INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 1 DATA MANAGEMENT archive / archiving An archive is a collection of computer files that have been packaged together for searchdatabase.com backup, to transport to some other location, for saving away from the computer so that more hard disk storage can be made available, or for some other purpose. An archive can include a simple list of files or files organized under a directory or catalog structure (depending on how a particular program supports archiving). 2 DATA MANAGEMENT catalog In computing, a catalog is a directory of information about data sets, files, or a searchdatabase.com database. A catalog usually describes where a data set, file or database entity is located and may also include other information, such as the type of device on which each data set or file is stored. 3 DATA MANAGEMENT data In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is searchstorage.com more convenient to move or process. Relative to today's computers and transmission media, data is information converted into binary digital form. 4 DATA MANAGEMENT data dictionary A data dictionary is a collection of descriptions of the data objects or items in a searchdatabase.com data model for the benefit of programmers and others who need to refer to them. 5 DATA MANAGEMENT data integrity Integrity, in terms of data and network security, is the assurance that information searchdatabase.com can only be accessed or modified by those authorized to do so. Measures taken to ensure integrity include controlling the physical environment of networked terminals and servers, restricting access to data, and maintaining rigorous authentication practices. 6 DATA MANAGEMENT data mart A data mart is a repository of data gathered from operational data and other searchdatabase.com sources that is designed to serve a particular community of knowledge workers. 7 DATA MANAGEMENT data mining Data mining is sorting through data to identify patterns and establish searchCRM.com relationships. Data mining parameters include: 1) Association - looking for patterns where one event is connected to another event 2) Sequence or path analysis - looking for patterns where one event leads to another later event 3) Classification - looking for new patterns (May result in a change in the way the data is organized but that's ok) 4) Clustering - finding and visually documenting groups of facts not previously known and 5) Forecasting - discovering patterns in data that can lead to reasonable predictions about the future. 8 DATA MANAGEMENT data modeling Data modeling is the analysis of data objects that are used in a business or other searchdatabase.com context and the identification of the relationships among these data objects. 9 DATA MANAGEMENT data scrubbing Data scrubbing, also called data cleansing, is the process of amending or searchdatabase.com removing data in a database that is incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or duplicated. 10 DATA MANAGEMENT data warehouse A data warehouse is a central repository for all or significant parts of the data searchdatabase.com that an enterprise's various business systems collect. 11 DATA MANAGEMENT database (see also "distributed database") A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be searchdatabase.com accessed, managed, and updated. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 12 DATA MANAGEMENT distributed database A distributed database is a database in which portions of the database are stored searchdatabase.com on multiple computers within a network. 13 DATA MANAGEMENT field A field is an area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record, searchdatabase.com message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed size. In some contexts, a field can be subdivided into smaller fields. 14 DATA MANAGEMENT file In data processing, using an office metaphor, a file is a related collection of searchexchange.com records. For example, you might put the records you have on each of your customers in a file. 15 DATA MANAGEMENT knowledge warehouse (data repository) A knowledge warehouse is the component of an enterprise's knowledge searchSAP.com management system where knowledge is developed, stored, organized, processed, and disseminated. (A knowledge warehouse can also be called a data repository.) 16 DATA MANAGEMENT multidimensional database A multidimensional database (MDB) is a type of database that is optimized for searchdatabase.com data warehouse and online analytical processing (OLAP) applications. Multidimensional databases are frequently created using input from existing relational databases. 17 DATA MANAGEMENT object-oriented database management An object-oriented database management system (OODBMS), sometimes searchdatabase.com system shortened to ODBMS for object database management system ), is a database management system (DBMS) that supports the modeling and creation of data as objects. This includes some kind of support for classes of objects and the inheritance of class properties and methods by subclasses and their objects. 18 DATA MANAGEMENT raw data Raw data (sometimes called source data or atomic data) is data that has not searchcio.com been processed for use. A distinction is sometimes made between data and information to the effect that information is the end product of data processing. Raw data that has undergone processing is sometimes referred to as cooked data . 19 DATA MANAGEMENT record In computer data processing, a record is a collection of data items arranged for searchdatabase.com processing by a program. Multiple records are contained in a file or data set. 20 DATA MANAGEMENT redundancy Redundant describes 1) computer or network system components, such as fans, searchstorage.com hard disk drives, servers, operating systems, switches, and telecommunication links that are installed to back up primary resources in case they fail. A well- known example of a redundant system is the redundant array of independent disks (redundant array of independent disks), 2) unneeded or duplicated information, or 3) extra binary digits that are generated and transferred along with a data transfer to ensure that no bits were lost during the data transfer. 21 DATA MANAGEMENT relational database A relational database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally- searchdatabase.com described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 22 DATA MANAGEMENT Structured Query Language (SQL) SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard interactive and programming searchdatabase.com language for getting information from and updating a database. Although SQL is both an ANSI and an ISO standard, many database products support SQL with proprietary extensions to the standard language. 23 DATA MANAGEMENT virtual memory system Virtual (or logical) memory is a concept that, when implemented by a computer searchstorage.com and its operating system, allows programmers to use a very large range of memory or storage addresses for stored data. The computing system maps the programmer's virtual addresses to real hardware storage addresses. Usually, the programmer is freed from having to be concerned about the availability of data storage. 24 DATA MANAGEMENT web mining Web mining, a type of data mining used in customer relationship management searchCRM.com (CRM), takes advantage of the huge amount of information gathered by a Web site to look for patterns in user behavior. 25 E-BUSINESS "New economy" The "new economy" refers to the electronic method by which companies conduct ACC 655 business, such as via the internet. 26 E-BUSINESS ACH Automated Clearing House (ACH) is a secure payment transfer system that searchsecurity.com connects all U.S. financial institutions. The ACH network acts as the central clearing facility for all Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT) transactions that occur nationwide, representing a crucial link in the national banking system. 27 E-BUSINESS aggregation An aggregation is an e-business model in which the main value is selection and Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt convenience (e.g. Amazon.com). 28 E-BUSINESS agora An agora is an e-business model characterized as a marketplace, like e-Bay, Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt where buyers and sellers come together to execute transactions. The main theme of agoras is dynamic pricing. 29 E-BUSINESS alliance An alliance is an e-business model characterized as a creative, collaborative Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt enterprise involving consumers who are also producers. Alliance members work together to achieve a common goal. 30 E-BUSINESS Application Service Provider (ASP) An application service provider (ASP) is a company that offers individuals or searchwebservices.com enterprises access over the Internet to applications and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their own personal or enterprise computers. 31 E-BUSINESS B2B On the Internet, B2B (business-to-business), also known as e-biz, is the searchCIO.com exchange of products, services, or information between businesses rather than between businesses and consumers. 32 E-BUSINESS B2C B2C is short for business-to-consumer , or the retailing part of e-commerce on searchCIO.com the Internet. It is often contrasted to B2B or business-to-business. 33 E-BUSINESS Banner ad Depending on how it's used, a banner is either a graphic image that announces searchwebservices.com the name or identity of a site (and often is spread across the width of the Web page) or is an advertising image. Advertisers sometimes count banner "views," or the number of times a banner graphic image was downloaded over a period of time. 34 E-BUSINESS brick and mortar This phrase refers to the traditional physical location of a business (a store). ACC 655 35 E-BUSINESS C2C A subset of the B2C category, C2C allows individuals to buy and sell items in the Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt marketplace. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 36 E-BUSINESS clicks and mortar This phrase refers to a business whose business model uses a combination of ACC 655 both an online and a physical presence. 37 E-BUSINESS content aggregator A content aggregator is an individual or organization that gathers Web content searchwebservices.com (and/or sometimes applications) from different online sources for reuse or resale. There are two kinds of content aggregators: (1) those who simply gather material from various sources for their Web sites, and (2) those who gather and distribute content to suit their customer's needs. 38 E-BUSINESS content provider Any firm that provides information on the web. Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt 39 E-BUSINESS cryptography Cryptography is the science of information security. The word is derived from the searchsecurity.com Greek kryptos , meaning hidden. 40 E-BUSINESS Digital wallet A wallet is a small software program used for online purchase transactions. searchcio.com Many payment solution companies, such as CyberCase, offer free Wallet software that allows several methods of payment to be defined within the wallet (for example, several different credit cards). 41 E-BUSINESS Disruptive technology In the "new economy" of e-business, a disruptive technology is a technology that ACC 655 arises from innovation and replaces an existing technology by providing a better value to the consumer. 42 E-BUSINESS Distributive network In the context of e-business, a distributive network performs the role of allocating Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt and distributing, rather than producing or consuming goods, services, and information (e.g. UPS). 43 E-BUSINESS e-Business E-business (electronic business), derived from such terms as "e-mail" and "e- searchCIO.com commerce," is the conduct of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners. 44 E-BUSINESS e-Commerce E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and searchCIO.com services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business, are often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term e-tailing is sometimes used. 45 E-BUSINESS Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment On the Internet, electronic bill presentment and payment (EBPP) is a process searchcio.com (EBPP) that enables bills to be created, delivered, and paid over the Internet. 46 E-BUSINESS electronic data interchange (EDI) Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is a standard format for exchanging business searchcio.com data. 47 E-BUSINESS electronic funds transfer (EFT) Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) is a system of transferring money from one searchwin2000.com bank account directly to another without any paper money changing hands. One of the most widely-used EFT programs is Direct Deposit, in which payroll is deposited straight into an employee's bank account, although EFT refers to any transfer of funds initiated through an electronic terminal, including credit card, ATM, Fedwire and point-of-sale (POS) transactions. It is used for both credit transfers, such as payroll payments, and for debit transfers, such as mortgage payments. 48 E-BUSINESS Electronic Payment See Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment (EBPP) INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 49 E-BUSINESS encryption Encryption is the conversion of data into a form, called a ciphertext, that cannot searchsecurity.com be easily understood by unauthorized people. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form, so it can be understood. 50 E-BUSINESS Enterprise Resource Planning System ERP (Enterprise resource planning) is an industry term for the broad set of searchSAP.com (ERP) activities supported by multi-module application software that helps a manufacturer or other business manage the important parts of its business, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, and tracking orders. 51 E-BUSINESS e-tailing E-tailing (less frequently: etailing ) is the selling of retail goods on the Internet. searchCIO.com Short for "electronic retailing," and used in Internet discussions as early as 1995, the term seems an almost inevitable addition to e-mail, e-business, and e- commerce. E-tailing is synonymous with business-to-consumer (B2C) transaction. 52 E-BUSINESS Hosting (web hosting / web site hosting) Web hosting (also known as Webhosting, Web site hosting, and hosting) is the searchwebservices.com business of housing, serving, and maintaining files for one or more web sites. 53 E-BUSINESS infomediary An infomediary is a website that provides specialized information on behalf of searchwebservices.com producers of goods and services and their potential customers. The term is a composite of information and intermediary . 54 E-BUSINESS intermediary In general, an intermediary is a person or service that is involved as a third party searchwebservices.com between two or more end points in a communication or transaction. On the World Wide Web, the role of an intermediary is sometimes said to be no longer necessary. 55 E-BUSINESS internet commerce provider (ICP) An ICP (Internet commerce provider) is a company that sells software and searchwebservices.com services that enable a merchant with a Web site to build an online store on the merchant's own site or on the provider's site. 56 E-BUSINESS micropayment On the Web, micropayment is a business concept whose goal is to generate searchcio.com revenue by offering pay-per-view Web pages, Web links, or Web services for small amounts of money called "microcents". Since it is not practical for individual users to charge small amounts of money (such as a penny or a fraction of a penny) to a major charge card, a different method of payment is needed for sites that wish to go "micro". 57 E-BUSINESS mobile commerce (m-commerce) M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services searchmobilecomputing.com through wireless handheld devices such as cellular telephone and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Known as next-generation e-commerce, m-commerce enables users to access the Internet without needing to find a place to plug in. 58 E-BUSINESS Network effect A network effect (or positive network effect) refers to a condition in which a ACC 655 technology increases in value as more people use it (e.g. e-mail). 59 E-BUSINESS Pop-up ad A pop-up ad is a pop-up window used for advertising. When the program is whatis.com initiated by some user action, such as a mouse click or a mouseover, a window containing an offer for some product or service appears in the foreground of the visual interface. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 60 E-BUSINESS portal Portal is a term, generally synonymous with gateway , for a World Wide Web whatis.com site that is or proposes to be a major starting site for users when they get connected to the Web or that users tend to visit as an anchor site. There are general portals and specialized or niche portals. Some major general portals include Yahoo, Excite, Netscape, Lycos, CNET, Microsoft Network, and America Online's AOL.com. 61 E-BUSINESS private key In cryptography, a private or secret key is an encryption/decryption key known searchsecurity.com only to the party or parties that exchange secret messages. 62 E-BUSINESS public key In cryptography, a public key is a value provided by some designated authority searchsecurity.com as an encryption key that, combined with a private key derived from the public key, can be used to effectively encrypt messages and digital signatures. 63 E-BUSINESS pure play An internet pure play is a company whose business model is designed to ACC 655 generate all customer transactions online (no physical presence). 64 E-BUSINESS Smart card A smart card is a plastic card about the size of a credit card, with an embedded searchsecurity.com microchip that can be loaded with data, used for telephone calling, electronic cash payments, and other applications, and then periodically refreshed for additional use. 65 E-BUSINESS stored account payment system A stored account payment system is an electronic payment process which is Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt executed by means of a check, credit card, debit card, or the like. 66 E-BUSINESS stored value payment system A stored value payment system is an electronic payment process which is Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt executed by means of a defined-value exchange medium such as cash or certain e-cash technologies (digital tokens or coins). 67 E-BUSINESS storefront A storefront refers to the appearance of the home page of a business on its web ACC 655 site. 68 E-BUSINESS Sustaining technology In the "new economy" of e-business, a sustaining technology is a technology that ACC 655 enhances an existing technology by providing improved features. 69 E-BUSINESS Value chain A value chain is an e-business model that is characterized by vertically Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt integrated processes that add significant value to raw material inputs (e.g. Dell Computers). 70 E-BUSINESS value-added network A value-added network (VAN) is a private network provider (sometimes called a searchnetworking.com turnkey communications line) that is hired by a company to facilitate electronic data interchange (EDI) or provide other network services. Before the arrival of the World Wide Web, some companies hired value-added networks to move data from their company to other companies. With the arrival of the World Wide Web, many companies found it more cost-efficient to move their data over the Internet instead of paying the minimum monthly fees and per-character charges found in typical VAN contracts. 71 E-BUSINESS Virtual hosting On the Internet, virtual hosting is the provision of Web server hosting services so searchwebservices.com that a company (or individual) doesn't have to purchase and maintain its own Web server and connections to the Internet. A virtual hosting provider is sometimes called a Web or Internet "space provider." INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 72 E-BUSINESS virtual private network (VPN) A virtual private network (VPN) is a way to use a public telecommunication searchnetworking.com infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network. A virtual private network can be contrasted with an expensive system of owned or leased lines that can only be used by one organization. The goal of a VPN is to provide the organization with the same capabilities, but at a much lower cost. 73 GENERAL aggregator an aggregator is any device that serves multiple other devices or users either searchnetworking.com with its own capabilities or by forwarding transmissions in a more concentrated and economical way. A remote access hub is sometimes referred to as an aggregator. 74 GENERAL authentication Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or something is, searchsecurity.com in fact, who or what it is declared to be. In private and public computer networks (including the Internet), authentication is commonly done through the use of logon passwords. 75 GENERAL bit A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer. whatis.com 76 GENERAL bitmap A bit map (often spelled "bitmap") defines a display space and the color for each whatis.com pixel or "bit" in the display space. A Graphics Interchange Format and a JPEG are examples of graphic image file types that contain bit maps. 77 GENERAL boot To boot (also "to boot up") a computer is to load an operating system into the searchwin2000.com computer's main memory or random access memory (RAM). Once the operating system is loaded (and, for example, on a PC, you see the initial Windows or Mac desktop screen), it's ready for users to run applications. 78 GENERAL byte In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long. whatis.com A byte is the unit most computers use to represent a character such as a letter, number, or typographic symbol (for example, "g", "5", or "?"). 79 GENERAL CPU CPU (central processing unit) is an older term for processor and microprocessor, whatis.com the central unit in a computer containing the logic circuitry that performs the instructions of a computer's programs. 80 GENERAL download Downloading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another, searchnetworking.com usually smaller computer system. From the Internet user's point-of-view, to download a file is to request it from another computer (or from a Web page on another computer) and to receive it. 81 GENERAL downtime Downtime is a computer industry term for the time during which a computer is whatis.com not operational. 82 GENERAL dynamic In computer terminology, dynamic usually means capable of action and/or searchnetworking.com change. This term can be applied to a number of different types of things, such as programming languages (or components of programming languages), Web pages, and application programs. 83 GENERAL email E-mail (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by searchmobilecomputing.com telecommunication. 84 GENERAL End user In information technology, the term end user is used to distinguish the person for whatis.com whom a hardware or software product is designed from the developers, installers, and servicers of the product. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 85 GENERAL flat file A flat file is a file containing records that have no structured interrelationship. The searchdatabase.com term is frequently used to describe a textual document from which all word processing or other structure characters or markup have been removed. 86 GENERAL floppy disk A diskette is a random access, removable data storage medium that can be searchstorage.com used with personal computers. The term usually refers to the magnetic medium housed in a rigid plastic cartridge measuring 3.5 inches square and about 2 millimeters thick. Also called a "3.5-inch diskette," it can store up to 1.44 megabytes (MB) of data. 87 GENERAL graphical user interface A GUI (usually pronounced GOO-ee) is a graphical (rather than purely textual) searchwebservices.com user interface to a computer. As you look at your computer screen, you see the GUI of your particular web browser. 88 GENERAL groupware Groupware refers to programs that help people work together collectively while searchDomino.com located remotely from each other. Groupware services can include the sharing of calendars, collective writing, e-mail handling, shared database access, electronic meetings with each person able to see and display information to others, and other activities. Some product examples of groupware include Lotus Notes and Microsoft Exchange. 89 GENERAL information technology On the Web or other hypertext systems, hyperlink is a synonym for both link and search390.com hypertext link. 90 GENERAL interface As a noun, an interface is either: 1) A user interface, consisting of the set of whatis.com dials, knobs, operating system commands, graphical display formats, and other devices provided by a computer or a program to allow the user to communicate and use the computer or program, 2) A programming interface, consisting of the set of statements, functions, options, and other ways of expressing program instructions and data provided by a program or language for a programmer to use, or 3) the physical and logical arrangement supporting the attachment of any device to a connector or to another device. As a verb, to interface means to communicate with another person or object. With hardware equipment, to interface means making an appropriate physical connection so that two pieces of equipment can communicate or work together effectively. 91 GENERAL legacy application In information technology, legacy applications and data are those that have been search390.com inherited from languages, platforms, and techniques earlier than current technology. 92 GENERAL logon In general computer usage, logon is the procedure used to get access to an searchsecurity.com operating system or application, usually in a remote computer. Almost always a logon requires that the user have (1) a user ID and (2) a password. 93 GENERAL machine code Machine code is the elemental language of computers, consisting of a stream of whatis.com 0's and 1's. Ultimately, the output of any programming language analysis and processing is machine code. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 94 GENERAL migration In information technology, migration is the process of moving from the use of one searchcio.com operating environment to another operating environment that is, in most cases, is thought to be a better one. For example, moving from Windows NT Server to Windows 2000 Server would usually be considered a migration because it involves making sure that new features are exploited, old settings do not require changing, and taking steps to ensure that current applications continue to work in the new environment. 95 GENERAL object code Source code and object code refer to the "before" and "after" versions of a searchwebservices.com computer program that is compiled (see compiler) before it is ready to run in a computer. 96 GENERAL queue In general, a queue is a line of people or things waiting to be handled, usually in whatis.com sequential order starting at the beginning or top of the line or sequence. In computer technology, a queue is a sequence of work objects that are waiting to be processed. 97 GENERAL RAM RAM (random access memory) is the place in a computer where the operating searchmobilecomputing.com system, application programs, and data in current use are kept so that they can be quickly reached by the computer's processor. RAM is much faster to read from and write to than the other kinds of storage in a computer, the hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM. However, the data in RAM stays there only as long as your computer is running. When you turn the computer off, RAM loses its data. When you turn your computer on again, your operating system and other files are once again loaded into RAM, usually from your hard disk. 98 GENERAL real-time Real time is a level of computer responsiveness that a user senses as whatis.com sufficiently immediate or that enables the computer to keep up with some external process (for example, to present visualizations of the weather as it constantly changes). Real-time is an adjective pertaining to computers or processes that operate in real time. Real time describes a human rather than a machine sense of time. 99 GENERAL ROM ROM (read-only memory) is "built-in" computer memory containing data that whatis.com normally can only be read, not written to. ROM contains the programming that allows your computer to be "booted up" or regenerated each time you turn it on. 100 GENERAL semiconductor A semiconductor is a substance, usually a solid chemical element or compound, whatis.com that can conduct electricity under some conditions but not others, making it a good medium for the control of electrical current. Its conductance varies depending on the current or voltage applied to a control electrode, or on the intensity of irradiation by infrared (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), or X rays. 101 GENERAL source code Source code and object code refer to the "before" and "after" versions of a searchwebservices.com computer program that is compiled (see compiler) before it is ready to run in a computer. 102 GENERAL static In computer terminology, static means fixed. This term can be applied to a searchnetworking.com number of different types of things, such as programming languages (or components of programming languages), Web pages, and application programs. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 103 GENERAL storage Computer storage is the holding of data in an electromagnetic form for access by searchstorage.com a computer processor. Primary storage is data in random access memory (RAM) and other "built-in" devices. Secondary storage is data on hard disks, tapes, and other external devices. 104 GENERAL upload Uploading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another, derived from "download" usually larger computer system. From the Internet user's point-of-view, to upload a file is to send it to another computer. 105 GENERAL user interface In information technology, the user interface (UI) is everything designed into an searchwebservices.com information device with which a human being may interact -- including display screen, keyboard, mouse, light pen, the appearance of a desktop, illuminated characters, help messages, and how an application program or a Web site invites interaction and responds to it. 106 GENERAL virus A virus is a piece of programming code usually disguised as something else that searchsecurity.com causes some unexpected and usually undesirable event. A virus is often designed so that it is automatically spread to other computer users. Viruses can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail note, as downloads, or be present on a diskette or CD. 107 GENERAL workstation A workstation is a computer intended for individual use that is faster and more searchmobilecomputing.com capable than a personal computer. It's intended for business or professional use (rather than home or recreational use). 108 HARDWARE application server An application server is a server program in a computer in a distributed network searchdatabase.com that provides the business logic for an application program. 109 HARDWARE black box A black box is any device, sometimes highly important, whose workings are not whatis.com understood by or accessible to its user. 110 HARDWARE Bridge In telecommunication networks, a bridge is a product that connects a local area searchsecurity.com network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol (for example, Ethernet or Token Ring). 111 HARDWARE Circuit-switched Contrasted with packet-switched is circuit-switched, a type of network such as searchnetworking.com the regular voice telephone network in which the communication circuit (path) for the call is set up and dedicated to the participants in that call. For the duration of the connection, all resources on that circuit are unavailable for other users. Voice calls using the Internet's packet-switched system are possible. Each end of the conversation is broken down into packets that are reassembled at the other end. 112 HARDWARE hard disk (hard drive) In a personal computer, a hard disk drive (HDD) is the mechanism that controls searchstorage.com the positioning, reading, and writing of the hard disk, which furnishes the largest amount of data storage for the PC. Although the hard disk drive (often shortened to "hard drive") and the hard disk are not the same thing, they are packaged as a unit and so either term is sometimes used to refer to the whole unit. 113 HARDWARE Hardware Hardware is the physical aspect of computers, telecommunications, and other whatis.com information technology devices. The term arose as a way to distinguish the "box" and the electronic circuitry and components of a computer from the program you put in it to make it do things. Hardware can be thought of as the invariable part of the computer. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 114 HARDWARE Hub In data communications, a hub is a place of convergence where data arrives searchnetworking.com from one or more directions and is forwarded out in one or more other directions. A hub usually includes a switch of some kind. (And a product that is called a "switch" could usually be considered a hub as well.) The distinction seems to be that the hub is the place where data comes together and the switch is what determines how and where data is forwarded from the place where data comes together. Regarded in its switching aspects, a hub can also include a router. 115 HARDWARE Integrated Circuit An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a whatis.com semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. An IC can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, counter, computer memory, or microprocessor. A particular IC is categorized as either linear (analog) or digital, depending on its intended application. 116 HARDWARE intelligent device An intelligent device is any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that has its whatis.com own computing capability. As computing technology becomes more advanced and less expensive, it can be built into an increasing number of devices of all kinds. 117 HARDWARE mainframe Mainframe is an industry term for a large computer, typically manufactured by a search390.com large company such as IBM for the commercial applications of Fortune 1000 businesses and other large-scale computing purposes. Historically, a mainframe is associated with centralized rather than distributed computing. 118 HARDWARE microchip A microchip (sometimes just called a "chip") is a unit of packaged computer whatis.com circuitry (usually called an integrated circuit) that is manufactured from a material such as silicon at a very small scale. Microchips are made for program logic (logic or microprocessor chips) and for computer memory (memory or RAM chips). Microchips are also made that include both logic and memory and for special purposes such as analog-to-digital conversion, bit slicing, and gateways. 119 HARDWARE microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip. It's sometimes called whatis.com a logic chip . It is the "engine" that goes into motion when you turn your computer on. A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use of small number-holding areas called registers . 120 HARDWARE Middleware In the computer industry, middleware is a general term for any programming that searchwebservices.com serves to "glue together" or mediate between two separate and often already existing programs. A common application of middleware is to allow programs written for access to a particular database to access other databases. The term middleware is sometimes used to describe programming that mediates between application and system software or between two different kinds of application software (for example, sending a remote work request from an application in a computer that has one kind of operating system to an application in a computer with a different operating system). INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 121 HARDWARE mouse A mouse is a small device that a computer user pushes across a desk surface in searchexchange.com order to point to a place on a display screen and to select one or more actions to take from that position. 122 HARDWARE network In information technology, a network is a series of points or nodes searchnetworking.com interconnected by communication paths. Networks can interconnect with other networks and contain subnetworks. 123 HARDWARE Network Interface Card (NIC) A network interface card (NIC) is a computer circuit board or card that is installed searchnetworking.com in a computer so that it can be connected to a network. Personal computers and workstations on a local area network (LAN) typically contain a network interface card specifically designed for the LAN transmission technology, such as Ethernet or Token Ring. 124 HARDWARE Node In a network, a node is a connection point, either a redistribution point or an end searchnetworking.com point for data transmissions. 125 HARDWARE Packet A packet is the unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on searchnetworking.com the Internet or any other packet-switched network. When any file (e-mail message, HTML file, Graphics Interchange Format file, Uniform Resource Locator request, and so forth) is sent from one place to another on the Internet, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer of TCP/IP divides the file into "chunks" of an efficient size for routing. Each of these packets is separately numbered and includes the Internet address of the destination. 126 HARDWARE Packet-switched Packet-switched describes the type of network in which relatively small units of searchnetworking.com data called are routed through a network based on the destination address contained within each packet. Breaking communication down into packets allows the same data path to be shared among many users in the network. This type of communication between sender and receiver is known as connectionless (rather than dedicated ). Most traffic over the Internet uses packet switching and the Internet is basically a connectionless network. 127 HARDWARE Router In packet-switched networks such as the Internet, a router is a device or, in some searchnetworking.com cases, software in a computer, that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination. The router is connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send each information packet based on its current understanding of the state of the networks it is connected to. 128 HARDWARE Secondary Storage Secondary storage is all addressable data storage that is not currently in the searchstorage.com computer's main storage or memory. Synonyms are external storage and auxiliary storage. 129 HARDWARE server In information technology, a server is a computer program that provides services searchwin2000.com to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers. The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server (though it may be used for other purposes as well). 130 HARDWARE server farm A server farm is a group of computers acting as servers and housed together in whatis.com a single location. A server farm is sometimes called a server cluster. A Web server farm can be either (1) a Web site that has more than one server, or (2) an Internet service provider (ISP) that provides Web hosting services using multiple servers. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 131 HARDWARE Switch In a telecommunications network, a switch is a device that channels incoming searchnetworking.com data from any of multiple input ports to the specific output port that will take the data toward its intended destination. 132 INTERNET Backbone A backbone is a larger transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller whatis.com lines that interconnect with it. 1) At the local level, a backbone is a line or set of lines that local area networks connect to for a wide area network connection or within a local area network to span distances efficiently (for example, between buildings). 2) On the Internet or other wide area network, a backbone is a set of paths that local or regional networks connect to for long-distance interconnection. The connection points are known as network nodes or telecommunication data switching exchanges (DSEs). 133 INTERNET Bridge In telecommunication networks, a bridge is a product that connects a local area searchsecurity.com network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol. 134 INTERNET Extranet An extranet is a private network that uses the Internet protocol and the public searchsecurity.com telecommunication system to securely share part of a business's information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company. 135 INTERNET Gateway A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the searchnetworking.com Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end- point) node. 136 INTERNET HTML HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the set of markup symbols or codes searchwebservices.com inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page. 137 INTERNET identity theft Identity theft is a crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of personal searchsecurity.com information, such as Social Security or driver's license numbers, in order to impersonate someone else. The information can be used to obtain credit, merchandise, and services in the name of the victim, or to provide the thief with false credentials. In addition to running up debt, an imposter might provide false identification to police, creating a criminal record or leaving outstanding arrest warrants for the person whose identity has been stolen. 138 INTERNET Internet The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of searchwebservices.com computer networks - a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers). 139 INTERNET Internet Service Provider (ISP) An ISP (Internet service provider) is a company that provides individuals and searchwebservices.com other companies access to the Internet and other related services such as Web site building and virtual hosting. 140 INTERNET Intranet An intranet is a private network that is contained within an enterprise. It may searchwebservices.com consist of many interlinked local area networks and also use leased lines in the wide area network. Typically, an intranet includes connections through one or more gateway computers to the outside Internet. The main purpose of an intranet is to share company information and computing resources among employees. An intranet can also be used to facilitate working in groups and for teleconferences. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 141 INTERNET Java Java is a programming language expressly designed for use in the distributed searchwebservices.com environment of the Internet. It was designed to have the "look and feel" of the C++ language, but it is simpler to use than C++ and enforces an object-oriented programming model. Java can be used to create complete applications that may run on a single computer or be distributed among servers and clients in a network. It can also be used to build a small application module or applet for use as part of a Web page. Applets make it possible for a Web page user to interact with the page. 142 INTERNET opt-in In the context of e-business communication or advertising, an "opt-in" feature ACC 655 requires that the recipient of the message take action in order to be included in the distribution list. 143 INTERNET opt-out In the context of e-business communication or advertising, an "opt-out" feature ACC 655 requires that the recipient of the message take action in order to be excluded from the distribution list. 144 INTERNET POP On the Internet, a point-of-presence (POP) is an access point from one place to searchnetworking.com the rest of the Internet. 145 INTERNET search engine On the Internet, a search engine is a coordinated set of programs that includes: searchwebservices.com 1) a spider (also called a "crawler" or a "bot") that goes to every page or representative pages on every Web site that wants to be searchable and reads it, using hypertext links on each page to discover and read a site's other pages 2) a program that creates a huge index (sometimes called a "catalog") from the pages that have been read, and 3) a program that receives your search request, compares it to the entries in the index, and returns results to you. 146 INTERNET SMTP SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and searchexchange.com receiving e-mail. 147 INTERNET spam Spam is unsolicited e-mail on the Internet. searchmobilecomputing.com 148 INTERNET spyware Spyware is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or searchCRM.com organization without their knowledge. On the Internet (where it is sometimes called a spybot or tracking software ), spyware is programming that is put in someone's computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to advertisers or other interested parties. 149 INTERNET usenet Usenet is a collection of user-submitted notes or messages on various subjects searchnetworking.com that are posted to servers on a worldwide network. Each subject collection of posted notes is known as a newsgroup. 150 NETWORK ad hoc network An ad-hoc (or "spontaneous") network is a local area network or other small searchmobilecomputing.com network, especially one with wireless or temporary plug-in connections, in which some of the network devices are part of the network only for the duration of a communications session or, in the case of mobile or portable devices, while in some close proximity to the rest of the network. 151 NETWORK client A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server relationship. For searchwin2000.com example, the user of a Web browser is effectively making client requests for pages from servers all over the Web. The browser itself is a client in its relationship with the computer that is getting and returning the requested HTML file. The computer handling the request and sending back the HTML file is a server. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 152 NETWORK Client-server system Client/server describes the relationship between two computer programs in searchnetworking.com which one program, the client, makes a service request from another program, the server, which fulfills the request. 153 NETWORK ethernet Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology. searchnetworking.com 154 NETWORK File-server system In the client/server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central searchnetworking.com storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files. 155 NETWORK firewall A firewall is a set of related programs, located at a network gateway server, that searchsecurity.com protects the resources of a private network from users from other networks. 156 NETWORK Local Area Network (LAN) A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that searchnetworking.com share a common communications line or wireless link and typically share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (for example, within an office building). 157 NETWORK Network Information System NIS (Network Information System) is a network naming and administration searchnetworking.com system for smaller networks that was developed by Sun Microsystems. NIS+ is a later version that provides additional security and other facilities. Using NIS, each host client or server computer in the system has knowledge about the entire system. 158 NETWORK online Online is the condition of being connected to a network of computers or other searchnetworking.com devices. The term is frequently used to describe someone who is currently connected to the Internet. 159 NETWORK P2P distributed computing Peer-to-peer is a communications model in which each party has the same searchnetworking.com capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session. 160 NETWORK token ring A Token Ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which all computers are searchnetworking.com connected in a ring or star topology and a bit- or token-passing scheme is used in order to prevent the collision of data between two computers that want to send messages at the same time. 161 NETWORK topology A topology (from Greek topos meaning place) is a description of any kind of searchnetworking.com locality in terms of its layout. In communication networks, a topology is a usually schematic description of the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and connecting lines. There are two ways of defining network geometry: the physical topology and the logical (or signal) topology. 162 NETWORK Wide Area Network (WAN) A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications searchnetworking.com network. The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network. 163 PROGRAMMING algorithm The term algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for searchVB.com solving a problem. 164 PROGRAMMING ANSI ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the primary organization for searchcio.com fostering the development of technology standards in the United States. ANSI works with industry groups and is the U.S. member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 165 PROGRAMMING application program An application program (sometimes shortened to application ) is any program searchwebservices.com designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or, in some cases, for another application program. Examples of application programs include word processors; database programs; Web browsers; development tools; drawing, paint, and image editing programs; and communication programs. 166 PROGRAMMING artificial intelligence AI (pronounced AYE-EYE) or artificial intelligence is the simulation of human searchcio.com intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction. 167 PROGRAMMING ASCII ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most whatis.com common format for text files in computers and on the Internet. In an ASCII file, each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number (a string of seven 0s or 1s). 128 possible characters are defined. 168 PROGRAMMING assembler An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts search390.com them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language . 169 PROGRAMMING assembly language see "assembler" search390.com 170 PROGRAMMING batch processing In a computer, a batch job is a program that is assigned to the computer to run search390.com without further user interaction. In larger commercial computers or servers, batch jobs are usually initiated by a system user. Some are defined to run automatically at a certain time. In some computer systems, batch jobs are said to run in the background and interactive programs run in the foreground. In general, interactive programs are given priority over batch programs, which run during the time intervals when the interactive programs are waiting for user requests. 171 PROGRAMMING C C is a structured, procedural programming language that has been widely used searchwin2000.com both for operating systems and applications and that has had a wide following in the academic community. Many versions of Unix-based operating systems are written in C. C has been standardized as part of the Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX). 172 PROGRAMMING C++ C++ is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is viewed by many searchdatabase.com as the best language for creating large-scale applications. C++ is a superset of the C language. 173 PROGRAMMING COBOL COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) was the first widely-used high- search390.com level programming language for business applications. Many payroll, accounting, and other business application programs written in COBOL over the past 35 years are still in use and it is possible that there are more existing lines of programming code in COBOL than in any other programming language. While the language has been updated over the years, it is generally perceived as out-of- date and COBOL programs are generally viewed as legacy applications. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 174 PROGRAMMING compiler A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular searchwin2000.com programming language and turns them into machine language or "code" that a computer's processor uses. 175 PROGRAMMING debugging In computers, debugging is the process of locating and fixing or bypassing bugs searchsecurity.com (errors) in computer program code or the engineering of a hardware device. 176 PROGRAMMING distributed computing In general, distributed computing is any computing that involves multiple whatis.com computers remote from each other that each have a role in a computation problem or information processing. 177 PROGRAMMING DOS DOS (Disk Operating System) was the first widely-installed operating system for searchsecurity.com personal computers. 178 PROGRAMMING FORTRAN FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) is a third-generation (3GL) programming whatis.com language that was designed for use by engineers, mathematicians, and other users and creators of scientific algorithms. It has a very succinct and spartan syntax. Today, the C language has largely displaced FORTRAN. 179 PROGRAMMING Freeware Freeware (not to be confused with free software) is programming that is offered searchEnterpriseLinux.com at no cost and is a common class of small applications available for downloading and use in most operating systems. Because it may be copyrighted, you may or may not be able to reuse it in programming you are developing. 180 PROGRAMMING hypermedia Hypermedia, a term derived from hypertext, extends the notion of the hypertext searchwebservices.com link to include links among any set of multimedia objects, including sound, motion video, and virtual reality. It can also connote a higher level of user/network interactivity than the interactivity already implicit in hypertext. 181 PROGRAMMING hypertext Hypertext is the organization of information units into connected associations searchwebservices.com that a user can choose to make. An instance of such an association is called a link or hypertext link. 182 PROGRAMMING Input/Output I/O (input/output), pronounced "eye-oh," describes any operation, program, or whatis.com device that transfers data to or from a computer. Typical I/O devices are printers, hard disks, keyboards, and mouses. In fact, some devices are basically input- only devices (keyboards and mouses); others are primarily output-only devices (printers); and others provide both input and output of data (hard disks, diskettes, writable CD-ROMs). 183 PROGRAMMING job control language (JCL) JCL (job control language) is a language for describing jobs (units of work) to the search390.com MVS, OS/390, and VSE operating systems, which run on IBM's S/390 large server (mainframe) computers. These operating systems allocate their time and space resources among the total number of jobs that have been started in the computer. 184 PROGRAMMING MS-DOS MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) was the Microsoft-marketed version searchwin2000.com of the first widely-installed operating system in personal computers. 185 PROGRAMMING multimedia Multimedia is more than one concurrent presentation medium (for example, on searchwebservices.com CD-ROM or a Web site). Although still images are a different medium than text, multimedia is typically used to mean the combination of text, sound, and/or motion video. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 186 PROGRAMMING online analytical processing (OLAP) Online analytical processing (OLAP) is computer processing that enables a user searchdatabase.com to easily and selectively extract and view data from different points-of-view. 187 PROGRAMMING operating system An operating system (sometimes abbreviated as "OS") is the program that, after whatis.com being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a computer. The other programs are called applications or application programs. 188 PROGRAMMING parallel processing In computers, parallel processing is the processing of program instructions by search390.com dividing them among multiple processors with the objective of running a program in less time. 189 PROGRAMMING program In computing, a program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to whatis.com perform. 190 PROGRAMMING schema In computer programming, a schema (pronounced SKEE-mah) is the searchdatabase.com organization or structure for a database. The activity of data modeling leads to a schema. 191 PROGRAMMING text editor A text editor is a computer program that lets a user enter, change, store, and whatis.com usually print text (characters and numbers, each encoded by the computer and its input and output devices, arranged to have meaning to users or to other programs). 192 PROGRAMMING text file In information technology, text is a human-readable sequence of characters and whatis.com the words they form that can be encoded into computer-readable formats such as ASCII. Text is usually distinguished from non-character encoded data, such as graphic images in the form of bitmaps and program code, which is sometimes referred to as being in "binary" (but is actually in its own computer-readable format). 193 PROGRAMMING Unix Unix (often spelled "UNIX," especially as an official trademark) is an operating searchEnterpriseLinux.com system that originated at Bell Labs in 1969 as an interactive time-sharing system. Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie are considered the inventors of Unix. The name (pronounced YEW-nihks) was a pun based on an earlier system, Multics. In 1974, Unix became the first operating system written in the C language. Unix has evolved as a kind of large freeware product, with many extensions and new ideas provided in a variety of versions of Unix by different companies, universities, and individuals. 194 PROGRAMMING windows Windows is a personal computer operating system from Microsoft that, together searchwin2000.com with some commonly used business applications such as Microsoft Word and Excel, has become a de facto "standard" for individual users in most corporations as well as in most homes. 195 PROGRAMMING XBRL XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language) is an XML-based language searchwebservices.com being developed specifically for the automation of business information requirements, such as the preparation, sharing, and analysis of financial reports, statements, and audit schedules. 196 PROGRAMMING XML XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a flexible way to create common searchwebservices.com information formats and share both the format and the data on the world wide web, intranets, and elsewhere. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 197 SOFTWARE CD-ROM CD-ROM (Compact Disc, read-only-memory) is an adaptation of the CD that is whatis.com designed to store computer data in the form of text and graphics, as well as hi-fi stereo sound. 198 SOFTWARE EDGAR EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval) is the software used ACC 655 by companies to file documents electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission. 199 SOFTWARE public domain software Programs that are uncopyrighted because their authors intended to share them whatis.com with everyone else are in the public domain. The UNIX community has developed a number of such programs over the years. Programs in the public domain can be used without restriction as components of other programs. When reusing such code, it is good to understand its history so that you can be sure it really is in the public domain. 200 SOFTWARE shareware Shareware is software that is distributed free on a trial basis with the searchVB.com understanding that the user may need or want to pay for it later. Some software developers offer a shareware version of their program with a built-in expiration date (after 30 days, the user can no longer get access to the program). 201 SOFTWARE Software Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate searchwebservices.com computers and related devices. Software can be thought of as the variable part of a computer. Software is often divided into application software (programs that do work users are directly interested in) and system software (which includes operating systems and any program that supports application software). 202 TELECOM / WIRELESS analog signals In telecommunications, an analog signal is one in which a base carrier's whatis.com COMMUNICATION alternating current frequency is modified in some way, such as by amplifying the strength of the signal or varying the frequency, in order to add information to the signal. Broadcast and telephone transmission have conventionally used analog technology. 203 TELECOM / WIRELESS Bandwidth Bandwidth has a general meaning of how much information can be carried in a searchnetworking.com COMMUNICATION given time period (usually a second) over a wired or wireless communications link. 204 TELECOM / WIRELESS Bluetooth Bluetooth is a telecommunications industry specification that describes how searchmobilecomputing.com COMMUNICATION mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can be easily interconnected using a short-range wireless connection. 205 TELECOM / WIRELESS Broadband In general, broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of searchnetworking.com COMMUNICATION frequencies is available to transmit information. 206 TELECOM / WIRELESS dedicated line A dedicated line is a telecommunications path between two points that is searchnetworking.com COMMUNICATION available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (individual or company). It is not shared in common among multiple users as dial-up lines are. A dedicated line can be a physical path owned by the user or rented from a telephone company, in which case it is called a leased line. A synonym is nonswitched line (as opposed to a switched or dial-up line). 207 TELECOM / WIRELESS dial-up Dial-up (sometimes called "switched" lines) pertains to a telephone connection in searchnetworking.com COMMUNICATION a system of many lines shared by many users. A dial-up connection is established and maintained for a limited time duration. The alternative is a dedicated connection, which is continuously in place. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 208 TELECOM / WIRELESS digital Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes whatis.com COMMUNICATION data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive. Positive is expressed or represented by the number 1 and non-positive by the number 0. Thus, data transmitted or stored with digital technology is expressed as a string of 0's and 1's. Each of these state digits is referred to as a bit (and a string of bits that a computer can address individually as a group is a byte). 209 TELECOM / WIRELESS Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth searchnetworking.com COMMUNICATION information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines. 210 TELECOM / WIRELESS Distance learning (E-learning) Distance learning, sometimes called e-learning, is a formalized teaching and COMMUNICATION learning system specifically designed to be carried out remotely by using electronic communication. 211 TELECOM / WIRELESS modem A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital searchmobilecomputing.com COMMUNICATION device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device. 212 TELECOM / WIRELESS Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Personal digital assistant (PDA) is a term for any small mobile hand-held device searchmobilecomputing.com COMMUNICATION that provides computing and information storage and retrieval capabilities for personal or business use, often for keeping schedule calendars and address book information handy. 213 TELECOM / WIRELESS twisted pair telephone lines Twisted pair is the ordinary copper wire that connects home and many business searchnetworking.com COMMUNICATION computers to the telephone company. To reduce crosstalk or electromagnetic induction between pairs of wires, two insulated copper wires are twisted around each other. Each connection on twisted pair requires both wires. Since some telephone sets or desktop locations require multiple connections, twisted pair is sometimes installed in two or more pairs, all within a single cable. For some business locations, twisted pair is enclosed in a shield that functions as a ground. This is known as shielded twisted pair (STP). Ordinary wire to the home is unshielded twisted pair (UTP). 214 TELECOM / WIRELESS wireless Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which searchmobilecomputing.com COMMUNICATION electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal over part or all of the communication path. 215 WEB Automated agent See "bot" 216 WEB Bot A bot (short for "robot") is a program that operates as an agent for a user or searchwebservices.com another program or simulates a human activity. On the Internet, the most ubiquitous bots are the programs, also called spiders or crawlers, that access Web sites and gather their content for search engine indexes. 217 WEB Cookies A cookie is information that a Web site puts on your hard disk so that it can searchsecurity.com remember something about you at a later time. (More technically, it is information for future use that is stored by the server on the client side of a client/server communication.) 218 WEB crawler See "bot" INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 219 WEB Directory On the World Wide Web, a directory is a subject guide, typically organized by searchwebservices.com major topics and subtopics. The best-known directory is the one at Yahoo (http://www.yahoo.com). Many other sites now use a Yahoo-like directory including major portal sites. 220 WEB Domain name (DNS also) A domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. (In the searchwebservices.com / internet address www.bgsu.edu, "bgsu" is the domain name.) The domain name searchnetworking.com system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are located and translated into internet protocol (IP) addresses. 221 WEB Domain Name System (DNS) The domain name system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are searchnetworking.com located and translated into Internet Protocol addresses. A domain name is a meaningful and easy-to-remember "handle" for an Internet address. 222 WEB FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP), a standard Internet protocol, is the simplest way to searchnetworking.com exchange files between computers on the Internet. Like the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which transfers displayable Web pages and related files, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers e-mail, FTP is an application protocol that uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from their creator to the computer that acts as their server for everyone on the Internet. 223 WEB GIF The GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is one of the two most common file searchwebservices.com formats for graphic images on the World Wide Web. The other is the JPEG. 224 WEB hit A hit is a single file request in the access log of a Web server. A request for an searchcio.com HTML page with three graphic images will result in four hits in the log: one for the HTML text file and one for each of the graphic image files. While a hit is a meaningful measure of how much traffic a server handles, it can be a misleading indicator of how many pages are being looked at. Instead, advertising agencies and their clients look at the number of pages delivered and ad impressions or views. 225 WEB home page For a Web user, the home page is the first Web page that is displayed after searchwebservices.com starting a Web browser like Netscape's Navigator or Microsoft's Internet Explorer. 226 WEB HTTP HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the set of rules for transferring files (text, searchwebservices.com graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the world wide web. 227 WEB HTTPS HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over searchsecurity.com SSL) is a Web protocol developed by Netscape and built into its browser that encrypts and decrypts user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by the Web server. 228 WEB Hyperlink On the Web or other hypertext systems, hyperlink is a synonym for both link and searchwebservices.com hypertext link. 229 WEB ICANN ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is the private searchwebservices.com (non-government) non-profit corporation with responsibility for IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root-server system management functions. INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 230 WEB IP Address In the most widely installed level of the Internet Protocol (IP) today, an IP searchwebservices.com address is a 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packets across the Internet. When you request an HTML page or send e-mail, the Internet Protocol part of TCP/IP includes your IP address in the message (actually, in each of the packets if more than one is required) and sends it to the IP address that is obtained by looking up the domain name in the Uniform Resource Locator you requested or in the e-mail address you're sending a note to. At the other end, the recipient can see the IP address of the Web page requestor or the e-mail sender and can respond by sending another message using the IP address it received. 231 WEB JPEG JPEG (usually pronounced JAY-pehg) is also a term for any graphic image file searchwebservices.com produced by using a JPEG standard. 232 WEB Protocol In information technology, a protocol is the special set of rules that end points in Searchnetworking.com a telecommunication connection use when they communicate. 233 WEB Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a commonly-used protocol for managing the searchsecurity.com security of a message transmission on the Internet. SSL has recently been succeeded by Transport Layer Security (TLS), which is based on SSL. 234 WEB spider See "bot" 235 WEB TCP/IP TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic searchnetworking.com communication language or protocol of the Internet. 236 WEB Transport Layer Security (TLS) Transport Layer Security (TLS) is a protocol that ensures privacy between searchsecurity.com communicating applications and their users on the Internet. When a server and client communicate, TLS ensures that no third party may eavesdrop or tamper with any message. TLS is the successor to the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). 237 WEB URL A URL (Uniform Resource Locator, previously Universal Resource Locator) - Searchnetworking.com usually pronounced by sounding out each letter but, in some quarters, pronounced "Earl" - is the unique address for a file that is accessible on the Internet. 238 WEB W3C The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) exists to realize the full potential of the searchwebservices.com Web. The W3C is an industry consortium which seeks to promote standards for the evolution of the Web and interoperability between WWW products by producing specifications and reference software. 239 WEB Web browser A browser is an application program that provides a way to look at and interact webservices.com with all the information on the World Wide Web. The word "browser" seems to have originated prior to the Web as a generic term for user interfaces that let you browse (navigate through and read) text files online. Common browsers include Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape's Navigator. 240 WEB web bug A Web bug, also known as a Web beacon, is a file object (usually a graphic searchwebservices.com image such as a transparent GIF) that is placed on a Web page or in an e-mail message to monitor user behavior, functioning as a kind of spyware. 241 WEB Web server A web server is a program that, using the client-server model and HTTP, serves searchwebservices.com the files that form web pages to web users (whose computers contain HTTP clients that forward their requests). INFORMATION SYSTEMS VOCABULARY Dr. McKinney April 2004 No. CATEGORY TERM DEFINITION SOURCE 242 WEB Web-based application A web-based application is a truly changed software that is designed to take ACC 655 advantage of web interface and capabilities. 243 WEB Web-enabled application A web-enabled application is an improved version of application software that ACC 655 works with web browsers in some way. 244 WEB World Wide Web (WWW or W3) A technical definition of the World Wide Web is: all the resources and users on searchCRM.com the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). According to Tim Berners-Lee, co-founder of the W3C, "The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information, an embodiment of human knowledge."
Pages to are hidden for
"vocab"Please download to view full document