the benefits of human cloning outweigh the costs of human dignity? • Should cloning research be regulated? How, and by whom? Assignment: • 2 ½ page double spaced report on the benefits and drawbacks of human cloning • 1-inch margins at with 12 pt. times roman font • 1st line of page 1 (1 page) Benefits of Human Cloning • 1st line of page 2-(1 page) Drawbacks of Human Cloning • 1st line of page 3-Government relation on Human Cloning (½ page)-Argue whether it should or should not be regulated by the government? • Do not skip lines-start the report directly under the title Test grade!
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