# metode i znacaj odredjivanja gravitacione konstante 19

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4/26/2012
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```							    seminarski rad

metode i značaj
određivanja
gravitacione konstante
“big G”
tri fundamentalne univerzalne
konstante u prirodi

 brzina svetlosti C
 plankova konstanta h
 gravitaciona konstanta G
Gundlach said:

"That is a huge embarrassment for modern
physics, where we think we know
everything so well and other constants are
defined to many, many digits.“
“Ovo je velika neprijatnost za modernu
fiziku, gde mislimo da znamo sve tako
dobro i gde su druge konstante određene
sa mnogo, mnogo decimala.”
isaac newton
1678

mM
F G 2
r
lord henry cavendish
henry cavendish
1798
G=6.75x10-11Nm2/kg2
The torsion balance experiment of Henry Cavendish who in 1797 was the first to experimentally
measure the gravitational constant G.
prikaz laboratorijske vežbe
neki od razloga za pojavu
sistematskih grešaka
 promenljivost torzionog momenta
 pomeranje podloge (podrhtavanja zemlje)
 uticaj masa tela iz okruženja
 nehomogenost masa tela koja su sastavni
deo eksperimenta
 magnetni i električni uticaj
skica eksperimenta torzionom vagom
r  r0 sin t   
mM
F  k                F G 2
I
r
T  2
k

  k                    kr
2
G
  F L / 2             mML
kr       2
G
mML
 G gravitaciona konstanta
 L rastojanje između tela malih masa
  ugao otklona
 k torziona konstanta
Schematic view of the mass arrangement. The test masses are alternately connected to
the balance by means of the “mass exchanger” and their weight difference is determined.
The field masses are moved between the two positions I and II. The forces on the upper
test mass due to the Earth, the field masses and tidal forces are plotted for the two field-
mass positions on the left and right of the figure.
The orbiting Lageos satellite monitors its position relative to the Earth using reflected laser
light. From the measured gravitational force between satellite and our planet, and

independently measuring G, one can calculate the mass of the Earth.
fabry-perot eksperiment
The apparatus used by the research group at the University of Washington, Seattle, to measure G to
record high precision. The device, about two feet across, measures the attractiveness between a

hanging plate (hidden inside the cylinder) and several spheres which rotate about the cylinder.
tačnost sata je uslovljena konstantnom vrednošću perioda oscilovanja torzionog klatna za
dati momenat inercije

```
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