ICAO SSP Module 02 - SSP basic safety concepts by cw5U5ut2

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									                          Module N° 2
                   Basic safety management
                           concepts


Module N° 2
   Revision N° 5        State Safety Programme Implementation Course
                   ICAOICAO State Safety Programme (SSP)(SSP) Implementation Course         1
                                                                                      25/02/10
  SSP – A structured approach


               Module 7
                                                              Module 8
              SSP training
                                                        SSP implementation plan
              programme

               Module 4                     Module 5                                    Module 6
              ICAO SSP                   ALoS related to an                            Prescription /
              framework                        SSP                                     Performance

             Module 1                         Module 2                                Module 3
        Introduction to the                  Basic safety                         ICAO SARPs related
       SSP implementation                    management                                to safety
              course                          concepts                               management

Module N° 2                  ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course                    2
  Objective

  At the end of this module, participants will be able to explain
       the strengths and weaknesses of long-established
       approaches to manage safety and describe new perspectives
       and methods of managing safety by the State




Module N° 2           ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   3
  Contents

  A concept of accident causation
  System performance in the real world
  Safety management strategies – Levels of intervention and
   tools
  Hazards and safety risks
  Safety risk assessment
  Questions and answers
  Points to remember

Module N° 2        ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   4
  Concept of safety

   Consider (the weaknesses in the notion of perfection)
     The elimination of accidents (and serious incidents) is
      unachievable
     Failures will occur, in spite of the most accomplished
      prevention efforts
     No human activity or human-made system can be
      guaranteed to be absolutely free from hazard and
      operational errors
     Controlled safety risk and controlled error are
      acceptable in an inherently safe system

Module N° 2        ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   5
  Concept of safety (Doc 9859)

  Safety is the state in which the possibility of harm to persons

       or property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or

       below, an acceptable level through a continuing process

       of hazard identification and risk management




Module N° 2           ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   6
  Safety




              WHAT?                         WHO?                                WHEN?



                             WHY?                            HOW?

Module N° 2           ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course           7
  A concept of accident causation




                      Latent conditions trajectory

 Activities over which any organization has a reasonable degree
                         of direct control

Module N° 2           ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   8
  A concept of accident causation




                         Latent conditions trajectory

      Factors that directly influence the efficiency of people in
                         aviation workplaces.

Module N° 2              ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   9
  A concept of accident causation




                      Latent conditions trajectory

Actions or inactions by people (pilots, controllers, maintenance
   engineers, aerodrome staff, etc.) that have an immediate
                       adverse effect.

Module N° 2           ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   10
  A concept of accident causation




                        Latent conditions trajectory

      Resources to protect against the risks that organizations
    involved in production activities generate and must control.

Module N° 2             ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   11
  A concept of accident causation




                       Latent conditions trajectory

    Conditions present in the system before the accident, made
                   evident by triggering factors

Module N° 2            ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   12
  System performance in the real world


      System                               Baseline performance
      design                                                                     Practical drift
         Operational
         deployment




Module N° 2            ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course                     13
  Managing safety – “Navigating the drift”

                                              Baseline performance
                                                                                     Practical drift



                                                                                    Organization




                   Navigational aids

        Reactive       Proactive            Predictive


Module N° 2               ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course                      14
  Navigational aids

    Reactive method
   The reactive method
     responds to the                 Proactive method
    events that already                 The proactive
    happened, such as                      method
                                    looks actively for the                          Predictive method
      incidents and
                                       identification of                                The predictive
        accidents                        safety risks                                 method captures
                                    through the analysis                            system performance
                                    of the organization’s                             as it happens in
                                          activities                                  real-time normal
                                                                                         operations to
                                                                                      identify potential
                                                                                       future problems
Module N° 2               ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course                      15
          Strategies – Levels of intervention and tools

                                   Safety management levels
HAZARDS




             Predictive         Proactive                 Reactive                     Reactive


                      FDA            ASR                            ASR                     Accident
                     Direct        Surveys                          MOR                    and incident
                  observation       Audits                                                   reports
                    system

             Highly efficient    Very efficient                  Efficient                 Insufficient




    Module N° 2                  ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course                  16
  Three key definitions

  Hazard – Condition or object with the potential of causing
   injuries to personnel, damage to equipment or structures,
   loss of material, or reduction of ability to perform a prescribed
   function

  Consequence – Potential outcome(s) of the hazard

  Safety Risk – The assessment, expressed in terms of
   predicted probability and severity, of the consequence(s) of
   a hazard taking as reference the worst foreseeable situation



Module N° 2         ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   17
  Three key definitions

  Example
         Unclear aerodrome signage is a hazard
         A runway incursion is one of the consequences of the
          hazard
         The assessment (quantification) of the consequences of
          the potential runway incursion expressed in terms of
          probability and severity is the safety risk




Module N° 2            ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   18
  Understanding hazards

  There is a natural tendency to describe hazards as their
   consequence(s)
         “Unclear aerodrome signage” vs. “runway incursion”
  Stating a hazard as consequence(s)
         disguises the nature of the hazard
         interferes with identifying other important consequences
  Well-named hazards
         allow to infer the sources or mechanisms of the hazard
         allow to evaluate the loss outcome(s)
Module N° 2            ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   19
  Types of Hazards

  Natural

  Technical

  Economic




Module N° 2      ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   20
  Examples of natural hazards

  Severe weather or climatic
   events:
    E.g.: hurricanes, major
     winter storms, drought,
     tornadoes, thunderstorms
     lightning, and wind shear
  Adverse weather conditions:
    E.g.: Icing, freezing
     precipitation, heavy rain,
     snow, winds, and
     restrictions to visibility
Module N° 2       ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   21
  Examples of natural hazards
  Geophysical events
    E.g.: earthquakes, volcanic
     eruptions, tsunamis, floods
     and landslides
  Geographical conditions
    E.g.: adverse terrain or large
     bodies of water
  Environmental events
    E.g.: wildfires, wildlife activity,
     and insect or pest infestation
  Public health events
    E.g.: epidemics of influenza
     or other diseases
Module N° 2          ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   22
  Examples of technical hazards
  Deficiencies regarding
    E.g.: aircraft and its
     components, systems,
     subsystems and related
     equipment
    E.g.: an organization’s
     facilities, tools, and
     related equipment
    E.g.: facilities, systems,
     sub-systems and related
     equipment that are
     external to the
     organization
Module N° 2        ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   23
  Examples of economic hazards

  Major trends related to
        Growth
        Recession
        Cost of material or
              equipment
        Etc.




Module N° 2               ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   24
  Hazard analysis

                                       ABC of hazard analysis

     State the generic
          hazard               Identify specific
    (Hazard statement)          components of                            Naturally leading
                                  the hazard                                to specific
   Airport construction  Construction
                                                                         consequence(s)
                           equipment                                  Aircraft colliding
                          Closed taxiways                             with construction
                          …                                           equipment
                                                                      Aircraft taking wrong
                                                                       taxiway
                                                                      …
Module N° 2         ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course                  25
  Safety risk management

  What is it?
   The analysis and elimination, and/or mitigation to an
     acceptable level of the safety risks of the consequences of
     identified hazards
  What is the objective?
   A balanced allocation of resources to address all safety
     risks and viable safety risks control and mitigation
  Why is it important?
   It is a data-driven approach to safety resources
     allocation, thus defensible and easier to explain


Module N° 2        ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   26
  Definitions

  Probability
         The likelihood that an
          unsafe event or condition
          might occur
  Severity
         The possible effects of
          an unsafe event or
          condition, taking as
          reference the worst
          foreseeable situation

Module N° 2            ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   27
  Safety risk probability

                                Probability of occurrence
     Qualitative
     definition                                    Meaning                             Value


      Frequent     Likely to occur many times (has occurred frequently)                 5


    Occasional     Likely to occur some times (has occurred infrequently)               4


       Remote      Unlikely, but possible to occur (has occurred rarely)                3


    Improbable     Very unlikely to occur (not known to have occurred)                  2

    Extremely
    improbable     Almost inconceivable that the event will occur                       1


Module N° 2                  ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course           28
  Safety risk severity
                                       Severity of occurrences
  Aviation definition                             Meaning                                 Value
                        Equipment destroyed
      Catastrophic      Multiple deaths                                                   A
                        A large reduction in safety margins, physical distress or a
                         workload such that the operators cannot be relied upon to
       Hazardous         perform their tasks accurately or completely                      B
                        Serious injury
                        Major equipment damage
                        A significant reduction in safety margins, a reduction in the
                         ability of the operators to cope with adverse operating
                         conditions as a result of increase in workload, or as a result    C
              Major      of conditions impairing their efficiency
                        Serious incident
                        Injury to persons
                        Nuisance
              Minor     Operating limitations
                        Use of emergency procedures                                       D
                        Minor incident
        Negligible      Little consequences                                               E
Module N° 2                   ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course          29
  Safety risk assessment matrix (example)




Module N° 2       ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   30
  Safety risk tolerability




Module N° 2         ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   31
  Warm-up exercise N° 02/01

  Scenario

         Fuel spill on the apron area surface of approximately 25 m
              (75 ft) length and 5 m (15 ft) width, produced by an A310
              ready to pushback and taxi for departure




Module N° 2               ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   32
  Warm-up exercise N° 02/01 – results

    1. Identify the hazard(s)               3. Assess the
                                               probability of the
                                               consequence:


                                            4. Assess the severity
                                              of the consequence


     2. Determine the                       5. Determine the
        hazard(s)                             resulting safety risk
        consequence(s)
                                              index

                                            6. Establish the
                                             safety risk
                                             tolerability



Module N° 2                     ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   33
  Warm-up exercise N° 02/02

  Scenario

         It was observed that airline baggage handling personnel
              generates FO(D) on the aerodrome apron area




Module N° 2              ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   34
  Warm-up exercise N° 02/02 – results

    1. Identify the hazard(s)               3. Assess the
                                               probability of the
                                               consequence:


                                            4. Assess the severity
                                              of the consequence


     2. Determine the                       5. Determine the
        hazard(s)                             resulting safety risk
        consequence(s)
                                              index

                                            6. Establish the
                                             safety risk
                                             tolerability



Module N° 2                     ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   35
  Basic safety management concepts

  Questions and answers



Module N° 2        ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   36
  Questions and answers

  Q: What is the ICAO definition for safety in Doc 9859?

  A: ?




  Slide number:
Module N° 2        ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   37
  Questions and answers

  Q: Explain the three different methods for “navigating the
      drift”
  A:




  Slide number:
Module N° 2         ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   38
  Questions and answers

  Q: Define safety risk management
  A: ?




  Slide number:
Module N° 2       ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   39
  Points to remember

  1. The concept of safety

  2. Systems and operational performance in the real world

  3. Levels of intervention and tools for managing safety

  4. Hazard identification

  5. Safety risk management




Module N° 2         ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   40
                     Module N° 2
         Basic safety management concepts



Revision N° 5   ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course   25/02/10

								
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