SAMPLE TRAINING REPORT PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL EVALUATION
NO CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION IS CONTAINED IN THIS REPORT
Name: Sabrina Jones Parents: Dylan Peters, Jyllian Jones
Birthdate: xxxx Address: 25 Azalea Court
Age at Testing: 8 years, 0 months Portland, OR 97222
PPS ID#: 123456 Phone: (503) 555-5555
School: Barkely Elementary Supervisor: Lauretta Carey
Grade: 3.2 Examiners: James B. Hanson, M.Ed.
Teacher: Elizabeth Moorehouse Dan Ryan, M.S. ERC
1. REASON FOR REFERRAL/REVIEW OF INFORMATION:
Sarah Cole, Sabrina’s second grade teacher, referred Sabrina for an evaluation of special
education eligibility and learning needs in early June 2007, when Sabrina had failed to respond to
supplemental reading instruction. Ms. Cole reports that on the PPS first and second grade K-3
literacy assessments, Sabrina performed below age and class expectations. Ms. Cole reported
that Sabrina appeared very bright and creative, but she was concerned with Sabrina’s focus and
attention. She noted that Sabrina had a low frustration level and a high level of anxiety.
2. DEVELOPMENTAL AND SCHOOL HISTORY:
Sabrina is an only child. Her parents both graduated from college. There is a history of mild
learning disabilities on her father’s side of the family. Her uncle and her father both received
reading tutoring when they were in elementary school. Her mother reports that Sabrina met
developmental milestones within normal time parameters. Sabrina’s hearing and vision were
tested in March 2007 and found normal. Sabrina’s mother reports that Sabrina’s current health is
generally good; however, Sabrina has mild asthma. She rarely uses an inhaler but has one with
her at all times. Sabrina has had some difficulty falling asleep, sleeping soundly, and waking up
Sabrina attended pre-school and most of first grade in Portland. Her family moved to
Kentucky in December of her first grade year and returned in early February of her second grade
year Upon her return, Ms. Cole reported that based on her assessment, Sabrina reportedly
learned her alphabet letters well by name and sound but didn’t progress to fluent letter blending,
word identification skills, or reading comprehension strategies. Based on her teacher’s report and
universal DIBELS screening, Sabrina was placed in a supplemental reading group with three
other children in early March 2007. The certified teaching assistant/tutor used the Slingerland
method of instruction twice a week for forty minutes during the afternoon elective time in the
general education classroom. Slingerland is a multi-sensory approach to basic reading skills that
emphasizes mastery level of sound-symbol relationships and frequent review of concepts. Fidelity
to the curriculum was documented by three ten-minute observations using the Slingerland script
checklist. Sabrina’s instructor remarked that Sabrina sometimes had difficulty paying attention in
the small group setting. Sabrina was also on a behavioral modification (charting and reward)
program for respectful listening skills during class meeting times. Ms. Cole writes that Sabrina did
a good job of making choices at large group time with the extra support.
3. CLASSROOM OBSERVATION Date: 2/14/2007 Observer: Kyle Marsden, M.Ed.
During the instructional period, students worked in large and small groups on the following
reading skills: phonological awareness, the alphabetic principle, reading fluency, vocabulary, and
concepts of print. Explicit instruction in reading comprehension skills were not given as a part of
this lesson but have been observed repeatedly in the classroom at other times.
During phonological instruction, students read a poem aloud from the board. After reading the
poem the first time, the students clapped to discover how many syllables each word contained.
The teacher asked the students to listen for the words that began with the “st” consonant blend
and words that ended with the long “e” sound. Sabrina came in at the end of this instruction. She
looked sleepy; her eyelids began to close. The class then moved to large group phonics
instruction. This session lasted from 9:25 to 9:52. Before the lesson began, the teacher reviewed
the consonant blends “ch” the” and “sw.” The children had studied these blends during the
previous week. The teacher began the day’s lesson with stating the objective: learning “r”
controlled vowels, the vowel diphthongs “ou” and “ow”, and the rule for the diphthong “ou” (but not
“ow”) to be followed by “r.” Examples of “r” controlled vowels were written and hung on the
clothesline. The students responded approximately six to eight times per minute. Their accuracy
rate was over ninety percent. Sabrina’s teacher told Sabrina that she would be calling on her in a
minute for an “or” word and to be ready. Sabrina gave a correct answer twice. Sabrina was
praised twice for correct behavior, once for raising her hand and once for respectful listening.
Sabrina was positively corrected (redirected) twice, once for talking to another student (“Put your
hands like this.”) and once for not looking at instruction (“Put your eyes where my red pen is.”).
During group instruction in the alphabetic principle, Sabrina was on task 24% of the time. She
spent the rest of the time looking at other students, looking out the window, or attempting to talk
to a peer. A comparison female student was on task 100% of the time. When students were told
to pair up to perform a practice exercise, Sabrina found a friend easily and began work. Students
were instructed to find examples of two-syllable words in a short passage. During this three-
minute period, Sabrina was on task 100% of the time. She listened and counted syllables as her
peer read the passage.
4. PROGRESS MONITORING DATA
Appropriate Instruction: Sabrina’s classroom teacher is employed by Portland Public Schools
and therefore considered to be highly qualified to deliver instruction. Sabrina’s literacy instruction
is not based on a research-based curriculum; however, the instruction has been observed
repeatedly throughout the year for adherence to the Five Big Ideas of Reading (phonemic
awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) and the principles of effective
instruction (explicit, intensive, scaffolds, high response rate, praise and correction).
Progress Monitoring/Repeated Assessments: During her second grade year, Sabrina’s class
was administered the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) screening
measures. The Barkley team used the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measure to determine group
placement. This measure has been shown to be technically adequate and predictive of third
grade reading skills. In February 2007 Sabrina’s oral reading fluency rate was five correct words
per minute. In May, Sabrina’s oral reading fluency rate was twenty-five correct words per minute.
At the end of second grade, students should have ninety correct words per minute. During the
time that Sabrina was in supplemental instruction, her progress was monitored every week with
the DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) measure. This measure was most closely aligned
with her phonics instruction. In early March, Sabrina’s NWF score was twenty-one, indicating a
deficit. Her scores improved weekly; however, they did not improve as rapidly enough to meet her
learning target. At the end of the ten week intervention, Sabrina’s NWF score was forty-five.
5. PATTERN OF STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
A. Achievement Relative to Age: Standardized, individually administered tests of academic
achievement were used to determine Sabrina’s achievement relative to age.
WJ III ACH Form B Date: 11/1/2007 Examiner: Dan Ryan
Standard Relative Percentile Grade
Composite or Test
Score Proficiency Rank Equivalent
Broad Reading 73 10/90 4 <K.8
Basic Reading Skills 84 22/90 14 K.6
Letter Word Identification 79 5/90 8 K.3
Reading Fluency 82 55/90 11 1.2
Word Attack 92 63/90 29 1.0
Reading Comprehension 74 14/90 4 <K.7
Passage Comprehension 71 2/90 3 <K.0
Reading Vocabulary 85 27/90 15 K.8
Broad Written Language 86 68/90 18 K.6
Spelling 93 69/90 33 K.6
Written Expression 81 67/90 10 K.7
Writing Fluency 84 66/90 13 1.3
Writing Samples 86 66/90 17 K.7
Handwriting 80 NA 9 <K.0
For academic purposes, standard scores between 90 and 110 are considered average. Scores
below 90 are considered weaknesses. Scores above 110 are considered normative strengths.
Grade equivalents are approximations and should not be used for analysis of strengths and
weaknesses. The team is strongly encouraged to examine Sabrina’s scores on the Relative
Proficiency Indexes (RPI). RPI scores indicate the level of mastery on age-level academic tasks.
The average student demonstrates 90/90, or 90% mastery. 90% mastery on tasks falls within
students’ proximal zone of academic development and indicates that students will profit from
exposure to age-level academic materials. Students that score 96/90 or above (96% mastery) will
find most age-level academic tasks easy, and enrichment activities might be considered.
Students that demonstrate RPI scores of 74/90 and below (74% mastery) will find most age-level
academic tasks difficult, and might require accommodations within general education curriculum,
modifications to work, or supplemental instruction in order to master age-level academic material.
All of Sabrina’s academic scores fall below an RPI of 75/90.
WIAT II Date: 3/12/2007 Examiner: Private Evaluator
Standard Percentile Age
Composite or Test
Score Rank Equivalent
Reading Composite 81 10
Word Reading 83 13 5.2
Reading Comprehension 82 12 5.7
Pseudoword Reading 86 18 5.8
Reading Speed Quartile: 1
Spelling 88 21 6.8
*Standard scores between 90 and 110 fall within the average range. Scores below 85 indicate
areas of weakness. Scores above 115 indicate areas of strength. Quartile scores indicate the
bottom (first); lower-middle (second); upper-middle (third) and upper (fourth) twenty-five-percent
ranges for each grade level.
B. Performance Relative to Age: Sabrina’s report card from the first quarter of third grade (last
week) was used to determine her performance relative to age. Students are scored on skill
levels: beginning, developing, and proficient on end of third grade material.
Basic Reading Skills: Sabrina is at a “beginning” level all four basic reading skills: reading third
grade material with 90% -100% accuracy, using many strategies to read, recognizing common
words with irregular spelling patterns, and reading independently for 20-30 minutes daily. Sabrina
is at a “beginning” level in reading fluently with flow and phrasing.
Reading Comprehension: Sabrina is at a “developing” level in five reading comprehension skills.
Sabrina identifies the main idea, uses information and context for reading comprehension, infers
what is meant by what is said, compares two or more texts, and evaluates/analyzes/draws
conclusions about text. Sabrina is at a “beginning” level on reading independently for pleasure or
information. Ms. Kelly writes, “Sabrina works hard and her oral comprehension is good. The
reading and writing progress is still a struggle for her. She needs a lot of one-on-one support to
be successful academically.”
Written Expression: Sabrina is at a “beginning” level in seven of eight writing skills: writing in a
variety of modes including persuasive and narratives, writing a main ideas with some supporting
details, organizing ideas into beginning, middle and end with some transitional words, using fluent
and varied sentences, writing legibly, using grammar, capitalization, and punctuation appropriate
to grade, and having a knowledge on phonics, word patterns, and frequently used words to spell.
Sabrina is at a “developing” level in using the writing process (brainstorming, writing, editing),
Math Calculation Skills: Sabrina is at a “developing” levels in four of four math calculation skills:
reading and writing numbers to 999, counting by 2’s, 3’s, 4’s, 5’s and 10’s, understanding and
using simple fractions like ½, ¼, and ¾, knowing addition and subtraction facts to 18.
Math Reasoning Skills: Sabrina is at a “developing” level in nine of ten math reasoning skills:
using appropriate operations to solve word problems, generalizing about patterns to solve
problems, recognizing, describing and continuing number patterns, recognizing and naming two
and three dimensional shapes, describing math terms such as symmetry and parallel, using
common and metric measures of length, weight and volume, estimating measurements,
demonstrating understanding of a variety of graphs and charts, communicating mathematical
thinking in a variety of ways, and adding sums of money to ten dollars and making change.
Sabrina is at a “beginning” level at telling time to the minute.
Sabrina’s pattern of strengths and weaknesses in performance relative to age indicate strengths
or relative strengths in oral language skills, reading comprehension skills, and some math
reasoning. Sabrina’s weaknesses include basic reading skills and written expression.
C. Achievement Relative to State Grade Level Standards: Sabrina has not yet taken state
grade level standards tests.
D. Performance Relative to State Grade Level Standards: The team used a state standards
rubric to determine Sabrina’s performance on state standards.
END OF SECOND GRADE STATE READING STANDARDS
Area Oregon State Standard Present Level of Measure Priority
Decoding/Word Read regular multi-syllabic Sabrina’s word reading skills WJ III ACH 5
Recognition words. are at the 8 to the 13 WIAT II
percentile for her age.
Decoding/Word Use letter-sound Sabrina’s decoding of WJ III ACH 3
Recognition correspondence to sound out regularly spelled words and WIAT II
unknown words. nonsense words is at the 18
to 29 percentile for her age.
Decoding/Word Recognize and use Sabrina does not change K-3 Literary 4
Recognition knowledge of spelling words into the present Assessments,
patterns (such as cut/cutting, progressive without observations
slide/sliding, and the vowel assistance. She answered DIBELS ORF
sound “oy” in boy) when questions on vowel digraphs
reading. with 100% accuracy when
forewarned, but her teacher
reports that her accuracy in
oral reading is poor. She
answered 3/15 prompts for
vowel digraphs and
diphthongs on group
Decoding/Word Apply knowledge of basic Sabrina decodes simple CVC CBM 3
Recognition syllabication rules when words with 80% accuracy. K-3 Literacy
reading (e.g., VCV su-per, She has not learned Assessment
VCCV sup-per). syllabication rules.
Decoding/Word Recognize and correctly read Sabrina recognizes and reads DIBELS ORF 4
Recognition and use regular and irregular regular plurals with 75%
plurals. accuracy and irregular plurals
with 20% accuracy.
Decoding/Word Recognize common Sabrina recognizes Mrs., Mr., Teacher 3
Recognition abbreviations (e.g., Jan, and Ms. observation
Sun., Mr., St.).
Fluency Read aloud grade level text Sabrina’s oral reading fluency DIBELS ORF 5
fluently and accurately with in September 2007 was 30 WJ III ACH
appropriate intonation and correct words per minute. At WIAT II
expression using cues of the beginning of third grade Report Card
punctuation to assist. benchmark is 93. Sabrina’s
reading fluency is at about the
11 percentile for her age.
Comprehension Listen to, read, and Sabrina’s reading WJ III ACH 4
understand a wide variety of comprehension is at the 4 to WIAT II
grade level information and the 12 percentile for her age. Observation
narrative text including Sabrina participates in Attendance
children’s magazines, classroom activities including
dictionaries, reference online and reference materials
materials, online information, and poetry. She comes late to
and poetry. class for some activities.
Comprehension Demonstrate listening Sabrina is on task 66% of the Teacher report 2
comprehension of more time during listening times and
complex text through participates in classroom
Comprehension Draw upon a variety of Sabrina self-corrected very WIAT II 4
comprehension strategies as often during assessments. K3 Literacy
needed (re-reading, self- She did not re-read or Assessment
correcting, summarizing, summarize for meaning.
class and group discussion).
Comprehension Read voluntarily for interest Sabrina does not read for Parent/teacher 3
and own purposes. pleasure. report
Comprehension Read informational texts for Sabrina shows an interest in Teacher report 2
answers to specific special topics but uses
questions. pictures for information.
Comprehension Recall facts and details in the Sabrina recalled stated facts WIAT II 3
text to clarify and organize from text on 50% of such
Comprehension Pose possible answers to Sabrina participates in Teacher report 3
how, why, and what-if discussions but does not read
Comprehension Retell the sequence of a story Sabrina recalled the sequence WIAT II 2
in stories on 75% of such
Comprehension Identify and describe the plot, Sabrina accurately identifies Teacher report 1
setting, and characters in a these elements when she K3 Literacy
story. hears a story read aloud. Assessment
Comprehension Make and confirm predictions Sabrina answered 25% of WIAT II 3
about what will happen next. outcomes questions.
Comprehension Recognize the use of rhyme, Sabrina accurately counts for Observation 1
rhythm, and alliteration by a rhythm. She rhymes words WJ III ACH
poet and discuss its use. well.
Comprehension Take part in creative Sabrina takes part in plays Teacher report 1
responses to texts such as and in science activities that
dramatizations and oral demonstrate what the class
presentations. has studied.
Vocabulary Understand, learn and use Sabrina’s oral vocabulary is at WISC-IV 0
new vocabulary that is the 99 percentile for her age. WJ III ACH
introduced through stories Her reading vocabulary is at
and informational texts. the 15 percentile.
Vocabulary Know and explain common Sabrina’s verbal reasoning is WISC-IV 0
antonyms and synonyms. at the 98 percentile
Vocabulary Know the meaning of simple Sabrina identifies –ing and – K3 Literacy 4
prefixes and suffixes. ed. Assessment
Vocabulary Determine meanings of Sabrina developed a personal Teacher report 2
words by using a dictionary or dictionary and uses the
glossary. dictionary with assistance.
E. Achievement relative to intellectual development: Standardized, individually administered
tests of intellectual development/cognitive abilities were used for determination.
WISC-IV Date: 3/12/2007 Examiner: Private Evaluator
WJ III COG Date: 5/22/2007 Examiner: Private Evaluator
NEPSY Date: 5/22/2007 Examiner: Private Evaluator
WJ III COG Date: 10/29/2007 Examiner: Kyle Marsden, M.Ed., School Psychologist
Composite (in Bold) or Test Test Standard Score 90% Confidence Percentile Rank
Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) EXBA-2 128 Not Reported 98
Vocabulary () WISC-IV 16 (130) Not Reported 99
Similarities (VL, LD) WISC-IV 15 (125) Not Reported 95
Long-Term Retrieval (Glr) WJ III COG Invalid due to differences of narrow ability scores
Associative Memory (MA) EXBA-2 86 Not Reported 19
Visual Auditory Learning (MA) WJ III COG 89 84-93 23
Visual Auditory Learning Delayed (MA) WJ III COG 82 78-87 12
Retrieval Fluency (IF) WJ III COG 114 107-120 82
Rapid Automatic Naming EXBA-2 108 Not Reported 69
Rapid Picture Naming (NA) WJ III COG 111 109-114 77
Speeded Naming (NA) NEPSY 11 (105) Not Reported 63
Visual-Spatial Reasoning (Gv) EXBA-2 115 Not Reported 85
Perceptual Reasoning WISC-IV 125 Not Reported 95
Block Design (SR, Vz) WISC-IV 14 (120) Not Reported 91
Picture Completion (CF) WISC-IV 14 (120) Not Reported 91
Picture Recognition (MV) WJ III COG 110 102-118 75
Fluid Reasoning (Gf) WJ III COG 119 115-125 92
Concept Formation (I) WJ III COG 113 106-121 82
Analysis/Synthesis (RG) WJ III COG 125 116-133 95
Phonemic Awareness (PA) WJ III COG 116 109-122 87
Auditory Processing (Ga) WJ III COG 120 114-127 91
Sound Blending (PC-S) WJ III COG 105 98-111 63
Incomplete Words (PC-A, PC-S) WJ III COG 119 112-127 90
Auditory Attention (US/U3, UR) WJ III COG 121 115-127 92
Sound Awareness (PC-A, PC-S) WJ III COG 114 107-120 82
Processing Speed (Gs) EXBA-2 106 Not Reported 65
Coding (R9) WISC-IV 15 (125) Not Reported 95
Decision Speed (RE) WJ III COG 111 106-117 77
Pair Cancellation (P) WJ III COG 100 98-102 50
Short-Term Memory (Gsm) EXBA-2 108 Not Reported 72
Working Memory (MW) WISC-IV 110 Not Reported 75
Digit Span (MS, MW) WISC-IV 12 (110) Not Reported 75
Letter-Number Sequencing (MW) WISC-IV 12 (110) Not Reported 75
Auditory Working Memory (MW) WJ III COG 103 97-108 57
Memory for Words (MS) WJ III COG 117 111-123 89
EXBA-2: Scores were derived from the Cross Battery Data Management and Interpretive
Assistant from The Essentials of Cross Battery Assessment-Second Edition
The following is a list of the abilities that are related to reading. The most important are listed first.
The last two (fluid reasoning and visual spatial thinking) are not related to reading.
Verbal Ability: (Strength) Sabrina‘s verbal ability is within the superior range.
Phonemic Awareness/Auditory Processing: (Strength) Sabrina’s overall Phonemic
Awareness ad Auditory Processing scores are within the high average range
Working Memory: (Strength) Sabrina’s working memory is within the high average range.
Rapid Automatic Naming: (Strength) Sabrina’s Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN) scores are
within the average range.
Processing Speed: (Strenth) Sabrina’s processing speed is within the average range.
Associative Memory: (Weakness) Sabrina’s associative memory is at the nineteenth percentile
for her age and within the low average range. Sabrina does not form “paired associations”
between visual and auditory materials well Sabrina’s associative memory pairings degrade more
rapidly than others students’ do. Sabrina will tend to forget the pairings she has learned over
time, and in the time between learning sessions. Sabrina’s associative memory scores indicate a
disorder in one of the basic psychological processes that has a research-based link to
achievement in early reading and math. This pattern indicates that Sabrina might have difficulty
learning and remembering phonics skills. Children with associative memory deficits often have to
exert extra effort in remembering the mechanics of basic skills, which can result in fewer attention
resources available for using their higher-level comprehension strategies. These results help
explain why Sabrina has had difficulty moving from letter identification to fluent identification of
consonant blends, vowel digraphs and diphthongs, “r” controlled vowels, syllables, and whole
words. Children with associative memory deficits may need extra, explicit teaching in breaking the
reading and math “codes.” They may profit from instruction that emphasizes multi-sensory
techniques, uses warm-up exercises that review previous concepts (and that let them experience
a high level of mastery before moving on to more challenging material), uses explicit links
between old and new material, requires a high response rate and mastery of new material before
moving on, and offers frequent and repeated review of new material across situations. Practice
on fluency skills for reading and math are often profitable.
Fluid Reasoning: (Strength) Sabrina’s fluid reasoning skills are within the high average range.
Fluid reasoning is related to math reasoning achievement but not to reading.
Visual Reasoning: (Strength) Sabrina’s visual-spatial thinking skills are within the high average
range. Visual-spatial skills are not related to academic achievement at Sabrina’s age.
F. Performance relative to intellectual development: The Behavior Rating Inventory of
Executive Function, a standardized behavioral checklist, and work samples were used for
BRIEF Date: 11/12/2007 Respondent: Elizabeth Moorehouse, Teacher
Index/Scale Raw Score T Score Percentile 90% C.L.
Inhibit 19 62 89 57-67
Shift 11 47 54 41-53
Emotional Control 22 66 91 61-71
Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) 52 62 89 59-65
Initiate 16 62 89 55-89
Working Memory 22 66 91 61-71
Plan/Organize 31 75 97 70-80
Organization of Materials 22 66 91 61-71
Monitor 16 58 80 52-64
Metacognition index 101 68 94 65-71
Global Executive Composite (GEC) 153 65 89 63-67
Scale Raw Score Cumulative Percentile Protocol Classification
Negativity 0 <90 Acceptable
Inconsistency 4 <98 Acceptable
T-scores between 35 and 65 are within the expected range and indicate average performance. T-
scores above 65 indicate areas of significant difficult for students. Sabrina’s overall index, the
GEC, was within the expected range for her age. The Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) and
Metacognition Index (MI) were elevated. Her teacher’s rating of Sabrina’s behavior in the
classroom indicates that Sabrina exhibits difficulty with some aspects of executive function.
Concerns are noted with Sabrina’s ability to control her emotions, sustain working memory,
organize her environment and materials, and plan and organize problem solving approaches.
Sabrina is not rated as having significant problems inhibiting impulsive responses, making
adjustments to routine or new task demands, monitoring her own behavior, or initiating activities.
Children with similar elevation on the Working Memory scale but without significant elevations in
the Behavioral Regulation scales are often described as generally inattentive. Without appropriate
working memory, their ability to sustain focus for adequate lengths of time may be reduced. This
profile is often seen in children with learning disabilities, language disorders, and mild attention
Work Sample Analyses & Observations: Sabrina often has trouble concentrating and is easily
distracted by other children or things in the environment. She’ll often start to spell a word and
then forget the word she was trying to spell. She has good ideas but can’t get them on paper. Her
sense of time isn’t very good, and she doesn’t plan ahead. “Messy” is a good way to describe
what she does, even though she is always well dressed and clean. When she sounds out words,
she doesn’t identify them on the next page.
6. ASSESSMENTS RELATED TO SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL STATUS
BASC-2 Date: 6/18/207 Overall, Sabrina’s adaptive skills are within the
average range on her mother’s rating and within the at-risk range on her teacher’s rating. Overall,
Sabrina’s Emotional Symptoms Index score is within the at-risk range on both ratings. Her scores
are somewhat similar to the scores of students who have been diagnosed with emotional
disturbances. Sabrina’s teacher’s rating indicates a high level of aggressive behaviors, such as
teasing others, arguing, and annoying other children on purpose. Sometimes Sabrina loses her
temper and bullies, threatens, and calls people names. Sabrina’s score on inattention is within the
at-risk range on her mother’s rating and within the clinically significant range on her teacher’s
rating. Sabrina’s teacher’s rating indicates the team might wish to consider possible Generalized
Anxiety Disorder. Ms. Cole reports that Sabrina almost always worries about things, and worries
about things that cannot be changed. Appropriate goals based on assessment include working
independently, taking turns, developing conflict resolution skills, managing anger/disappointment,
ignoring distractions, and issuing invitations at appropriate times.
CTRS-RS Date: 11/14/2007 The Conners’ Rating Scale is a questionnaire
that teachers fill out that measures behaviors associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder. Sabrina‘s ADHD Index score of 89 falls within the markedly atypical range. This score
indicate possible or probable significant problems with ADHD-Combined Type. In addition, the
team might consider if Sabrina’s behaviors are indicative of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD).
7. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
Sabrina Jones is an eight-year-old third grade student at Barkley Elementary. Sabrina has
many strengths including her intelligence, creativity, social skills, enthusiasm, and love of science.
Her math development was not listed as a referral concern. Ms. Cole, Sabrina’s second grade
teacher was concerned with her lack of focus and her poor academic skills. She was also
concerned with Sabrina’s seemingly high anxiety level. Sabrina’s family history includes mild
learning disabilities. Sabrina’s hearing, vision, and health are generally good, and she met most
developmental milestones at normal times. However, Sabrina has asthma and must occasionally
use her inhaler (about two days a month). She isn’t sleeping well, has difficulty waking up easily,
and comes to school late about one day in five.
Because of these concerns, Sabrina’s parents initiated an evaluation at private evaluation
center, and then at school. Testing results indicated that Sabrina has superior overall cognitive
abilities and verbal reasoning skills. Sabrina has high average abilities in fluid reasoning, visual-
spatial thinking, and phonological awareness. Rapid naming and processing speed scores are
average. However, Sabrina’s associative memory scores are below average. This deficit in a
basic psychological process that is relevant to reading has been observed within the classroom.
Sally has difficulty pairing visual with auditory stimuli, such as pairing a sound with a pattern of
letters. This pattern of strengths and weaknesses is reflected in Sabrina’s reading and spelling
scores: Sabrina’s word identification scores are within the low average range. Because Sabrina
struggles to sound out words, her reading comprehension and reading fluency are within the low
average range. This pattern is seen in Sabrina’s performance of the skills that reflect Oregon
state second grade-level standards and Portland Public School third grade report cards. The
team might consider whether specially designed instruction is appropriate. The Oregon State
Standards Matrix provided earlier in this report might serve as a template for Individual Education
Program (IEP) goal development.
Results of assessment and observation suggest that Sabrina might learn best in smaller
literacy groups that stress mastery of basic skills as they are framed in higher-level
comprehension and analysis tasks, tasks that take advantage of Sabrina’s exceptional intellectual
strengths. Although Sabrina’s math skills appear to be developing, the team will wish to closely
monitor her math progress and consider interventions if appropriate. The team will also examine
opportunities for Sabrina to pursue her academic and extra-curricular interests and passions.
Behavioral checklists, family history and interviews suggest that one of the reasons for
Sabrina’s lack of academic progress might be Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined
Type. The team might consider further evaluation for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (although
oppositional behaviors occur more frequently at school and not at home). However, the team
might also consider that children with sleep and asthma problems sometimes have difficulty with
ADHD-like symptoms, allergies (mold, pollen, pets) and/or ocular coordination, such as proper
saccadic eye movements. Sabrina’s parents might want to consider the benefits of consulting
with her pediatrician on sleep and allergies, and with the Pacific University Vision Clinic on
possible vision issues. The team might wish to consider updating and revising its views on
Sabrina’s eligibility and needs as potential factors such as a sleep disorder, allergies, and visual
control are addressed.
Although ADHD and sleep issues might be the largest presenting problems for Sabrina,
the team is also concerned with possible anxiety and depression. Sabrina has the tendency to
take things hard and not recover as well from setbacks as many children her age do. Many
children with learning challenges experience feelings of frustration and sadness; therefore, even if
the primary cause of Sabrina’s possible emotional upset might be ADHD, lack of sleep and the
lack of ease in learning academic skills, further evaluation and/or interventions for mood might be
Finally, although deficits in associative memory can co-exist with ADHD-Inattentive Type and
be considered a pattern of weaknesses in “executive functioning,” and although temporary lower
scores can be found in associative memory when a student is depressed or anxious, Sabrina’s
lower associative memory performance has been observed for some time, and might therefore be
considered as relevant to a specific learning disability.
Despite her challenges, Sabrina possesses many of the characteristics that bode very
well for her future. These include her outstanding intelligence, her awareness of her environment,
her exposure to good instruction, and her emotionally supportive and capable parents. The team
will continue to work with Sabrina and her parents to provide the most appropriate instruction and
enhanced educational experiences. In addition, once Sabrina has learned phonics well and can
identify common sight words, she should progress rapidly in reading comprehension skills.
James Hanson, M.Ed.