Poverty In India (DOC) by Rajendraheartz


									Poverty in India

Poverty in India is a major issue. Rural Indians depend
on unpredictable agriculture incomes, while urban
Indians rely on jobs that are, at best, scarce.

Since its independence, the issue of poverty is still
rampant in India. There are 22.15% people living
under the poverty line in India according to a 2004-
2005 survey by NSSO. The estimate was based on
monthly consumption of goods, daily wages, self
employment and landless laborers. However Economic
growth and positive commercial developments have
served to reduce poverty substantially over the years
in India.

As of 2010, more than 37% of India’s population of
1.35 billion still lives below the poverty line. Based on
the survey by NSSO more than 22% of the entire rural
population and 15% of the urban population of India
exists in this difficult physical and financial

The main causes of Poverty in India are its high
population growth rate, agrarian form of economy,
primitive agricultural practices, illiteracy, ignorance,
unemployment, underemployment, caste based
politics, urban rural divide, social inequity and
discrimination. And also poverty situation such as the
division of resources, as well as wealth, is uneven in
India - this disparity creates different poverty ratios for
different states. For instance, states such as Delhi and
Punjab have low poverty ratios. On the other hand,
almost half the population in states like Bihar and
Orissa live below the poverty line.

A number of factors are responsible for poverty in the
rural areas of India. Rural populations primarily depend
on agriculture, which is highly dependent on rain
patterns and the monsoon season. Inadequate rain and
improper irrigation facilities can obviously cause low, or
in some cases, zero production of crops.

Additionally, the Indian family unit is often large, which
can amplify the effects of poverty. Also, the caste
system still prevails in India, and this is a major reason
for rural poverty - people from the lower casts are
often deprived of the most basic facilities and
opportunities. The government has planned and
implemented poverty eradication programs, but the
benefits of these programs are yet to bear fruits.

One third of the Indian population has emerged from
the squalor of poverty in recent years inspite of the
above factors.

The issue of urban poverty in India can be best
expressed with the term pseudo urbanization. Pseudo
urbanization is a state when a city is unable to contain
its populace in terms of providing livelihood, housing
and infrastructure. The phenomenal increase in
population in the cities is one of the main reasons for
poverty in the urban areas of India. A major portion of
this additional population is due to the large scale
immigration of rural families from villages to cities. This
is mainly due to the vast and continuous immigration
of the rural poor into urban areas.

Immigration creates a shortage of resources in the
cities. Urban poverty in India and other third world
countries has resulted in the formation of large slums
and shanty towns.

This immigration is mainly attributed to poor
employment opportunities in villages.

Since 1950,Indian government has launched various
plans and implemented a number of programs
designed to eradicate poverty in India, and has had
some success with these programs. For the problem of
poverty in India, solutions have been found with some
success in recent times that has sought to increase the
GDP through different processes, including changes in
industrial policies. There is a Public Distribution
System, which has been effective to some extent.
Other programs include the Integrated Rural
Development Program, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana and the
Training Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM),
and other on-going initiatives.

A very good example of this is the civic drive to make
the poor self sufficient for the three basic requirements
of food, clothing and shelter. The most successful part
of the scheme has been food rationing, which has
made food available to the poor at controlled prices.

Crusades like ‘national employment program’ and ‘food
for work’ initiatives have done much to harness the
unemployed as productive beings. Another anti poverty
program in recent times, which has won much acclaim,
is the ‘rural landless employment guarantee program’.
This was drafted in 1983 to target the rural poor for
employment and economic rehabilitation. However
India will have to work hard for a long time for
complete eradication of poverty.

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