Leadership, Social Facilitation and Inhibition�

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					    Leadership, Social
Facilitation and Inhibition…
          Mr P. Leighton
  Group Dynamics of Performance
        Sports Psychology.
         Today’s Session…
 Look  over Chellandurai’s work into
  leadership to start…
 Discuss the theories associated with
  Social Facilitation and Social Inhibition-
  basically what makes us do what we do in
 Look over the key words from this area of
  study: Mastermind task…
         Do we understand this?
   Chellandurai recognised that 3 behaviour types
    can impact upon the leader…

                           Actual Behaviour
                     What the leader chooses to do as
                     The best course of action in the
                        Situation. Influenced by?

    Required Behaviour                         Preferred Behaviour
What ought to be done by the               What the athletes want the leader
Leader in certain situations:               To do. This is determined by?
       Dictated by?
The Leadership Scale for Sports…
Category of Leadership               Explanation
                           Improving the performance of athletes
Training and Instruction   through hard training and conditioning.
Behaviour                  Instruction is given on tactics and
                           techniques… Example?
                           Leader allows group members to
Democratic Behaviour       make decisions regarding strategies,
                           practices and group goals.
                           Task Centred: decisions are made by
Autocratic Behaviour       the leader without consultation of the
                           group… Example?
                           Concerned with the welfare of the
Social Support             members. This is characterised by
Behaviour                  warm group/leader relations.

                           Positive feedback rewards group and
Rewarding Behaviour        individual performance, reinforcement
                           of group cohesion.
       Young People in Sport…
 Which  leadership style/s do you think
  would satisfy youth in sport?
 Conversely, which leadership style/s do
  you think would satisfy those training for…
     The Olympics (2012)
     A Sunday league game
     A Premier League Clash
 Social Facilitation and Inhibition…
 Example…     Juggling/ Plate Spinning!
 It is well documented that the presence of
  influence the performance of an individual.
 Think about a time when you have been
  playing well/poorly and the presence of
  someone on the sideline/more people
  watching or a harder/easier opponent has
  changed the way you play.
 An increase in arousal can have positive
  or negative influences on performance.
 When arousal is positive, performance is
  enhanced and SOCIAL FACILITATION is
  said to have taken place.
 When it is negative, SOCIAL INHIBITION
  is present.
 The two theories that explain this are…
       Drive Theory of Social Facilitation.
         (Zajonc, 1965)
       Evaluation Apprehension Theory.
         (Cottrell, 1968)
 Zajonc’s Model
 of Drive Theory                      Present Others
    and Social

                                                            Interactive Others
             Passive Others

Audience possibly
  Passive, silent
                      Fellow performers
  But interested                               Co-active competitors
                     e.g. Training partner.                            Emotive Supporters
                                                 e.g. Opponents
     The Model Explained…
 Zajonc theorised that “passive others” are
 enough to increase our arousal levels.
 Drive Theory indicates that there is a
 relationship between arousal and
                       •Zajonc proposed the presence of
                       others in itself is arousing. Arousal
                       enhances the production of our
                       dominant responses as opposed to
                       the subordinate responses.
                       •Actions that have already been learnt
                       are termed “Learned responses” and
                       are seen as Dominant responses-
                       Fight or Flight?
 Arousal: Beginners Vs. Elite…
 High  levels of arousal should benefit those
  at the autonomous stages of learning…
 A: Dominant response should be towards
  the correct response.
 Novices (associative or cognitive) showing
  a high level of arousal would have an
  inhibited performance due to their
  dominant behaviour being incorrect.
   Martens (1969) confirmed Zajonc’s research
    stating that the presence of an audience in
    beginners increases arousal and impairs
    learning of complex skills.
   Landers and McCullage (1976) challenged
    Zajonc’s assumptions.
   They stated that co-actors being present aids
    the learning of “Sports Skills” but co-actors need
    to be of “Slightly superior ability”.
   Q: What can we assume then?
   A: Presence of co-actors enhances learning of
    motor skills while the attention of an audience
    will inhibit learning.
    Evaluation Apprehension…
 Cottrell (1968) stated that others being there did
  not sufficiently arouse someone to allow social
  facilitation or inhibition.
 He stated that arousal did only occur when the
  performer believed that the audience were
  assessing or judging them.
 Evaluation Apprehension, however, does not
  take into account the need for evaluation in
  some performers to stimulate arousal.
    The Home Advantage Effect…
 Large supportive
  home crowds are
  believed to provide
  the home team with
  an advantage i.e. “the
  12th Man”.
 It appears to be
  stronger, according to
  Nevill and Cann
  (1998) when the
  crowd is bigger.
Proximity Effect…
            Schwartz (1975) proposed
             that the location of the
             audience in relationship to
             the performance was an
             important factor in social
            This is best seen in
             Basketball or Ice Hockey.
            Schwartz stated that
             outcome is not dictated by
             the difficulty of the skill or
             the audience but the level
             of performer, personality
             and level of experience that
             are key.
    Distraction-Conflict Theory…
 Baron (1986) proposed that the limitations of the
  performers attention span can explain the effects
  on performance.
 Information processing models indicate that
  attention can only be given to a set number of
  environmental cues.
 Spectators require as much attention (to block
  out) as the actual sporting situation.
 Simple tasks requiring little attention are
  performed best in front of an audience while
  under similar conditions actions would be
  Strategies to combat the effects of
Social Inhibition in practical activities…
 Selective attention would narrow the
  focus of the performer to relevant
 Mental rehearsal and imagery could
  enhance concentration, help block
  out the audience which can be the
  source of inhibition i.e: BBC SPORT
  Football My Club Portsmouth
  James is boosted by
 Positive self-talk to block out
 Practice in front of an audience to get
  used to the effects supporters may
 Rest on pg 241-242.

 Look through your notes for the next 5 mins.
 You are each going to prepare 5 questions for
  each other on the topics covered so far in the
  style of mastermind i.e. short answers!
 Winner gets a prize!

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