Nine Types of Adaptations
The chart below offers points to consider in making adaptations to meet the needs of
Size Time Level of Support
Adapt the number of Adapt the time allotted Increase the amount of
items that the learner is and allowed for learning, personal assistance with a
expected to learn or task completion, or specific learner.
For example: For example: Assign peer buddies,
Reduce the number of Individualize a timeline for teaching assistants, peer
social studies terms a completing a task; pace tutors, or cross-age tutors.
learner must learn at any learning differently
one time. (increase or decrease) for
Input Difficulty Output
Adapt the way instruction Adapt the skill level, Adapt how the learner can
is delivered to the learner. problem type, or the rules respond to instruction.
on how the learner may
For example: approach the work. For example:
Use different visual aids; Instead of answering
plan more concrete For example: questions in writing, allow a
examples; provide hands- Allow the use of a verbal response; use a
on activities; place calculator to figure math communication book for
students in cooperative problems; simplify task some students; allow
groups. directions; change rules students to show knowledge
to accommodate learner with hands-on materials.
Participation Alternate Goals Substitute Curriculum
Adapt the extent to which Adapt the goals or Provide different instruction
a learner is actively outcome expectations and materials to meet a
involved in the task. while using the same learner’s individual goals.
For example: For example:
In geography, have a For example: During a language test one
student hold the globe, In social studies, expect student is learning computer
while others point out one student to be able to skills in the computer lab.
locations. locate just the states
while others learn to
locate capitals as well.
Center for School & Community Integration, Institute for the Study of Developmental Disabilities, Indiana
University, Bloomington, IN
Richard Villa, Bayridge Consortium, Inc. 760-761-17