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					EUROPE’S COLONIES
 IN THE AMERICAS
By the late 1400s, Spain and Portugal
seeking an ocean route to Asia
Portuguese – plotted sea route around
Africa
Spain – Christopher Columbus thought
there was a route west across the Atlantic
Ocean
– Convinced Spain to fund his trip
     Christopher Columbus
Set sail on Aug. 3,
1492
Expected to reach
Asia in a few weeks
Sighted land on Oct.
12 and was sure he
had reached East
Indies off coast of
Asia
Claimed land for
Spain
Actually islands of
Caribbean
Europeans soon
     Dividing Up the World
Columbus’ voyage heightened tensions
between Spain and Portugal
Both nations claimed land they explored
To avoid war signed Treaty of Tordesilles
in 1494
– Drew a Line of Demarcation – ran from N to S
  about 1,100 miles W of Azores in Atlantic
– Gave Spain right to claim all non-Christian
  lands west of the line
– Portugal claimed all lands east of the line
Spanish Claims
        Under Treaty of
        Tordesillas, Spain
        claims most of
        Americas
        100s of explorers and
        conquistadores follow
        in the path of
        Columbus
        Hunted for gold and
        sea route around or
        through Americas to
        the riches in Asia
Vasco Nunez de
    Balboa
 Led an exploration
 across the mtns. and
 jungles of Panama in
 1513
 Reached a great body
 of water he called
 South Sea
 Not long after,
 another explorer,
 Ferdinand Magellan,
 renamed it the Pacific
 Ocean
   Ferdinand
   Magellan
1519, set out from port of
Seville, Spain with 5 ships
and 268 sailors
Hoped to find passage
around S. America
After much hardship, he
sailed around stormy Cape
Horn at southern tip of
continent and into Pacific
Ocean
Magellan died fighting local
people in Philippines
1521, 18 sailors aboard 1
ship arrived back in Spain =
first Europeans to sail
around the world
Other Claims to the Americas
Spain not only country to claim lands in Americas
 – 1500, Portuguese explorer Pedro Cabral landed on east coast of
   S. America (present day Brazil)
 – Land was east of Line of Demarcation = land claimed for
   Portugal
1500s & 1600s – French, English and Dutch explorers tried to find
water passage through Americas, connecting Atlantic & Pacific
Oceans
Challenged Spanish and Port. claims
 – For almost 300 years European powers battled for control of
   Americas
 – Some Caribbean islands, Hispaniola & Jamaica, passed back
   and forth between Spain and France or Britain
 European
 Colonies in
Latin America
    - 1790
Spanish Rule in the Americas
By mid-1500s, Spain ruled      Council of the Indies
empire that extended from
Mexico to Peru
                                Made all laws for
                                colonies
1st – king of Spain divided
huge empire into 2              Regulated the
kingdoms & appointed a          Church, courts, trade
viceroy to rule in each         with Spain’s American
 – Viceroy – official who       empire
    rules in place of a king
                                Viceroys carried out
New Spain – capital =
                                laws made by Council
Mexico City
Peru – capital = Lima           Through these laws,
                                Council transferred
                                Spanish ideas about
      Life in the Americas
Most Spanish settlers lived in towns
Spain set up cabildos (councils) to govern
towns and surrounding lands
– Usually were made up of wealthy landowners
What did the cabildos do?
– Punished criminals
– Sent troops to hunt runaway slaves
– Set price of bread and other items
                Mercantilism
Purpose of colonies = enrich the parent country
Belief based on principles of mercantilism
 – According to mercantilists, a country’s economic
    strength depended on increasing gold supply by
    exporting more goods than it imported
Colonies had 2 roles
1) supplied parent country w/raw materials (lumber, cotton,
sugar, precious metals)
2) serve as market where parent country could sell its
manufactured goods (furniture, clothing, tools)
Trade restrictions – colonies could only trade & was not
allowed to manufacture finished goods = mercantilism
made colonies economically dependent on parent country

				
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