Glossary of Common Terms Used During the Mortgage Process.txt by BannavtiEric


More Info
									==== ====

For more information on Mortgages please check out;

==== ====

APR - This stands for Annual Percentage Rate. It enables you to compare the full cost of the
mortgage. Rather than just being an interest rate, it includes up front and ongoing costs of taking
out a mortgage. The formula for calculating APR is set by Government Regulations and therefore
enables direct comparison of the cost of mortgages.

Capital and Interest Mortgage - This is when part of your monthly payment contributes to paying
off the outstanding mortgage in addition to paying the interest on the mortgage. The payments are
structured so that at the end of the term, your mortgage will have been completely paid off. For
this reason this type of mortgage is also called a Repayment Mortgage.

Capped Rate - This is a mortgage where the lender agrees that the interest charged will never
exceed a specific percentage. This deal lasts for a set period of years. After the set period, the
rate usually reverts to the lenders standard variable rate. During the capped period, the interest
charges can move up and down with the lenders interest rate - but cannot exceed the capped rate.

Cashback - An amount, either fixed or a percentage of a mortgage, which you can opt to receive
when you complete your mortgage. The lender may well claw back this money through a higher
interest rate.

CAT marks/standards - CAT stands for Fair Charges, Easy Access and decent Terms. They were
created by the Government in an attempt to provide consumers with simple, clear financial
products with straightforward, easy to understand terms. A CAT mortgage will have no
arrangement fees, no redemption fees and will have interest calculated daily. It will also have a
minimum loan of just £5000, offer you repayment flexibility and the mortgage should be
portable should you move home. Finally, you will not have to buy the lender's insurance products
and there will be no penalties should you find yourself in arrears but can subsequently catch up.

Completion - This is end of the house buying process, when the funds are transferred and the
keys are handed over. Happy moving!

Contract - A contract is a binding agreement between the buyer and seller. In the context of house
buying, after the contract is signed by both the buyer and the seller it is then 'exchanged' between
the respective solicitors for a set completion date. At that point, the contract is legally binding on
both parties.

Conveyancing - This is the legal process in which property is bought and sold. You can do it
yourself or hire a solicitor or specialised conveyancer to perform the tasks for you. The buying of a
freehold is much less complicated than the buying of a leasehold.
Discounted Rate - This is where the lender makes a guaranteed reduction off the standard
variable rate for an agreed period of time. After the discounted period ends, the mortgage usually
moves to the lenders' standard variable rate. Watch out for redemption penalties that overhang the
initial discount period.

Early Redemption Charges - Redemption is when the borrower pays off the capital and the
interest on the mortgage and thus owns the property outright. Early redemption fees are the
charges incurred for paying off the mortgage early, either to buy the house outright, move or re-
mortgage. Always ask about early redemption charges before you agree a mortgage.

Endowment - Endowments are life assurance policies with an investment element designed to pay
off the outstanding capital on an interest-only mortgage. There are a few types of endowments,
such as 'with profits', 'unitised with profits' and 'unit-linked'. In the 1980s, these were sold by
salesman who seemly suggested that these policies were "guaranteed" to pay off the mortgage
at the end of the term. However, the investment returns on these policies have fallen to below
what was previously considered to be the norm. Consequently, many policies are not worth what
was originally forecast and may not fully repay the money borrowed at the end of the mortgages'

Equity - In housing terminology, equity is the difference between the value of the property and the
money owed on the property. So if the property is valued at £200,000 and you owe
£150,000 on the mortgage, you have equity of £50,000. If you sold at that moment,
you would receive £50,000. Should the value of the home be less than the mortgage
outstanding then you have negative equity.

Freehold - Owning the freehold means that you own the total rights to the property and the land on
which it is built.

HLC - This is the Higher Lending Charge (it was previously known as a Mortgage Indemnity
Guarantee). It is levied by around three quarters of all lenders on clients who cannot afford to put
down a deposit of 10% of the price of the property. In practice it is a type of insurance aimed at
protecting the lender should you default on your mortgage when the value of your home is less
than the capital you borrowed. The insurance only provides cover for the lender, not you, and
typically costs £1,500.

Homebuyers Report - A property survey aimed at providing more information than a mortgage
valuation but less information than a full structural survey. It will help the borrower to decide
whether to purchase and help the lender to decide how much to lend.

Interest Only Mortgage - This is a mortgage where your monthly repayments only pay the interest
on the mortgage. Therefore, at the end of the mortgage you still have to repay the full sum you
borrowed. You are advised to have a separate investment vehicle into which you make payments
aimed at building up a fund capable of paying off the mortgage capital at the end of the term.
Typical investments include ISA's, a pension or an endowment policy.

IFAs - Stands for Independent Financial Advisor. These advisors are regulated by the Financial
Services Authority. To be classified as "independent" they have to be able to offer you the full
range of products from all financial product providers. They are not entitled to describe
themselves as "independent" if they can only offer products from a restricted panel of financial
companies. A Financial Advisor can be one man band or work for very large companies. Before
they make any recommendation, an IFA must carry out a detailed fact find so they fully understand
your financial circumstances. They can then make their recommendations to suit your personal

ISA - An ISA is an Individual Savings Account, which is a tax-free method of owning shares,
building up a cash savings account or a life assurance policy. You can use an ISA to build up a
capital sum to repay an interest only mortgage.

Leasehold - If your property is leasehold, ownership of the property reverts to the Freeholder at a
set date. Many houses were originally sold on 999 year leases which means that 999 years after
the initial date of the Leasehold, ownership of the property reverts to the Freeholder. Building in
multiple occupation such as apartments, are always sold on a leasehold and usually have a much
shorter leasehold period - 100 and 125 years is quite common. Often, with a block of apartments,
the apartment owners individually own the leaseholds whilst a management company, in which
they hold shares, owns the freehold. These days, however, leaseholders who live in the property
have the legal right to buy their freehold under terms laid down by UK law.

Life Insurance - This can also be called Term Insurance or, when specifically linked to proprty
purchase, as Mortgage Protection Insurance. It is designed to pay a tax free lump sum in the
event of your death to enable your mortgage to be repaid in full. There are a number of variants
such as Level Term Life Insurance and Decreasing Term Life Insurance. At the outset you take
out insurance for the full sum you have borrowed from your mortgage lender and for the same
number of years as you have agreed on your mortgage. These insurance policies do not have any
investment or surrender value. The premiums are based on a number of factors - the main ones
being the amount of cover you need, your age, health and how many years you want to be insured

Lock-In Period - This is the minimum period you have agreed to stay with the lender. Depending
on the deal, it could be as low as six months up to the whole of the term. Should you wish to repay
the mortgage or remortgage during the lock-in period, you will invariably have to pay redemption
penalties. Always make sure you know how long you are locked in for with your mortgage.

LTV - Literally means Loan to Value. This is a measurement of the mortgage amount against the
value of the property or the price that you are actually paying. A £157,500 mortgage on a
property for which you paid £175,000 would be a LTV of 90%. Lenders tend to charge a
Mortgage Indemnity Premium on mortgages with a loan to value of anything about 75%. Some
don't so ask about this.

MIG - This has now changed its name to HLC. See above.

Mortgage - A mortgage is a long-term loan taken out in order to buy a property with repayment
secured on that property. So if you don't keep to the repayment terms, the lender can repossess
the property, sell it and retain the money they are owed. Any balance is then paid to you. If the
property is sold for less than you owe your lender, you still remain liable to repay the shortfall.

Mortgage Advisor - On October 31st 2004 the selling of mortgages in the UK came under the remit
of the City watchdog, The Financial Services Authority (FSA). As from that date any person
providing mortgage advice had to be registered with the FSA and abide by its rules of conduct,
methods of operating and training programmes etc. The objective has been to improve life for the
consumer by offering better protection, clear information and access to redress for poor advice.

Negative Equity - Negative equity is when the value of your home is less than the amount that you
owe on your mortgage plus any other loans secured against it. It can happen very easily if you
take out a 100% mortgage or if property prices fall. (Also see Higher Lending Charge)

Portable - This is a measure of how easy it is to move a mortgage from one property to another
should a property move be required. This is vital if you are moving during your lock-in-period and
wish to avoid redemption penalties.

Repayment Mortgage - This is the same as a Capital and Interest mortgage - see above.

Searches - During the conveyancing process, the buyer has to be sure that the seller has title to
the property and identify any matters may affect the prospective owners ownership of the property.
For example, whether the property is affected by any proposed road building, whether there are
preservation orders affecting the property, is it a listed building and has it been built in accordance
with planning conditions and building regulations. Searches will also show whether there are
mines under or close by the property. This information is obtained by the person undertaking the
conveyancing from HM Land Registry and the relevant Local Authority. These investigations are
collectively known as "Searches".

Self-Certification - Should you have difficulty in providing documentation that "proves" your income
to a prospective mortgage lender, you may need a self-certification mortgage. In essence you
personally certify what your full income is. If you receive high bonuses, or work seasonally or on
commission, or are self-employed this may be your best option. You declare your income plus
some evidence that your declaration is reasonable. Ideally lenders want to see as much
guaranteed income as possible. To compensate the lender for the increased risk they are taking
on a self-certified mortgage, they will charge you a higher rate interest, typically 1% over their
standard variable rate.

Stamp Duty Land Tax (commonly known simply as Stamp Duty) - You pay Stamp Duty Land Tax
on property like houses, flats, other buildings and land. If the purchase price is £120,000 or
less, you don't pay any Stamp Duty Land Tax. If the price is more than £120,000, you pay
between one and four per cent of the whole purchase price, on a sliding scale.

Upto £120,000 - No duty payable

£120,001 to £250,000 - 1% duty payable*

£250,001 to £500,000 - 3% duty payable

£500,001 and over - 4% duty payable

*If you're buying a property an area designated by the government as 'disadvantaged', you don't
pay any Stamp Duty Land Tax if the purchase price is £150,000 or less.
Did you know? Stamp Duty was originally introduced by William of Orange when he was King of

Structural Survey - The most thorough report you can get on the condition of the property you are
considering to buy. The surveyor will look in detail at the inside and outside of the property and will
tell you if the property is structurally sound. All major and minor defects in the building will also be
listed and should tell you what maintenance work may be needed either now or in the future. You
should make sure the scope of the survey is agreed in writing before you commission it. Should
the survey identify problems, use them to negotiate a reduction in the price before you exchange

Variable Rate - This is when the interest rate you pay on your mortgage can go up or down
depending on changes to the lender's standard variable rate. If you have a variable rate mortgage
your monthly mortgage payments will change whenever the lender changes the interest rate.

Valuation - This is where a valuer appointed by your proposed lender, visits the property in order
to estimate its current value. This value is then used by the lender as a basis for its security and
to calculate its Loan to Value Ratio. The borrower never sees the valuation. With some mortgage
deals the lender absorbs the cost of the valuation but in many cases the borrower has to pay

Michael Challiner has 15 years experience in financial services marketing at senior level. Michael
now works as the editor of Kings Remortgage Brokers

Futher reading Mortgages Home Page
Futher reading Mortgage Topics

Article Source:

==== ====

For more information on Mortgages please check out;

==== ====

To top