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					Chapter 14 Stocks
                       Corporation


   A legal entity separate from its shareholders.
           This means that an individual shareholder in a corporation is not
            directly responsible for the actions for the corporation.
   In the event of bankruptcy, the financial loss to the
    shareholders is limited to their investment in the
    corporations stock.
   A public corporation is a company whose stock
        is traded openly on stock markets.
                 Why Issue Stock?

   Corporations issue stock to raise capital to finance
    anything from new equipment purchases to taking over
    another company.
           Essentially, issuing stock is a way for corporations to
            raise money.
           When a company first issues shares it is often termed
            “going public” since they are making part of the
            company available to the public in the form of shares.
           IPO - Initial Public Offering.
   Corporations can issue common and preferred stock.
                      Share of Stock
   A unit of ownership in a corporation.
   Stocks are traded in round lots or odd lots.
           Round lot is 100 shares or multiples of 100 shares
           Odd lot is fewer than 100 shares of a particular stock
   Shareholders usually pay a commission when buying and
    selling stock.
           The commission may be a straight fee for each trade. Ex: $8 per trade.
           The commission may be a percentage of the purchase or selling price.
                  Ex: 2% for each trade.
   Role of a shareholder
         When you buy stock, you are buying a piece of a

          company.
              -You become part owner, along with other individuals and
                institutions that hold shares.
              -As a shareholder; you can never lose more than you invest.
                 Board of Directors

   A group of people elected by the stockholders to
    manage a corporation.
   If the corporation makes a profit (net income) they
    decide whether or not to distribute earnings back to
    the stockholders in the form of a dividend.
           They do not have to declare a dividend. They may keep the
            earnings and reinvest into the company. (retained earnings)
   Annual Report
           A description of a company’s business and financial well being.
           Its purpose is to report on the operations and financial condition of the
            company.
           Will discuss the future products and direction of a company.
                            Stock Split


   A stock split occurs when a company increases shares
    outstanding, but lowers the selling price in direct proportion.
   Will see a tiny s on listing.
   Why would a company want to split their stock:
           A lower share price makes the stock more affordable for investors.
            2for1split (Ex: stock is trading at $80 and you have one share, after
            the split you now have two shares now worth $40.)
           They can also reverse split so there are not as many shares
            outstanding. 1for2split (Ex: stock is trading for $30 a share and you
            have two shares, after the reverse split, you now have one share
            worth $60.)
        Two ways to make money
         through owning stock
   Dividend Income (Quarterly)
           When a company does well, stockholders may receive dividends.
           Dividends are the part of the profits of a corporation that are distributed
            back to each shareholder.
           The Board of Directors decide if a dividend will be distributed at all and if
            so, how much, and when.
           When a company cancels or reduces its dividend, its share price may
            decline as the stock becomes less appealing to investors. If a dividend
            increases, the stock becomes more attractive to investors who want to earn
            a dividend.
   Capital Gain (price appreciation)
           Is made when an investor sells a stock for more than was originally paid.
           A rate return is how much money you make from your investment.
           -Short term: Stock owned less than a year; capital gain is taxed at ordinary
            income tax rates!
           -Long term gain: Held stock over a year; capital gain will be taxed at a
            lower rate with the current maximum being 15%
                     Common Stock

   Common Stock - the owner shares directly in the success or
    failure of a business.
    -You profit when company profits
    -Have a say in company decisions
           Should company issue additional stock
           Sell the company to outside buyers
           Change the board of directors
           You get one vote for each share owned.
              -If you cannot vote in person you vote by proxy, which is giving your voting
                 rights to someone else. A proxy is valid until you revoke it.
   Stock Certificates usually state the number of shares owned,
    the name of the company issuing the stock, the type of stock
    (common/preferred) and the par value.
                    Preferred Stock

   Dividends are fixed, regardless of how company is doing.
   Less risky than common stock.
   If company fails the preferred stockholder gets paid first.
   Preferred stockholders do not have voting rights.
   2 Types of Preferred Stock
           Cumulative Preferred Stock
           Convertible Preferred Stock
   The par value is an assigned dollar value for preferred stock
    usually $25.
           Reason they assign a par value is to compute ratios, to determine
            dividends paid and to use as a benchmark for trading. Most people
            buy preferred stock because of the dividend income which is based
            on percentage of par value.
    Cumulative & Convertible Preferred
                  Stock
   Preferred Stock
           The required dividend is paid to preferred stockholders
           A stated dividend is paid to common stockholders
           The remainder of the earnings available for distribution is shared by both
            preferred and common stockholders
   Cumulative Preferred Stock
           If a corporation’s board of directors votes not to pay dividends, they can
            omit dividends paid to both common and preferred stockholders.
           It is an issue whose unpaid dividends accumulate and must be paid before
            any cash dividends are to be paid to the common stockholders.
           So if a company does not pay a dividend in 1999, but in 2000 has 100,000
            to distribute, preferred stockholders get their dividends first that include
            the dividend they did not get in 1999.
   Convertible Stock
           Can be exchanged, at the stockholder’s option, for a specified number of
            shares of common stock.
                   Types of Stock
   Income Stocks - are stocks that have a consistent history of
    paying high dividends.
   Growth Stocks- stocks in companies that reinvest their profits
    into the business so that they can grow and expand. They
    usually pay little or no dividends. Investors buy them for their
    increase in value.
   Blue Chip - companies that are large, well-established and
    financially solid. Maintain a fairly stable price during ups and
    downs of the market. Usually pay small but regular dividends.
   Penny Stock- stocks that have a traded value of under $5 per
    share. (high risk)
       Types of Stock Continued


   Defensive stock- shares that remains stable and pay dividends
    during an economic decline.
           Usually has a history of stable earnings
           Not subject to the ups and downs of business cycles (utilities,
            drugs, food)
           means the demands for these products is consistent regardless of
            economic conditions.
   Cyclical stock- shares do well when the economy is stable or
    growing, but often poorly during recessions.
           Airlines, travel based industries, automobile, home builders
               What is Market Cap?

   Market Capitalization is the total dollar market value of all of
    a company's outstanding shares.
   Market capitalization is calculated by multiplying a
    company's shares outstanding by the current market price of
    one share.
   The investment community uses this figure to determining a
    company's size, as opposed to sales or total asset figures.
   If a company has 35 million shares outstanding, each with a
    market value of $100, the company's market capitalization is
    $3.5 billion (35,000,000 x $100 per share).
    -Large Cap: $10 billion plus and include the companies with the largest market
       capitalization.
    -Mid Cap: $2 billion to $10 billion
    -Small Cap: Less than $2 billion
Things that affect price of stock

   The financial condition of the company. “Earnings”
   Current interest rates.
   The market for a company’s products or services.
   Market value reflects the price investors are willing to pay for
    a share of stock.
           If people are paying more than the stock is “worth” it is considered
            “overvalued” and likewise, if a stock is trading at an amount less than what
            it is worth it is “undervalued”
   Earnings per share- a corporations after-tax earnings divided
    by the number of shares outstanding. It is a measure of the
    companies profitability.
    -Is generally considered the most important variable when determining
       share price.
       Earnings Per Share = After Tax Income/Outstanding Shares
Things that affect price of stock

Price-Earning Ratio- a ratio of a company’s current share price
  compared to it’s per-share earnings. Shows how much investors
  are willing to pay per dollar of earnings
            PE Ratio = Market Value Per Share/Earning Per Share
  -If P/E is 20 that means investors are willing to pay $20 for $1 of current
  earnings. The lower the number the more undervalued.

PEG Ratio - a ratio that shows the relationship between the
  price/earnings ratio and earnings growth- tells a much more
  complete story than the P/E on its own.
          PEG Ratio=Price/Earnings Ratio/Earnings Per Share Ratio
  -The lower the number the more undervalued
               Bid, Ask, Spread…

   A two-way price quotation that indicates the best price at
    which a security can be sold and bought at a given point in
    time.
   The bid price represents the maximum price that a buyer or
    buyers are willing to pay for a security.
   The ask price represents the minimum price that a seller or
    sellers are willing to receive for the security.
   A trade or transaction occurs when the buyer and seller agree
    on a price for the security.The difference between the bid and
    asked prices, or the spread, is a key indicator of the liquidity
    of the asset - generally speaking, the smaller the spread, the
    better the liquidity.
   Also known as bid and ask, bid-ask or bid-offer.
    Reading A Stock Table/Quote


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   Columns 1 & 2: 52-Week High and Low - These are the highest and lowest prices at which a
    stock has traded over the previous 52 weeks (one year).
    Column 3: Company Name & Type of Stock - This column lists the name of the company. If
    there are no special symbols or letters following the name, it is common stock. Different symbols
    imply different classes of shares. For example, "pf" means the shares are preferred stock.
    Column 4: Ticker Symbol - This is the unique alphabetic name which identifies the stock. If you
    watch financial TV, you have seen the ticker tape move across the screen, quoting the latest
    prices alongside this symbol.
   Column 5: Dividend Per Share - This indicates the annual dividend payment per share. If this
    space is blank, the company does not currently pay out dividends.
    Reading A Stock Table/Quote

   Column 6: Dividend Yield - The percentage return on the dividend. Calculated as annual dividends per share
    divided by price per share.

   Column 7: Price/Earnings Ratio - This is calculated by dividing the current stock price by earnings per share
    from the last four quarters.

   Column 8: Trading Volume - This figure shows the total number of shares traded for the day, listed in hundreds.
    To get the actual number traded, add "00" to the end of the number listed.

   Column 9 & 10: Day High and Low - This indicates the price range at which the stock has traded at throughout
    the day. In other words, these are the maximum and the minimum prices that people have paid for the stock.

   Column 11: Close - The close is the last trading price recorded when the market closed on the day. If the closing
    price is up or down more than 5% than the previous day's close, the entire listing for that stock is bold-faced. Keep
    in mind, you are not guaranteed to get this price if you buy the stock the next day because the price is constantly
    changing (even after the exchange is closed for the day). The close is merely an indicator of past performance and
    except in extreme circumstances serves as a ballpark of what you should expect to pay.

   Column 12: Net Change - This is the dollar value change in the stock price from the previous day's closing price.
    When you hear about a stock being "up for the day," it means the net change was positive.
    Reading A Stock Table/Quote
   Quotes on the Internet Today, it's far more convenient for most to
    get stock quotes off the Internet. This method is superior because
    most sites update throughout the day and give you more
    information, news, charting, research, etc.
   To get quotes, simply enter the ticker symbol into the quote box of
    any major financial site like Yahoo! Finance, CBS Marketwatch, or
    MSN Moneycentral. The example below shows a quote for Microsoft
    (MSFT) from Yahoo Finance. Interpreting the date is exactly the
    same as with the newspaper.



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      Calculating Rate of Return



   Rate of Return tells the investor the percentage gain or loss
    on an asset based upon his purchase price.
    -To calculate total return, divide the selling value of the position plus any
      dividends received by its total cost.
                 Stock Exchanges
   A market place that brings buyers and sellers of securities
    (stocks and bonds) together.
   Prices of securities are dictated by supply and demand.
   Each stock has two sides, a buyer and seller. (Bid & Ask)
           To be listed on a major stock exchange, a company has to meet certain
            financial and legal requirements.
   New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) (Big Board)
           Established May 17, 1792
           Largest stock exchange in U.S.
              -Is now a publicly traded company (2007) NYSE Euronext
           To have a stock listed on NYSE, must have 1.1million publicly traded
            shares with a market value of $9million.
           Bell rings at 9:30a.m. to open and at 4p.m. to close.
           Also known as the "Big Board", the NYSE relied for many years on floor
            trading only, using the open outcry system. Today, more than half of all
            NYSE trades are conducted electronically, although floor traders are still
            used to set pricing and deal in high volume institutional trading.
                    NYSE CLIPS
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a55G2kt93IU&feature=autoplay&list=P
    L598CED6B12BD94D1&index=29&playnext=2

   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeNDB3OlhUE&feature=autoplay&list
    =PL598CED6B12BD94D1&index=30&playnext=3


   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPUDPhpCecA&
    feature=related
   Closing Bell:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZGKQSNmlI_Y&feature=autoplay&lis
    t=PL598CED6B12BD94D1&index=31&playnext=4
   Opening Bell
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W22VPMEWjrY
                   Stock Exchanges

   American Stock Exchange (AMEX)
           Was known as the curb exchange until 1921is located in Manhattan, NY
           Holdings of small to medium size companies 250,000 shares worth 2.5million.
   Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX)
           The first stock exchange in North America
           Is the marketplace for the trading of stocks, equity options, index options and
            currency options.
   Chicago Board of Options (CBOE)
           Revolutionized options trading by creating standardized, listed options in 1973.
              -Before 1973, options were individually tailored and traded “over-the-counter” by a
                few put/call dealers. Worlds largest options exchange.
                  Stock Exchanges

National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation
(NASDAQ)
      Owned and operated by NASD (National Association of Securities Dealers)
      The worlds first electronic stock market.

      Trades with other brokers are completed by telephone or computer.

      To be listed with the NASDAQ, companies must have issued at least 100,000

      shares of stock, worth $1 million.
      Several regional locations - created in 1971

      Home to many high tech stocks: Microsoft, Intel, Dell,

      Usually have 4 or 5 letter ticker symbols unless previously traded on NYSE
        Over the Counter Markets
When securities are bought and sold through brokers, but not
 through an exchange, it is called an electronic over-the-counter
 (OTC) network.
      OTC stocks are bought and sold through negotiation via telephone or computer
       contact between a network of brokers who buy and sell securities not listed on a
       securities exchange.
      No trading floor.

      In general, the reason for which a stock is traded over-the-counter is usually
       because the company is small, making it unable to meet exchange listing
       requirements. Also known as "unlisted stock", these securities are traded by
       broker-dealers who negotiate directly with one another over computer networks
       and by phone.
      Although Nasdaq operates as a dealer network, Nasdaq stocks are generally not
       classified as OTC because the Nasdaq is considered a stock exchange.
      As such, OTC stocks are generally unlisted stocks which trade on the Over the
       Counter Bulletin Board (OTCBB) or on the pink sheets. Be very wary of some
       OTC stocks, however; the OTCBB stocks are either penny stocks or are offered by
       companies with bad credit records.
                  Ticker Tape


   Invented in 1867.
   Constantly keeps up to date
    prices of securities.
   Use to be on paper, now on
    screens.
   Called a stock ticker.
               Order Types…

   Three types of orders used to trade stocks:
    • Market Order - a request to buy or sell stock at the
      current market value.
    • Limit Order - a request to buy or sell a sock at a
      specified price or better.
    • Stop Order (Stop-Loss Order) is an order to sell a
      particular stock at the next available opportunity
      after its market price reaches a specified amount.
                                       Index
        An index is an average of stocks to see how stocks are
         performing overall and help investors gauge the market.
        Two Popular stock indexes:
         -Dow Jones Industrial Average Dow Explained
                World’s oldest and best known stock index, began July 1884.
                An index of 30 Large Cap. stocks representing a variety of industries
                Gives people general idea of how market is doing.
         -Standard & Poor’s 500
                Measurement of changes in the stock market conditions based on the
                 average performance of 500 widely held common stocks.
                Stock market professionals prefer this index because it gives a broader
                 picture of the general movement of stocks.
The S&P 500 is one of the most commonly used benchmarks for the overall U.S. stock
market. The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) was at one time the most renowned
index for U.S. stocks, but because the DJIA contains only 30 companies, most people
agree that the S&P 500 is a better representation of the U.S. market. In fact, many
consider it to be the definition of the market.
            Securities & Exchange
              Commission (SEC)

   Government agency established by Congress in 1934 for two
    reasons
           To provide full disclosure to investors (annual reports)
           To prohibit fraud in connection with the sale of securities
   SEC monitors illegal actions (Wall Street Police)
           Insider Trading
           Manipulation of stock prices
           Falsification of corporate records
           Other ill-gotten gains
   SEC tracks the market for unexplained price moves.
   May receive Fines and or Jail time for illegal actions
          Federal Reserve Bank

   Government Agency that has four basic functions
          Influences the supply of money and credit

          Regulates & supervises financial institutions

          Serves as a banker for the government

          Supplies payment services to the public through

           depository institutions
   Is responsible for keeping the economy in balance by
    controlling interest rates and money supply
   Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank is
    Dr. Ben Bernanke.
                    Important Terms
   Gross National Product (GNP)
           Total value of the goods/services produced by a nation during a specific
            period of time. Usually a year.
   Recession:
           Happens when there is a decline in spending(downturn in economic
            activity)
           Two consecutive quarters of decline in the GNP
           Causes the Federal Reserve to lower prime rate to increase spending and
            decrease savings.
   Inflation:
           Happens when there is a rise in spending.
           Too much money chasing too few goods
           Causes the Federal Reserve to increase prime rate rates to decrease
            spending and increase savings.
   Bull Market: stocks are on an upward trend.
   Bear Market: stocks are on a downward trend.
                   Short-Term
              Investment Strategies

   When you buy and sell stocks for quick profits, you are
    “playing the market” or called a “speculator”

   Buying on Margin: Borrowing money from your broker to
    buy stock if you open a margin account and sign a contract
    called a margin agreement.
           With a margin purchase, you are betting that the stock will increase
            in value. When the stock does, you repay the loan, and take your
            short-term profit. If is decreases, you will have to make up the
            difference. When the stock gets to 1/2 of the original purchase
            price, you will get a margin call from your broker.
    Short-Term Strategies Cont’

   Selling Short is selling stock borrowed from a broker
    that must be replaced at a later time.
          You borrow a stock certificate for a certain number of shares from
           the broker.
          When you sell short, you sell the borrowed stock knowing that
           you must cover your short position at a later date.
          When the stock price drops, you purchase the stock at a lower
           price than you sold the borrowed stock for. Then you replace the
           lower priced stock with the original higher priced stock.
          There is usually no broker fee when selling short, but the firm
           receives a commission
    Short-Term Strategies Cont’

Trading in Options an option gives you the right to buy or sell a stock at a
  predetermined price during a specified period of time.
        •   Available for three, six, or nine-month periods
        •   Call Option is sold by a stockholder and gives the purchaser the right
            to buy 100 shares of stock at a guaranteed price before a specified
            expiration date.
              • Purchaser is betting the stock will increase in value before the expiration
                date.
        •   Put Option is the right to sell 100 shares of stock at a guaranteed
            price before a specified expiration date.
              • The purchaser is betting that the stock will decrease in value before the
                expiration date.
          Long Term Investment
               Strategies

   People who hold stocks for a long period of time are referred
    to as “investors”
   Buy and Hold: When an investor buys a stock and holds on to
    it for a long period of time.
   Dollar-Cost Averaging: Involves the systematic purchase of
    an equal dollar amount of the same stock at regular intervals.
   Direct Investment: Investors buy stock directly from a
    corporation.
   Dividend Reinvestment Program (DRIP): When dividends
    are used to purchase new shares of stock including fractional
    shares, a method that avoids a broker fee.
         How to Research Stocks

   1. Obtain corporate financial statements filed with the Securities and
    Exchange Commission. You can get such documents without charge via
    www.freeedgar.com
   2. Analyze quarterly statements covering two or three years, noting trends
    in earnings per share and revenue.
   3. Look for a trend of consistent growth in earnings per share
   4.Calculate the company's price-earnings (PE) ratio, a measure of a stock's
    value (Divide the stock price by annual earnings per share.)
   5. Compare the PE ratio with industry norms and with the S&P 500's ratio.
    The lower the ratio, the less expensive the stock is relative to earnings.
   6. Beware of debt. Check out the company's balance sheet, looking for the
    extent of its long-term debt.
   7. Check cash flow - the movement of cash through the company. You'll
    want the company to have positive cash flow.

				
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