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Reconstruction

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					              Reconstruction
 Lesson Question: What were the differences in the
presidential and congressional reconstruction plans?


     Day 1          Day 2           Day 3         Day 4

   Freedom?        Johnson,        Southern       Quiz
  Letters from    Congress, &   Society, Hayes,
  Edisto Island      Grant          and the
   and Soule                      collapse of
                                Reconstruction

                  today
Andrew Johnson
     - elected twice?
     - won the civil war?
     - held the union together?
     - NOT LINCOLN!

      - Southern Democrat (TN) until 1861
      - Jacksonian Democrat (populist/cheap land for all)
      - brilliant speaker, vile temper… and he drank
      - @ Lincoln’s 2nd inaugural, AJ gave a rambling
               impromptu speech to which Lincoln told
               those around him “Do not let Johnson speak
               outside.”
       President Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan


immediate amnesty to former Confederates who own less than
$20,000 worth of property.

Other ex-Confederates may petition him for presidential pardons.

His plan to readmit the former-Confederate states requires:
  1) convene conventions to disavow their secession (10%)
  2) abolish slavery (13th Amendment), and
  3) repudiate their war debts.

By December 1865, Johnson proclaims the Union restored…
                      …Congress disagrees !
ex-Confederate states adopt "Black Codes,"
        legal codes (laws) that deny African Americans rights
                 -purchase or rent land
                 -bear arms
                 -meet together after sunset
                 -marry
                 -vagrancy laws allow authorities to arrest blacks "in
                   idleness" (including many children) and assign
                   them to a chain gang or auction them off to a
                   planter for as long as a year.

Reaction? Congress attempts to protect the rights of the freedmen by
increasing the power of the Freedmen's Bureau, giving it the power to try
people who deprive freedmen of civil rights in military court. The bill is passed
over President Johnson's veto.
More “Black Codes” reaction from Congress…

The Civil Rights Act of 1866, adopted over President Johnson's
veto, names the rights of citizens of the United States, including the
right to make contracts, sue, give evidence in court, and purchase
and sell property.

Fearing that the Supreme Court might declare the Civil Rights Act
unconstitutional, Congress proposes the 14th Amendment, which
guarantees Freedmen citizenship (Dred Scott v. Sanford).
       -Does not guarantee African-Americans the right to vote.
       -Johnson urges Southern states to reject the amendment
               - THE issue of 1866 congressional elections
               - Republicans win 3-1 majority in Congress
Over President Johnson's veto, Congress passes The Military Reconstruction Act
dividing the former Confederate states into five military districts subject to martial
law. It requires the ex-Confederate states to: 1) ratify the 14th Amendment, 2) adopt
new state constitutions disqualifying former Confederate officials from holding
public office, and 3) guarantee Freedmen the right to vote
1868-Impeachment of Andrew Johnson handout
The Impeachment of President Johnson… To prevent the
president from obstructing its reconstruction program, Congress
passes several laws restricting presidential powers. These
included legislation preventing him from appointing Supreme
Court justices and restricting his authority over the army. The
Tenure of Office Act bars him from removing officeholders,
appointed with the advice and consent of the Senate, without
Senate approval.

Johnson tests the Tenure of Office Act by removing Secretary of
War Edwin Stanton. In February 1868, the House votes to
impeach him by a vote of 126-47. In May, 35 Senators vote for
conviction and 19 against, one vote short of removing the
president from office.
Alfred R. Waud. (November 16, 1867). The First Vote. Harper's Weekly.
            15th Amendment
Section 1. The right of
citizens of the United
States to vote shall not be
denied or abridged by the
United States or by any
State on account of race,
color, or previous
condition of servitude.

Section 2. The Congress
shall have power to
enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.
Presidential Election, 1868




                Who won… Grant or Seymour?
US Grant
-Aligned with the Radical Republicans
-Symbol of the Union
-an end to turmoil? Scandals weaken Republican image…
       a visitor to the White House noted "a puzzled pathos, as
       of a man with a problem before him of which he does not
       understand the terms."
-allowed Congress to run Reconstruction
Cardinal Assignment: 21 pts… aesthetic and citations see rubric for more details

                                             Andrew Johnson
                                         Southern (TN), Jacksonian
                                           Democrat, impeached



                               President
                             Johnson’s plan


      Congress’s                                         Southern states’
                            Reconstruction
        plan                                                reaction



                                   ?
                    Reconstruction
  Lesson question: Were the Radical Republicans
justified (wise?) in seeking harsh punishments for
             the former-Confederates?

       Day 1           Day 2           Day 3         Day 4

     Freedom?         Johnson,        Southern       Quiz
    Letters from     Congress, &   Society, Hayes,
    Edisto Island       Grant          and the
     and Soule                       collapse of
                                   Reconstruction



                                   today
Source?
       Sharecropping
1860                     1867




              -land, seed, tools, mules, etc.
              -year 2, year 3, ?
               Carpetbagger                       Scalawag
Northern politician or businessman        Southern citizen who
who traveled south into the former-       supported Republicans
Confederacy during Reconstruction,        and Reconstruction
1865-1877. It was/is an insult to         with its military
describe someone who tries to gain        occupation: middle-
political office or economic advantage,   class idealists,
especially in areas (thematically or      teachers, lawyers,
geographically) to which they             newspapermen.
previously had no connection




     Many Southerners, united in their hatred (gov/society/etc),
    formed secret societies to terrify the Freedman communities,
                  carpetbaggers, and scalawags…
1866-1871, The birth of the Ku Klux Klan v. Freedmen
      -terror
      -murders
      -race-riots
      -particularly active at election-times
              -Democrats slowly regain political power (1875)

To suppress violent intimidation by the Ku Klux Klan and other
secret organizations and to enforce the 14th and 15th Amendments,
Congress passes the:
       -Enforcement Act, and the
       -Ku Klux Klan Act, and
       -The Civil Rights Act of 1875

outlawed the use of force to prevent people from voting (place elections
under federal supervision), guaranteed equal rights in public places, and
prohibited the exclusion of Freedmen from juries. A clause that would have
prohibited segregated schools is defeated.
               1896— “Separate but Equal” handout

                            Amendment XIV
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to
the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the
State wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty,
or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person
within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
African Americans enter Politics

                               Hiram Revels
                                     -Methodist Minister
                                     -1870 Senator, MS
                                     -1st African American Senator
                                     -widely respected
                                     - president of Alcorn University




                                   Joseph Rainey
                                         -1st African American in
                                           House of representatives
J. Hoover. (1881). Heroes of the Colored Race. Philadelphia. Color lithograph with
 portraits of B. Kelso Bruce, Frederick Douglass, and Hiram Revels.
Presidential Election 1877




            Who won… Tilden or Hayes?
Compromise of 1877
     -Hayes
     -Tilden
     -committee of 15

Military Reconstruction?
       -Federal Troops
Review
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