Internet and Computing Core Certification
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The IEEE 802 Standard comprises a family of networking standards that cover the physical layer
specifications of technologies from Ethernet to wireless. IEEE 802 is subdivided into 22 parts based on
distance, frequency, and data rate. Depending upon these aspects, the system operates over a set of typical
channel models. Drag the following network names to match them with their supported IEEE 802 standard.
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IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area
networks. More specifically, the IEEE 802 standards are restricted to networks carrying variable-size
packets. (By contrast, in cell-based networks, data is transmitted in short, uniformly sized units called cells.
Isochronous networks, where data is transmitted as a steady stream of octets, or groups of octets, at regular
time intervals, are also out of the scope of this standard.) The number 802 was simply the next free number
IEEE could assign, though "802" is sometimes associated with the date the first meeting was held February
1980. The services and protocols specified in IEEE 802 map to the lower two layers (Data Link and Physical)
of the seven-layer OSI networking reference model. In fact, IEEE 802 splits the OSI Data Link Layer into
two sub-layers named Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC), so that the layers can
be listed like this:
Data link layer
The IEEE 802 family of standards is maintained by the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC).
The most widely used standards are for the Ethernet family, Token Ring, Wireless LAN, Bridging and
Virtual Bridged LANs. An individual Working Group provides the focus for each area.
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Wireless Regional Area Network
Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) has a standard of IEEE 802.22 used for white spaces in the TV
frequency spectrum. The development of the IEEE 802.22 WRAN standard is aimed at using cognitive radio
techniques to allow sharing of geographically unused spectrum allocated to the Television Broadcast
Service, on a non-interfering basis, to bring broadband access to hard-to-reach, low population density
areas, typical of rural environments, and is therefore timely and has the potential for a wide applicability
IEEE 802.22 WRANs are designed to operate in the TV broadcast bands while assuring that no harmful
interference is caused to the incumbent operation, i.e., digital TV and analog TV broadcasting, and low
power licensed devices such as wireless microphones.
Metropolitan Area Network
A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a
geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large Local Area Network (LAN) but smaller
than the area covered by a Wide Area Network (WAN). The term is applied to the interconnection of
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networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide
area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them
with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network. A MAN usually
interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology, such as
fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area networks and the Internet. Examples of
metropolitan area networks of various sizes can be found in the metropolitan areas of London, England;
Lodz, Poland; and Geneva, Switzerland. Large universities also sometimes use the term to describe their
networks. A recent trend is the installation of wireless MANs.
Local Area Network
Local Area Network (LAN) represents a network that covers a very close geographic area, such as a floor of a
building, a building itself, or a campus environment. LAN is a high-speed network that connects computers,
printers, and other network devices together. The media types used in LANs include Ethernet, Fast
Ethernet (FE), Gigabit Ethernet (GE), Token Ring, and FDDI. A LAN may include servers, workstations,
hubs, bridges, switches, routers, gateways, firewalls, etc.
Personal area network
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices
(including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one's person. The reach of a PAN is typically a
few meters. A PAN can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal
communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet.
Following are the working groups of IEEE 802:
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TCP/IP suite contains a number of protocols that perform various tasks to support the transmission of data
across a network. TCP/IP suite is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. Drag the
TCP/IP suite protocol names to their appropriate places:
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Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system used for locating domain names on private
TCP/IP networks and the Internet. It provides a service for mapping DNS domain names to IP addresses
and vice versa. DNS enables users to use friendly names to locate computers and other resources on an IP
network. TCP/IP uses IP addresses to locate and connect to hosts, but for users, it is easier to use names
instead of IP address to locate or connect to a site. For example, users will be more comfortable in using the
host name www.company.com rather than using its IP address 184.108.40.206.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a TCP/IP standard used to dynamically assign IP
addresses to computers, so that they can communicate with other network services. It reduces the
complexity of managing network client IP address configuration. A DHCP server configures DHCP-enabled
client computers on the network and runs on servers only. It also provides integration with the Active
Directory directory service.
Note: If the DHCP server is offline, a user cannot obtain necessary addresses from the server. Hence,
without valid TCP/IP addresses from the DHCP server, the user will not be able to communicate with
anyone on the network or access network resources.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a primary protocol of the TCP/IP protocol suite, which is used to transfer
text and binary files between a host computer and a server computer over the Internet.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client/server TCP/IP protocol used on the World Wide Web
(WWW) to display Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages. HTTP defines how messages are formatted
and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands.
For example, when a client application or browser sends a request to the server using HTTP commands, the
server responds with a message containing the protocol version, success or failure code, server information,
and body content, depending on the request. HTTP uses TCP port 80 as the default port. The Internet
Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched inter-network using the
Internet Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP.
IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering
distinguished protocol datagrams (packets) from the source host to the destination host solely based on
their addresses. For this purpose, the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for
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datagram encapsulation. The first major version of addressing structure, now referred to as Internet
Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still the dominant protocol of the Internet, although the successor, Internet
Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), is being deployed actively worldwide.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a reliable, connection-oriented protocol operating at the transport
layer of the OSI model. It provides a reliable packet delivery service encapsulated within the Internet
Protocol (IP). TCP guarantees the delivery of packets, ensures proper sequencing of data, and provides a
checksum feature that validates both the packet header and its data for accuracy. If the network corrupts or
loses a TCP packet during transmission, TCP is responsible for retransmitting the faulty packet. It can
transmit large amounts of data. Application layer protocols, such as HTTP and FTP, utilize the services of
TCP to transfer files between clients and servers.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet Protocol Suite, the set of
network protocols used for the Internet. With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in this case
referred to as datagrams, to other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without requiring prior
communications to set up special transmission channels or data paths. UDP is sometimes called the
Universal Datagram Protocol.
Cola Co. manufactures, markets, sells, and distributes non-alcoholic potables such as Lemcaa and Thunder
Up under its brand name Cola and uses green and red logo. Mola Co., a new company, starts
manufacturing, marketing, selling, and distributing non-alcoholic potables like Lumca and Cloud Up under
its brand name Mola and uses green and red logo. Which of the following violations has been committed by
A. Patent law
B. Trademark infringement
D. Copyright infringement
Trademark infringement is a violation of the exclusive rights attaching to a trademark without the
authorization of the trademark owner or any licensees (provided that such authorization was within the
scope of the license). Infringement may occur when one party, the 'infringer', uses a trademark that is
identical or confusingly similar to a trademark owned by another party, in relation to products or services
that are identical or similar to the products or services that the registration covers. An owner of a trademark
may commence legal proceedings against a party that infringes its registration.
Answer option A is incorrect. Patent laws are used to protect the duplication of software. Software patents
cover the algorithms and techniques that are used in creating the software. It does not cover the entire
program of the software. Patents give the author the right to make and sell his product. The time of the
patent of a product is limited though, i.e., the author of the product has the right to use the patent for only
a specific length of time.
Answer option D is incorrect. Copyright infringement, also known as copyright violation, is the use of
material which is covered by copyright law, in a way that violates one of the original copyright owner's
exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative
works that build upon it. The slang term bootleg (from the use of boots to smuggle items) is often used to
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describe illegally copied material. For media such as movies and music, unauthorized copying and
distribution is occasionally called piracy or theft.
Answer option C is incorrect. Plagiarism is defined as the "use or close imitation of the language and
thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work." While plagiarism in
scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles
appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. Plagiarism is
not copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different
transgressions. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material
protected by copyright is used without consent. On the other hand, plagiarism is concerned with the
unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation that is achieved through false claims of
Which of the following protocols are used to retrieve e-mail messages from a mail server?
Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose two.
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP or IMAP4) is a prevalent Internet standard protocol for e-mail
retrieval. It is an application layer Internet protocol operating on port 143 that allows a local client to access
e-mail on a remote server. IMAP supports both connected (online) and disconnected (offline) modes of
operation. E-mail clients using IMAP generally leave messages on the server until the user explicitly deletes
them. This and other facets of IMAP operation allow multiple clients to access the same mailbox.
Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail
clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. The design of POP3 and its
procedures supports end-users with intermittent connections (such as dial-up connections), allowing these
users to retrieve e-mail when connected and then to view and manipulate the retrieved messages without
needing to stay connected. Although most clients have an option to leave mail on server, e-mail clients
using POP3 generally connect, retrieve all messages, store them on the user's PC as new messages, delete
them from the server, and then disconnect. POP3 works over a TCP/IP connection using TCP on network
port 110. E-mail clients can encrypt POP3 traffic using TLS or SSL.
Answer option A is incorrect. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is an integral part of IP. It is used
to report an error in datagram processing. The Internet Protocol (IP) is used for host-to-host datagram
service in a network. The network is configured with connecting devices called gateways. When an error
occurs in datagram processing, gateways or destination hosts report the error to the source hosts through
the ICMP protocol. The ICMP messages are sent in various situations, such as when a datagram cannot
reach its destination, when the gateway cannot direct the host to send traffic on a shorter route, when the
gateway does not have the buffering capacity, etc. Answer option D is incorrect. Hypertext Transfer
Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a combination of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol with the SSL/TLS protocol to
provide encryption and secure (website security testing) identification of the server. HTTPS connections are
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often used for payment transactions on the World Wide Web and for sensitive transactions in corporate
information systems. Difference from HTTPAs opposed to HTTP URLs which begin with "http://" and use
port 80 by default, HTTPS URLs begin with "https://" and use port 443 by default. HTTP is insecure and is
subject to man-in-the-middle and eavesdropping attacks which can let attackers gain access to website
accounts and sensitive information. HTTPS is designed to withstand such attacks and is considered secure.
Electronic communication technology refers to technology devices, such as computers and cell phones,
used to facilitate communication. Which of the following is/are a type of electronic communication?
Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
A. Internet telephony
B. Post-it note
C. Instant messaging
E. Electronic mail
A blog is a type of website, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary,
descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in
reverse-chronological order. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.
Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online
diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, Web pages, and other media related
to its topic. The ability of readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many
blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (Art blog), photographs (photoblog),
videos (Video blogging), music (MP3 blog), and audio (podcasting). Microblogging is another type of
blogging, featuring very short posts.
A teleconference or teleseminar is the live exchange and mass articulation of information among several
persons and machines remote from one another but linked by a telecommunications system. Terms such as
audio conferencing, telephone conferencing and phone conferencing are also sometimes used to refer to
teleconferencing. Internet teleconferencing includes internet telephone conferencing, videoconferencing,
web conferencing, and Augmented Reality conferencing.
E-mail (electronic mail) is a method of exchanging of computer-stored messages by telecommunication. E-
mail messages are usually encoded in ASCII text. However, a user can also send non-text files, such as
graphic images and sound files, as attachments sent in binary streams. E- mail was one of the first
applications being made available on the Internet and is still the most popular one. A large percentage of
the total traffic over the Internet is of the e-mails. E-mails can also be exchanged between online service
provider users and in networks other than the Internet, both public and private.
E-mails can be distributed to lists of people as well as to individuals. A shared distribution list can be
managed by using an e-mail reflector.
Some mailing lists allow you to subscribe by sending a request to the mailing list administrator. A mailing
list that is administered automatically is called a list server.
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E-mail is one of the protocols included with the Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
suite of protocols. A popular protocol for sending e-mails is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and a popular
protocol for receiving it is POP3. Both Netscape and Microsoft include an e-mail utility with their Web
Internet telephony refers to communication services such as voice, facsimile, and/or voice-messaging
applications that are transported via the
Internet, rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The basic steps involved in originating
an Internet telephone call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital format and
compression/translation of the signal into Internet protocol (IP) packets for transmission over the Internet;
the process is reversed at the receiving end.
Internet telephony involves conducting a teleconference over the Internet or a Wide Area Network. One
key technology in this area is Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP). Popular software for personal use
include Skype, Google Talk, Vonage, Speakeasy, Windows Live Messenger and Yahoo Messenger.
Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time direct text-based communication between two or more people
using personal computers or other devices, along with shared software clients. The user's text is conveyed
over a network, such as the Internet. More advanced instant messaging software clients also allow
enhanced modes of communication, such as live voice or video calling.
IM falls under the umbrella term online chat, as it is a real-time text-based networked communication
system, but is distinct in that it is based on clients that facilitate connections between specified known
users (often using Buddy List, Friend List or Contact List), whereas online 'chat' also includes web-based
applications that allow communication between users in a multi-user environment.
Answer option B is incorrect. Post-it notes are not a type of electronic communications.
John works as a Desktop Technician for NetPerfect Inc. The company has a Windows-based network. For
the last few days, the network of the company has become prone to the Man-in-the-Middle attack. John
wants to send a confidential MS-Word file to his Manager through e-mail attachment. He wants to ensure
that no one is able to open and understand the file's message except the Manager. Which of the following
should John use to accomplish the task?
Each correct answer represents a part of the solution. Choose all that apply.
A. File Compression
B. Apply password to the file
D. Format the file
Encryption is the process of conversion of data into a form that cannot be easily understood by
unauthorized persons. The encrypted data is known as cipher text. The cipher text can be converted back
into its original form by a process known as decryption. Decryption is the reverse process of encryption.
Encryption is a method of securing data while it travels over the Internet. The encryption software encodes
information from plain text to encrypted text, using specific algorithms with a string of numbers known as
a key. The encryption and decryption processes depend on both the information sender and the receiver
having knowledge of a common encryption key. The length of the encryption key is an important security
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parameter. A longer key provides more secure data, as it is more difficult to determine the encryption key.
Asymmetric encryption: Asymmetric encryption is a type of encryption that uses two keys, i.e., a public key
and a private key pair for data encryption. The public key is available to everyone, while the private or
secret key is available only to the recipient of the message. For example, when a user sends a message or
data to another user, the sender uses the public key to encrypt the data. The receiver uses his private key to
decrypt the data.
Symmetric encryption: Symmetric encryption is a type of encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and
decrypt data. Symmetric encryption algorithms are faster than public key encryption. Therefore, it is
commonly used when a message sender needs to encrypt a large amount of data. Data Encryption Standard
(DES) uses the symmetric encryption key algorithm to encrypt data.
John can apply password to the file to open it. This will protect the file from unauthorized access.
Answer option A is incorrect. File compression saves disk space. It is used to reduce the size of the file. It
does not always protect the data.
Answer option D is incorrect. Formatting is done to change the style of the file.
Mark works as a Network Administrator for company Inc. The company has a Windows-based network.
The California branch of company has been divided into two buildings in the same campus. The company
wants to interconnect these two buildings for proper communication among all the departments. Which of
the following network types should Mark use to accomplish the task?
A campus area network (CAN) is a computer network that interconnects local area networks throughout a
limited geographical area, such as a university campus, a corporate campus, or a military base. It could be
considered a metropolitan area network that is specific to a campus setting. A campus area network is,
therefore, larger than a local area network but smaller than a wide area network. The term is sometimes
used to refer to university campuses, while the term corporate area network is used to refer to corporate
Although not considered a wide area network, a CAN extends the reach of each local area network within
the campus area of an organization.
In a CAN, the buildings of a university or corporate campus are interconnected using the same types of
hardware and networking technologies that one would use in a LAN. In addition, all of the components,
including switches, routers, and cabling, as well as wireless connection points, are owned and maintained
by the organization.
Answer option B is incorrect. Local Area Network (LAN) represents a network that covers a very close
geographic area, such as a floor of a building, a building itself, or a campus environment. LAN is a high-
speed network that connects computers, printers, and other network devices together. The media types
used in LANs include Ethernet, Fast Ethernet (FE), Gigabit Ethernet (GE), Token Ring, and FDDI. A LAN
may include servers, workstations, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, gateways, firewalls, etc.
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Answer option A is incorrect. A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users
with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large Local Area
Network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a Wide Area Network (WAN). The term is applied to
the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient
connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area
networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus
network. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a high-capacity
backbone technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area networks and
Examples of metropolitan area networks of various sizes can be found in the metropolitan areas of London,
England; Lodz, Poland; and Geneva, Switzerland. Large universities also sometimes use the term to describe
their networks. A recent trend is the installation of wireless MANs. Answer option D is incorrect. A wide
area network (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. The term distinguishes a
broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN). A wide area network may be
privately owned or rented, but the term usually connotes the inclusion of public (shared user) networks. An
intermediate form of network in terms of geography is a metropolitan area network (MAN). A wide area
network is also defined as a network of networks, as it interconnects LANs over a wide geographical area.
The word netiquette is a combination of the words network and etiquette. It covers the guidelines and best
practices that should be followed in an electronic communication. According to the netiquette, which of
the following are the guidelines that should be followed in electronic communication?
Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
E. E-mail graphics
Answer: D, G, B, C, F and E
The word netiquette is a combination of the words network and etiquette. It covers the guidelines and best
practices that should be followed in an electronic communication. The several versions of netiquette are
available on the web, which pertain to e-mail and instant messaging. In general, following are the
guidelines that should be followed in electronic communication:
Ownership: Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an
object, land/real estate or intellectual property. Ownership involves multiple rights, collectively referred to
as title, which may be separated and held by different parties. It is necessary to know who is the owner of
the sent and received e-mails.
Security: A user should always assume that messages sent across the Internet are not secure. He should
never write anything into a message that he would not write on a postcard.
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Copyright: A user should always know and understand copyright rules and laws. It may be possible that the
thing permissible in one location may not be okay in the recipient's location.
Chain letters: Chain letters are highly discouraged on the Internet. The senders of chain letters can have
network access revoked by a local administrator or and Internet Service Provider (ISP). If a user receives a
chain letter, he should inform to the network administrator or ISP.
Flames: Flames refer to the angry messages. A user should never respond to angry messages and also never
respond in anger.
Addressees: A user should always confirm before responding to a message that he is the primary addressee.
If he is a Cc addressee then it means that he was sent an information copy. Before sending a new message,
be sure that the e-mail addresses mentioned are correct.
Identity: A user should always identify himself in messages. This will help the recipients to know who sent
the message and from where. Users should always include a subject line in an e-mail. A user should always
use small signature blocks.
Message length: A user should always write short messages. The word 'long' should be included in its
subject line if a message is longer than 100 lines. Do not send messages with very large and uncompressed
Timely responses: A user should always respond to all appropriate messages timely. It may be possible that
sender is often waiting for the response.
Spelling and grammar: A user should always use spelling and grammar checker to scan the message body
before sending message.
This will help in removing grammatical and spelling errors from the message.
E-mail attachments: Some e-mail service providers do not allow large attachments. A user should avoid
sending an attachment larger than 1 MB when possible. He should use WinZip or WinRAR to reduce the
size of the file if necessary.
E-mail privacy: A user should not share the e-mail addresses of other people on an e-mail message or on a
public site, poster, etc.
E-mail graphics: Some of the e-mail clients are not able to or not configured to display embedded graphics,
sound files, or animations in a message. A user should check with recipients to verify whether graphics will
display or not on their e-mail clients. Text-only e-mail clients are not able to display graphics at all.
Maria works as a Desktop Technician for company Inc. She has received an e-mail from the MN
Compensation Office with the following message: Further instructions shall be given to you by our
secretary as soon as you contact him. To avoid losing your compensation, you are requested to pay the sum
of $350 for Insurance Premium to our secretary. Thanks and God bless. If Maria replies to this mail, which
of the following attacks may she become vulnerable to?
A. SYN attack
B. CookieMonster attack
C. Phishing attack
D. Mail bombing
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Phishing is a type of scam that entices a user to disclose personal information such as social security
number, bank account details, or credit card number. An example of phishing attack is a fraudulent e-mail
that appears to come from a user's bank asking to change his online banking password. When the user
clicks the link available on the e-mail, it directs him to a phishing site which replicates the original bank
site. The phishing site lures the user to provide his personal information. Answer option B is incorrect. A
Cookie Monster attack is a man-in-the-middle exploit where a third party can gain HTTPS cookie data
when the 'Encrypted Sessions Only' property is not properly set. This could allow access to sites with
sensitive personal or financial information. Users of the World Wide Web can reduce their exposure to
Cookie Monster attacks by avoiding websites that are vulnerable to these attacks. Certain web browsers
make it possible for the user to establish which sites these are. For example, users of the Firefox browser can
go to the Privacy tab in the Preferences window, and click on 'Show Cookies.' For a given site, inspecting
the individual cookies for the top level name of the site, and any sub domain names, will reveal if 'Send For:
Encrypted connections only,' has been set. If it has, the user can test for the site's vulnerability to Cookie
Monster attacks by deleting these cookies and visiting the site again. If the site still allows the user in, the
site is vulnerable to Cookie Monster attacks. Answer option D is incorrect. Mail bombing is an attack that is
used to overwhelm mail servers and clients by sending a large number of unwanted e-mails. The aim of this
type of attack is to completely fill the recipient's hard disk with immense, useless files, causing at best
irritation, and at worst total computer failure. E-mail filtering and properly configuring email relay
functionality on mail servers can be helpful for protection against this type of attack. Answer option A is
incorrect. A SYN attack is a form of denial-of-service (DoS) attack. In this attack, the attacker sends
multiple SYN packets to the target computer. For each received SYN packet, the target computer allocates
resources and sends an acknowledgement (SYN-ACK) to the source IP address. Since the target computer
does not receive a response from the attacking computer, it attempts to resend the SYN-ACK. This leaves
TCP ports in a half-open state. When the attacker sends TCP SYNs repeatedly, the target computer
eventually runs out of resources and is unable to handle any more connections, thereby denying services to
legitimate users. A SYN attack affects computers running on the TCP/IP protocol. It is a protocol-level
attack that can render a computer's network services unavailable. A SYN attack is also known as SYN
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The Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI Model) is a description for layered
communications and computer network protocol design. It is a set of seven layers. Each layer supports
different protocols. Drag the OSI layer names to their appropriate places:
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Internet and Computing Core Certification
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