Facilitation and Inhibition…
Mr P. Leighton
Group Dynamics of Performance
Look over Chellandurai’s work into
leadership to start…
Discuss the theories associated with
Social Facilitation and Social Inhibition-
basically what makes us do what we do in
Look over the key words from this area of
study: Mastermind task…
Do we understand this?
Chellandurai recognised that 3 behaviour types
can impact upon the leader…
What the leader chooses to do as
The best course of action in the
Situation. Influenced by?
Required Behaviour Preferred Behaviour
What ought to be done by the What the athletes want the leader
Leader in certain situations: To do. This is determined by?
The Leadership Scale for Sports…
Category of Leadership Explanation
Improving the performance of athletes
Training and Instruction through hard training and conditioning.
Behaviour Instruction is given on tactics and
Leader allows group members to
Democratic Behaviour make decisions regarding strategies,
practices and group goals.
Task Centred: decisions are made by
Autocratic Behaviour the leader without consultation of the
Concerned with the welfare of the
Social Support members. This is characterised by
Behaviour warm group/leader relations.
Positive feedback rewards group and
Rewarding Behaviour individual performance, reinforcement
of group cohesion.
Young People in Sport…
Which leadership style/s do you think
would satisfy youth in sport?
Conversely, which leadership style/s do
you think would satisfy those training for…
The Olympics (2012)
A Sunday league game
A Premier League Clash
Social Facilitation and Inhibition…
Example… Juggling/ Plate Spinning!
It is well documented that the presence of
other CO-ACTORS or SPECTATORS can
influence the performance of an individual.
Think about a time when you have been
playing well/poorly and the presence of
someone on the sideline/more people
watching or a harder/easier opponent has
changed the way you play.
An increase in arousal can have positive
or negative influences on performance.
When arousal is positive, performance is
enhanced and SOCIAL FACILITATION is
said to have taken place.
When it is negative, SOCIAL INHIBITION
The two theories that explain this are…
Drive Theory of Social Facilitation.
Evaluation Apprehension Theory.
of Drive Theory Present Others
But interested Co-active competitors
e.g. Training partner. Emotive Supporters
The Model Explained…
Zajonc theorised that “passive others” are
enough to increase our arousal levels.
Drive Theory indicates that there is a
relationship between arousal and
•Zajonc proposed the presence of
others in itself is arousing. Arousal
enhances the production of our
dominant responses as opposed to
the subordinate responses.
•Actions that have already been learnt
are termed “Learned responses” and
are seen as Dominant responses-
Fight or Flight?
Arousal: Beginners Vs. Elite…
High levels of arousal should benefit those
at the autonomous stages of learning…
A: Dominant response should be towards
the correct response.
Novices (associative or cognitive) showing
a high level of arousal would have an
inhibited performance due to their
dominant behaviour being incorrect.
Martens (1969) confirmed Zajonc’s research
stating that the presence of an audience in
beginners increases arousal and impairs
learning of complex skills.
Landers and McCullage (1976) challenged
They stated that co-actors being present aids
the learning of “Sports Skills” but co-actors need
to be of “Slightly superior ability”.
Q: What can we assume then?
A: Presence of co-actors enhances learning of
motor skills while the attention of an audience
will inhibit learning.
Cottrell (1968) stated that others being there did
not sufficiently arouse someone to allow social
facilitation or inhibition.
He stated that arousal did only occur when the
performer believed that the audience were
assessing or judging them.
Evaluation Apprehension, however, does not
take into account the need for evaluation in
some performers to stimulate arousal.
The Home Advantage Effect…
home crowds are
believed to provide
the home team with
an advantage i.e. “the
It appears to be
stronger, according to
Nevill and Cann
(1998) when the
crowd is bigger.
Schwartz (1975) proposed
that the location of the
audience in relationship to
the performance was an
important factor in social
This is best seen in
Basketball or Ice Hockey.
Schwartz stated that
outcome is not dictated by
the difficulty of the skill or
the audience but the level
of performer, personality
and level of experience that
Baron (1986) proposed that the limitations of the
performers attention span can explain the effects
Information processing models indicate that
attention can only be given to a set number of
Spectators require as much attention (to block
out) as the actual sporting situation.
Simple tasks requiring little attention are
performed best in front of an audience while
under similar conditions actions would be
Strategies to combat the effects of
Social Inhibition in practical activities…
Selective attention would narrow the
focus of the performer to relevant
Mental rehearsal and imagery could
enhance concentration, help block
out the audience which can be the
source of inhibition i.e: BBC SPORT
Football My Club Portsmouth
James is boosted by
Positive self-talk to block out
Practice in front of an audience to get
used to the effects supporters may
Rest on pg 241-242.
Look through your notes for the next 5 mins.
You are each going to prepare 5 questions for
each other on the topics covered so far in the
style of mastermind i.e. short answers!
Winner gets a prize!