Human Relations & Human Resources Approach

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					      Human Relations &
      Human Resources
         Approach


Chapter 3
YouTube – Victoria Woodhull is back...
      Classical Approach
           Doesn’t:
   Account for individual needs of
    employees

   Non-financial reward

   Social interaction
Human Relations
   Approach
      Hawthorne Studies
 Influenced transitions from classical
  approach to human relations approach
 Illumination Studies
      • Mayo interested in how changes in work
        environment would impact productivity
      • Found unexpected results
   Hawthorne Effect
      • The more attention given to someone, the more
        likely their behavior will change
      • Social factors influence productivity
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of
       Needs Theory
   Humans are motivated by basic needs

 Five Levels-lower order needs must be
  met before reaching higher needs
 Continue shift of emphasis to social
  interaction and managerial attention in
  the workplace
     Maslow’s Hierarchy of
        Needs Theory
   1.   Physiological
     –   “living wage” to purchase food and clothing
   2.   Safety
     –   Free from danger (safe working conditions)
   3.   Affiliation
     –   Need to belong, social relationships with co-workers
   4.   Esteem
     –   Sense of achievement and accomplishment (internal)
     –   Compensation and reward (external)
   5.   Self-Actualization
     –   Job that allows growth and creativity
      Mcgregor’s Theory X
         and Theory Y
   The assumptions managers have about
    the function of an organization
    – Theory X postulates the negatives about
      human nature (pg. 40)-Classical approach
    – Theory Y postulates the positive about
      human nature (pg. 41)-Human relations
      approach
    – These categories are not mutually exclusive
    – Principles highlight human needs and
      satisfaction with those needs being met
        Human Relations
           Approach
 Need for attention
 Social interaction
 Individual achievement


   If management pays attention to these,
    worker productivity will increase!
Human Resources
   Approach
    Human Resources Approach
 Acknowledges contributions of the
  classical and human relations
  approaches to organizing
 Recognizes that individual labor is
  crucial in meeting organizational goals
 Recognizes that individuals have
  feelings & needs
 Emphasizes the employees’ cognitive
  contributions
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            Recap on Human
               Relations
 Lack of research and data to support
  relationship b/w fulfilling needs &
  satisfaction.
 Hawthorne Studies served as
  springboard to Human Relations
 Managers still control-fear of misuse &
  manipulation by management
 Problem with relationship b/t worker
  satisfaction and productivity
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             Flow Chart on H.R.
                 Principle


                Satisfaction
                                                  Produc-
 Work           For Higher              Job
                                                   tivity
Factors        Order Needs         Satisfaction




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        Flowchart Disconnect?

 The relationship b/w “job satisfaction” &
  “productivity” is suspect
 Is “satisfied” the same as “content?”
 Are there other “things” that motivate us
  to be productive besides satisfaction?
 Can you be satisfied and not
  productive?
 Misuses of principles? (EX of PDM)
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Blake and Mouton’s
Managerial Grid
 Tool for training managers in leadership
  styles that would enhance
  organizational efficiency while
  stimulating individual creativity
 Leaders are most effective when they
  exhibit a concern for workers and
  production (combines classical &
  human relations)
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            Blake and Mouton’s
              Managerial Grid
   5 prototype styles (pg. 52)
     – Impoverished (1,1)
     – Country Club (1,9)
     – Authority-Compliance (9,1)
     – Team (9,9)
     – Middle of the Road (5,5)



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            Likert’s System IV
 Focus on organizational form that can
  incorporate ideals of human resources
 Motivational factors, decision making, goal
  setting, influence, performance
 Four types are more or less effective in
  satisfying org. and individual goal
     –   System I- Exploitive/Authoritative
     –   System II- Benevolent/Authoritative
     –   System III- Consultative
     –   System IV- Participative organization
   Linking Pin: An individual with membership in
    various work groups
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            Communication
            Implications
 Content-task, social, & innovation
 Direction-all directions, team based,
  free flow from various locations
  (challenge is to be able to access &
  utilize)
 Channel-all sorts, value on which ever
  channel fits best to content
 Style-informal-congruent with “all-
  direction team based” communication

4/25/2012        COM229-Lippert            17
  Human Resource
 Organizations Today
         Learning organizations
– Emphasize mental flexibility
– Team learning
– A shared vision
– Complex thinking
– Personal mastery
– Emphasizes participation and dialogue in the
  workplace
– Knowledge management (creation,
  development, application)
     Pfeffer’s Seven Practices of
       Successful Orgnizations
   Employment security
   Selective hiring
   Self-managed teams & decentralization
   Comparatively high & contingent
    compensation
   Extensive training
   Reduction of status differences
   Sharing information
            So, When is HR
             Appropriate?
   Examples of Programs that stress team
    management and employee
    involvement
     – Japanese management systems
     – Scanlon Plan
     – TQM
     – Just in Time management

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       When Doing HR, Consider
                This!
 Know when team-based management is
  appropriate.
 Consider the attitudes of top (and bottom)
  management.
 Deal with cynicism about change.
 Understand the nature of empowerment.
 Facilitate the translation program (how to
  create a new climate within the
  organizational culture.
    4/25/2012     COM229-Lippert          21

				
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