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					                    History of
              Educational Technology




Source: Garo,C. (2007). Teaching educational technology. Manila: Rex Publishing Company.
            Ancient Civilization
- use of pointed sticks to inscript signs and
  symbols on the leaves

- use of knives to inscript signs and symbols on
  the bark of trees
Egyptians (3100 B.C.)
- developed a system of picture writing called
  hieroglyphics

  Hieroglyphics – may represent the objects for
  which they stand for or represent a sound or
  group of sounds

  Scribes – group of men trained on the art of
  writing and came to be the country’s chronicler
  of events
Ancient Greece
Spartan Education – emphasized the development of the
  physical body coupled with discipline
  Boys  exercises and activities that promoted bodily
  strength, endurance, and vitality
           activities: dancing, wrestling, horseback
  riding, swimming, gymnastics
           Paidonomus: the boys’ teacher; a military
  commander in the public barracks

  Girls  stayed at home with their mothers and were
  taught housekeeping
Athens
- first to recognize the right of the individual to
  develop to the fullest

- believed that the mind and the body has a strong
  relationship

- prime concern of music schools, grammar
  schools, and public gymnasiums / palaestra is
  developing the mind and the body
Sophists
    - wandering scholars
    - emphasized cognitive rules, systematic
arrangement of subject matter, use of
instructional technologies, design and
implementation of effective instructional
materials
                Medieval Era
- establishment of the Medieval University
- Emperor Frederick I of Bologna in 1158
  chartered the first university
       degrees offered were expanded which
  required students to engage in more in depth
  studies and to write their theses, defend them in
  public before the deans, facultas, and rectors
- Saracens or the Arabs among the Moors of
  Spain
  aim of education was search for knowledge and the
   application of scientific facts to their daily lives
  their curriculum was the most organized and
   complete in the elementary, secondary, and collegiate
   levels
  their universities and libraries were the models in
   the entire Europe because they invented the printing
   press
  originated the scientific method of teaching
             Renaissance Period
- modern times began
- lines of concern: intellectual, aesthetic, and
  scientific
- movements: humanism, disciplinism, and
  rationalism
- Rationalism: contributed to the development of
  educational technology especially along theories
  and practices
- John Locke: nature of the child’s mind at birth
  (tabula rasa)

- Johann Amos Comenius: developed the first
  picture book known as Orbis Pictus (The World
  in Pictures)
       pioneer in instructional technology
  development

- Maria Montessori: use of multi-sensory materials
  in teaching
            Age of Naturalism
- Jean Jacques Rousseau: authored the book Emile
    aim of education was the preservation of the
   natural goodness of the individual and the
   formation of society based upon the recognition
   of natural individual rights

- Herbartian Method of Teaching: preparation,
  presentation, comparison and abstraction,
  generalization and application
- Pestallozi: believed that teaching is more
  effective if it proceeds from concrete to abstract,
  hence the use of actual and real objects that
  involve most of the senses

- Froebel: father of kindergarten
   emphasized the use of actual objects which
  could be manipulated by the learners
   recommended the use of play and songs
                 19th   Century
- John Dewey: formulated the scientific theory of
  learning; pragmatist
- Edward Thorndike: laws of learning; connectionist
- paved the way to the development of effective
  educational technology including the production
  of books, use of blackboards, and improvement of
  writing implements
- photography was invented giving way to a
  movement called visual instruction
- visual media became widely accepted in 1920
- audio-visual media texts was published
- in 1926, educational films were used as
  instructional media
- in 1932, the first instructional TV program was
  aired at the State University of Iowa
- 16mm sound motion picture was developed\

- during the 2nd World War: movies, filmstrips,
  radio, and other pictorial devices were used in
  military trainings

- programmed instruction by Skinner

- Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives

- use of modularized instruction
          Contemporary Times
- multimedia resources and computers in
  classrooms

- maintenance of an educational media center

- revision and enrichment of curricular offerings
  to include courses in computer applications

- use of CAI
- use of multimedia presentations in the
  classrooms
- educational organizations are linking up with
  TEIs
- use of Internet and E-mail for fast-paced
  interactive learning, communication, and search
  for information
- computer literacy programs for ISYs and OSYs
- computers became more user-friendly

				
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