Theories and Applications of Pavlovian Conditioning

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Nature of the Conditioned
Response
Chapter 5
    The Stimulus Substitution Theory
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       Originally suggested by Pavlov
       Stimulus substitution theory
         Pairings  of the CS and the UCS enable the CS to later
          elicit the US representation. So, the CS is treated as if it
          were the US.
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    But ………………
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       In many cases the CR and UCR are not the same
         Problem 1: In some cases the CR and UCR seem
          opposite each other.
         Problem   2: And sometimes the CR changes over the
          interstimulus interval.
    Sometimes-Opponent Process Theory
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       Wagner’s SOP theory invokes the concept that the
        UCS elicits two states of memory activity (two
        components)
        A  primary A1 memory (dealing with a present US)
         A secondary A2 memory (thinking about a future US)

       CS always elicits A2 memory of the US
         A2 memory is sometimes linked to non-opponent
          response (salivation)
         A2 memory is sometimes linked to an opponent
          response (drug tolerance)
       Problem 1 Solved
    Affective Extension of SOP (AESOP)
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       Developed by Wagner and Brandon to explain the
        inconsistencies that SOP could not explain
       It is based on the idea that there are two distinct
        UCR sequences
        A  sensory sequence
         An emotive sequence
                           Fear (optimal ISI, long)

                 CS

                           Blink (optimal ISI, short)
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       The sensory and emotive attributes of an
        unconditioned stimulus activate separate response
        sequences
       The latency of the sensory and emotive activity
        sequences can also differ
       This leads to different optimal CS-UCS intervals for
        the emotive and sensory components
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       There are several important aspects of AESOP
        A CS may activate a strong sensory CR but only a
          weak emotive CR (or vice versa)
           This can explain the lack of correspondence between
             response measures of conditioning
        A  sensory A2 neural activity may elicit a discrete
          response (blink), while the emotive A2 neural activity
          may produce a diffuse reaction (fear)
       Problem 2 Solved

				
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posted:4/26/2012
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