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Topics in Am Hist

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					     Topics in Am Hist I

                Kazuto Oshio
Office Hour: Mondays 12:45-13:30 or by app.
       http://pweb.sophia.ac.jp/oshio/
        http://nakama.cc.sophia.ac.jp


                                              1
                       Class schedule
•   4/16 Prologue
•   4/23 Three Worlds Meet
•   4/30 no class
•   5/7 Colonization
•   5/14 Independence
•   5/21 Expansion
•   5/28 Civil War
•   6/4 Industrialization
•   6/11 Modernization
•   6/18 Depression & WWII
•   6/25 Post-WWII
•   7/2 Contemporary
•   7/9 Review
•   7/16 Final Examination (7/21)
                              prologue
• FROM memorization TO critical interpretation with historical imagination

• Response sheet: what interests/surprises/confuses you with why (in
  detail) through that day’s class lecture and/or discussion

• Map
    –   50 states
    –   North American Continent
    –   Regions
    –   Japan/US
    –   North/South/West

• Web assessment (who created; where did the sources come from; how
  current it is; what is the particular bias; who else considers this reliable)



                                                                                  3
                   Three Worlds Meet
•   Colombus (read pp. 112-4+map89)
•   Meltzer 1992 “estimates of native population in Columbus’s day range from 2 to 18
    million. By the end of the 19th century the population had shrunk to about
    530,000” vs original number of the natives; whose diseases; Afro-Phoenician;
    mutual warfare
•   American Journeys http://www.americanourneys.org
•   American images
    http://www.brown.edu/Facilities/John_Carter_Brown_Library/pages/ea_hmpg.ht
    ml
•   Cultural Readings
    http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/kislak/index/cultural.html
•   Which of these was unknown in the Americas before the coming of Europeans? a.
    horses. b .warfare. c. agriculture. d. all of the above.
•   The primary aim of the explorations of Balboa, Magellan, Verrazano, and Cartier
    was to find: a. a water passage through the Americas and reach Asia. b. the fabled
    fountain of youth. c. the Seven Cities of Gold. d. favorable places for their
    respective nations to plant new colonies.
•   The first Europeans to develop the intercontinental African slave trade were: a
    Portuguese b English c French d Italian
                                                                                     4
                            Colonization
•   Women (read pp.81-5+map29)
•   Do History http://dohistory.org/
•   Salem Witch Trials http://etext.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/
•   Plymouth Colony http://www.histarch.uiuc.edu/plymouth/index.html
•   A man’s right to vote for governor and members of the General Court in 17th
    century Massachusetts was based on: a. church membership b. land ownership c.
    length of residence d. family background
•   The first colony in British America that had separation of church and state and
    practiced religious tolerance was: a Rhode Island. b Massachusetts. c Maryland. d
    Virginia.
•   The influence of Puritanism was greatest and lasted the longest in: a. New England
    b. New France c. New York d. Maryland




                                                                                     5
                              Independence
•   Constitution (read pp. 196-9+map48)
•   Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation, 1774-1873
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lawhome.html
•   Documents from the Constitutional Congress and Constitutional Convention
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/
•   The long delay in approval of the Articles of Confederation was primarily caused by: a.
    Maryland’s demand that New York and Virginia give up their western land claims b. fear that
    it created too strong a central government c. bitterness between northern and southern
    states d. feuding between loyalists and Whigs
•   The greatest achievement of the Anti-federalists was to: a. force the Federalists to agree to
    add a bill of rights to the Constitution b. convince New York and Virginia to turn over their
    western lands to the new national government c. delay ratification of the Constitution until a
    section guaranteeing all white men the right to vote d. force the Federalists to bestow
    citizenship under the new government to free blacks
•   All of the following were true of the state constitutions adopted during the Revolution
    except: a. they abolished property and tax-paying qualifications for voting b. they
    concentrated power in the popularly elected legislatures c. they all contained bills of rights d.
    they provided for weak executives and frequent elections
                                                                                                    6
                                   Expansion
•   Vote (read pp. 86-8+map53)
•   Andrew Jackson http://www.gilderlehrman.org /
    http://www.presidentialrhetoric.com/historicspeeches/jackson /
    http://millercenter.virginia.edu/scripps/digitalarchive/speechDetail/42?PHPSESSID=594ed714
    206175cf07a5466daa43bec70
•   All of the following democratic political reforms were adopted between the 1790s and the
    1820s except that: a. gender qualifications for voting were removed b. property qualifications
    for voting were eliminated c. voters were allowed to choose presidential electors instead of
    the state legislatures doing it d. voters were allowed to elect mayors who had previously
    been appointed
•   Andrew Jackson’s supporters charged that a “corrupt bargain” had been made by: a. John
    Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to make Adams president and Clay secretary of state b. Henry
    Clay and John C. Calhoun to undermine Jackson and secure passage of the Compromise of
    1833 c. Henry Clay and Daniel Webster to secure re-charter of the Second Bank of the US d.
    John C. Calhoun and John Quincy Adams to get Jackson punished for his unauthorized raid on
    Spanish Florida
•   All of the following generally characterized reformers of the antebellum period except that: a.
    they rarely advocated legal coercion to force people to live morally b. when they cooperated
    with politicians, it was usually with Whigs rather than with Democrats c. they received their
    best response in New England d. many of them were inspired by religious convictions           7
                                    Civil War
•   Capitalism (read pp. 200-202+map73)
•   Civil War Treasures from the New York Historical Society
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/nhihtml/cwnyshome.html/
•   Historical New York Times Project, 1860-1866 http://www.nyt.ulib.org/index.cgi/
•   Selected Civil War Photographs http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwphome.html/
•   Uncle Tom’s Cabin http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/utc/
•   Union Army Project http://www.cpe.uchicago.edu/unionarmy/unionarmy.html/
•   Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamaiton: a. freed the slaves in the areas in rebellion against the
    US government b. freed the slaves in the slave states that remained in the Union c. freed the
    slaves in the western territories d. freed all slaves in the Union and Confederacy
•   Andrew Johnson was nominated as Lincoln’s running mate in 1864 to: a. win votes of pro-war
    northern Democrats b. please the Radical Republicans c. influence the South to rejoin the
    Union d. reward Tennessee for remaining loyal to the Union
•   Slaves during the Civil War: a. ran to the Union lines when they could and worked for or
    fought for the North b. mostly remained loyal to their masters and the South c. were never
    allowed to enlist as soldiers in either the Union or the Confederate army d. none of the above




                                                                                                 8
                          Industrialization
•   Rober baron (read pp., 183-5+map216)
•   National Park Service http://www.nps.gov/
•   Conservation Movement, 1850-1920
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/amrvhtml/conshome.html/
•   American Environmental Photographs, 1891-1936
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/ecology/index.html/
•   Rapid industrialization in the US between 1860 and 1900: a. produced an economy
    dominated by enormous corporations b. increased the demand for and importance of skilled
    artisans c. increased the opportunities for small- and medium-size companies to succeed d.
    reduced the use of women and child laborers
•   The New South Creed preached the need for the South to: a. industrialize b. combat racism c.
    promote the agricultural interests d. bring its wage scale up to that prevailing in the North
•   Which of the following people argued that poverty was not the result of unchangeable
    natural laws and could be eliminated by government intervention and social planning? a.
    Lester Frank Ward b. Andrew Carnegie c. John D. Rockefeller d. all of the above
•


                                                                                                9
                           Modernization
•   Food & Drug Administration (read 186-90+map111)
      – profit vs government
•   Profiles in Science http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/
•   Fifty Years of Coca-Cola Television Advertisements
    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ccmphml/colahome.html/
•   Medicine and Madison Avenue http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/mma/
•   The act of Congress that contained a federal income tax provision was: a. the Underwood-
    Simmons Tariff b. the Hepburn Act c. the Federal Reserve Act d. the Payne-Aldrich Tariff
•   The quotation: “Corporations and combinations have become indispensable in the business
    world… it is folly to try to prohibit them, but it is also folly to leave them without
    thoroughgoing control” belongs to: a. Theodore Roosevelt b. William McKinley c. Woodrow
    Wilson d. Robert LaFollete
•   All of the progressive reforms were intended to increase popular participation in government
    and political democracy except the: a. Eighteenth Amendment b. Seventeenth Amendment c.
    initiative and referendum d. direct primary




                                                                                             10
                      Depression & WWII
•   Pearl Harbor (read pp.25-30+map120)
•   After the Day of Infamy http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/afcphhtml/afcphhome.html/
•   Studs Terkel http://www.studsterkel.org/index.html
•   Lend-lease: a. was extended to both Britain and the Soviet Union to help them defeat the
    nazis b. was favored by isolationists as a way to prevent the US from having to fight in WWII c.
    favored the Germans because they were considered better credit risks than the British and
    Russians d. was one of the most unpopular policies of the Roosevelt administration
•   Which of the following did not occur during the WWII? a. the federal government took over
    many industries and strictly limited the profits of others b. the federal government raised the
    income tax and introduced the payroll-deduction system to collect it more efficiently c. the
    federal government imposed wage and price controls and rationing to combat inflation d.
    farm income soared, unemployment disappeared, and real wage increased
•   Which of the following happened during the WWII? a. marriage, birth, and divorce rates rose
    rapidly b. women were denied the right to serve in the armed forces c. high school and
    college attendance increased d. the majority of preschool-age children were placed in child-
    care centers



                                                                                                 11
                                    Post WWII
•   Nixon & Vietnam (read pp.42-5+map133)
•   Vitnam Center and Archive http://vietnam.ttu.edu/
•   Foreign Relations of the US, 1861-1960 http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/FRUS
•   Foreign Relations of the US, 1945-1972 http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/c1716.htm/
•   Experiencing War http://www.loc.gov/vets/
•   Oral History Digital Collection http://www.maag.ysu.edu/oralhistory/oral_hist.html/
•   During the last two years of Lyndon B. Johnson’s presidency, the majority of public funds went into:
    a. the Vietnam War b. Medicare and Medicaid c. Head start educational programs d. public housing
    programs
•   Which of the following facts about the election of 1968 indicates that a new conservative majority
    had supplanted the long-standing New Deal coalition? a. between them, Nixon and Wallace
    received a majority of votes of unskilled and semiskilled workers b. Nixon won 43% of the popular
    vote c. the great majority of blacks voted for Hurbert Humphrey d. almost all union leaders
    supported Hurbert Humphrey
•   Which of the following about Nixon’s relations with the Democrat-controlled Congress is correct? a.
    the Senate rejected two of Nixon’s Supreme Court nominees b. Nixon vetoed bills creating the
    Environmental Protection Agency c. Nixon never released to Congress the tapes of conversations in
    the Oval Office d. Congress passed an equal rights amendments but Nixon vetoed it



                                                                                                      12
                         Contemporary
•   Reagan & Conservatism (read pp.145-8+map224)
•   American President http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/
•   The Presidents http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/index.html/
•   The only sector of the Roosevelt New Deal coalition that continued through the
    1980s to vote consistently for the Democratic presidential candidate were: a.
    blacks b. blue-collar workers c. farmers d. Irish, Polish and other ethnic groups
•   All of the following happened during Ronald Reagan’s first term as president
    except: a. runaway inflation b. massive military spending c. declining American
    exports d. industrial de-regulation
•   Which of the following statements about women in the 1980s is correct? a. the
    majority held paying jobs outside the home b. they were close to achieving
    equality of pay with men c. almost half of the lawyers, doctors and engineers were
    women d. they were likely to marry at a younger age and have more children than
    women in the 1950s


                                                                                    13
                      Final Exam
• Map: combine a map we used in our class with
  another map of your choice so as to create your
  original historical map. Briefly explain why you chose
  it.
• Essay: respond to “the past was contested all along
  and continues to be contested” Kornblith and Lasser,
  eds. Teaching American History (NY: Bedford St.
  Martin’s, 2009), p. 8 with one historical case of your
  choice about which we discussed in our class. Cite
  the text as much as possible.
• Web: review a site of your choice with the provided
  guideline (who created; where did the sources come from;
  how current it is; what is the particular bias; who else
  considers this reliable)                                   14
                                                Guideline
1 Evaluating Web Sites
1-1 Who or what is the sponsor of the site? This information should be in a statement of purpose or under an “about” link. Is the
      sponsor a university, library, museum, or research organization? If the sponsor is an individual, try to determine that person’s
      credentials.
1-2 Click on some of the links. Do they take you to sites as respectable as the home site? If you use a source from one of these
      linked sites, be sure to record the site’s URL.
1-3 Is the material on the site current? Has it been kept up-to-date? Are most of the links “alive”? A site with many “dead” links is
      not well maintained.
1-4 What is the intended audience for the site? Are its contents meant to serve college students, faculty, other professionals? Is it
      filled with commercial links and advertisements or with links to sites that are concerned with entertainment rather than
      research?
1-5 Does the sponsor of the site have a bias that influences the kind of material on the site? Are a variety of views expressed on
      the site? Does the information on the site, or most of the links from the site, sound argumentative? Does the site attempt to
      inform rather than convince?

2 Evaluating Web Sources
2-1 Try to identify the author of the source. Conduct a Web search for any author or sponsor name that is on the site or on the
      source that interest you.
2-2 Look for signs of bias on the site or in the document: dramatic presentation, one-sided arguments, lack of documentation for
      statement made.
2-3 Check reliable resources such as the online library catalog to see whether there are more recent versions or translations of a
      source that may be more accurate than the version or translation you found on the Web.
2-4 Try to ascertain whether any non-written materials, still photographs, sound recording, or films, that you found on the Web
      are altered in any way.
                       Epilogue
• A half of your grade comes from response sheet in which
  you are asked to write “what interests/surprises/confuses
  you with why (in detail) through that day’s class lecture
  and/or discussion”; for each response, add 1 for “what”
  and 3 for the detail, multiply by 12 responses

• Another half is from final exam: 10 for map (w/ an
  explanation of what you combined with why); 25 for essay
  (what is the contested historical problem; how is it
  contested by whom; why it is controversial; what is your
  assessment); 15 for web assessment (who created; where
  did the sources come from; how current it is; what is the
  particular bias; who else considers this reliable).

                                                              16

				
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