vocab by huangyuarong


									                                                      INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                               Dr. McKinney
                                                                April 2004

No. CATEGORY           TERM                                                                           DEFINITION                                           SOURCE

1    DATA MANAGEMENT   archive / archiving                          An archive is a collection of computer files that have been packaged together for      searchdatabase.com
                                                                    backup, to transport to some other location, for saving away from the computer
                                                                    so that more hard disk storage can be made available, or for some other
                                                                    purpose. An archive can include a simple list of files or files organized under a
                                                                    directory or catalog structure (depending on how a particular program supports
2    DATA MANAGEMENT   catalog                                      In computing, a catalog is a directory of information about data sets, files, or a     searchdatabase.com
                                                                    database. A catalog usually describes where a data set, file or database entity is
                                                                    located and may also include other information, such as the type of device on
                                                                    which each data set or file is stored.
3    DATA MANAGEMENT   data                                         In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is         searchstorage.com
                                                                    more convenient to move or process. Relative to today's computers and
                                                                    transmission media, data is information converted into binary digital form.
4    DATA MANAGEMENT   data dictionary                              A data dictionary is a collection of descriptions of the data objects or items in a    searchdatabase.com
                                                                    data model for the benefit of programmers and others who need to refer to them.

5    DATA MANAGEMENT   data integrity                               Integrity, in terms of data and network security, is the assurance that information    searchdatabase.com
                                                                    can only be accessed or modified by those authorized to do so. Measures taken
                                                                    to ensure integrity include controlling the physical environment of networked
                                                                    terminals and servers, restricting access to data, and maintaining rigorous
                                                                    authentication practices.
6    DATA MANAGEMENT   data mart                                    A data mart is a repository of data gathered from operational data and other           searchdatabase.com
                                                                    sources that is designed to serve a particular community of knowledge workers.

7    DATA MANAGEMENT   data mining                                  Data mining is sorting through data to identify patterns and establish                 searchCRM.com
                                                                    relationships. Data mining parameters include: 1) Association - looking for
                                                                    patterns where one event is connected to another event 2) Sequence or path
                                                                    analysis - looking for patterns where one event leads to another later event 3)
                                                                    Classification - looking for new patterns (May result in a change in the way the
                                                                    data is organized but that's ok) 4) Clustering - finding and visually documenting
                                                                    groups of facts not previously known and 5) Forecasting - discovering patterns in
                                                                    data that can lead to reasonable predictions about the future.

8    DATA MANAGEMENT   data modeling                                Data modeling is the analysis of data objects that are used in a business or other     searchdatabase.com
                                                                    context and the identification of the relationships among these data objects.

9    DATA MANAGEMENT   data scrubbing                               Data scrubbing, also called data cleansing, is the process of amending or              searchdatabase.com
                                                                    removing data in a database that is incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted,
                                                                    or duplicated.
10   DATA MANAGEMENT   data warehouse                               A data warehouse is a central repository for all or significant parts of the data      searchdatabase.com
                                                                    that an enterprise's various business systems collect.
11   DATA MANAGEMENT   database (see also "distributed database")   A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be   searchdatabase.com
                                                                    accessed, managed, and updated.
                                                    INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                               Dr. McKinney
                                                                April 2004

No. CATEGORY           TERM                                                                          DEFINITION                                          SOURCE
12   DATA MANAGEMENT   distributed database                        A distributed database is a database in which portions of the database are stored     searchdatabase.com
                                                                   on multiple computers within a network.
13   DATA MANAGEMENT   field                                       A field is an area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record,   searchdatabase.com
                                                                   message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed
                                                                   size. In some contexts, a field can be subdivided into smaller fields.

14   DATA MANAGEMENT   file                                        In data processing, using an office metaphor, a file is a related collection of       searchexchange.com
                                                                   records. For example, you might put the records you have on each of your
                                                                   customers in a file.
15   DATA MANAGEMENT   knowledge warehouse (data repository)       A knowledge warehouse is the component of an enterprise's knowledge                   searchSAP.com
                                                                   management system where knowledge is developed, stored, organized,
                                                                   processed, and disseminated. (A knowledge warehouse can also be called a
                                                                   data repository.)
16   DATA MANAGEMENT   multidimensional database                   A multidimensional database (MDB) is a type of database that is optimized for         searchdatabase.com
                                                                   data warehouse and online analytical processing (OLAP) applications.
                                                                   Multidimensional databases are frequently created using input from existing
                                                                   relational databases.
17   DATA MANAGEMENT   object-oriented database management         An object-oriented database management system (OODBMS), sometimes                     searchdatabase.com
                       system                                      shortened to ODBMS for object database management system ), is a database
                                                                   management system (DBMS) that supports the modeling and creation of data as
                                                                   objects. This includes some kind of support for classes of objects and the
                                                                   inheritance of class properties and methods by subclasses and their objects.

18   DATA MANAGEMENT   raw data                                    Raw data (sometimes called source data or atomic data) is data that has not           searchcio.com
                                                                   been processed for use. A distinction is sometimes made between data and
                                                                   information to the effect that information is the end product of data processing.
                                                                   Raw data that has undergone processing is sometimes referred to as cooked
                                                                   data .
19   DATA MANAGEMENT   record                                      In computer data processing, a record is a collection of data items arranged for      searchdatabase.com
                                                                   processing by a program. Multiple records are contained in a file or data set.

20   DATA MANAGEMENT   redundancy                                  Redundant describes 1) computer or network system components, such as fans,           searchstorage.com
                                                                   hard disk drives, servers, operating systems, switches, and telecommunication
                                                                   links that are installed to back up primary resources in case they fail. A well-
                                                                   known example of a redundant system is the redundant array of independent
                                                                   disks (redundant array of independent disks), 2) unneeded or duplicated
                                                                   information, or 3) extra binary digits that are generated and transferred along
                                                                   with a data transfer to ensure that no bits were lost during the data transfer.

21   DATA MANAGEMENT   relational database                         A relational database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally-   searchdatabase.com
                                                                   described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many
                                                                   different ways without having to reorganize the database tables.
                                                     INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                            Dr. McKinney
                                                             April 2004

No. CATEGORY           TERM                                                                      DEFINITION                                         SOURCE
22   DATA MANAGEMENT   Structured Query Language (SQL)          SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard interactive and programming           searchdatabase.com
                                                                language for getting information from and updating a database. Although SQL is
                                                                both an ANSI and an ISO standard, many database products support SQL with
                                                                proprietary extensions to the standard language.

23   DATA MANAGEMENT   virtual memory system                    Virtual (or logical) memory is a concept that, when implemented by a computer       searchstorage.com
                                                                and its operating system, allows programmers to use a very large range of
                                                                memory or storage addresses for stored data. The computing system maps the
                                                                programmer's virtual addresses to real hardware storage addresses. Usually, the
                                                                programmer is freed from having to be concerned about the availability of data
24   DATA MANAGEMENT   web mining                               Web mining, a type of data mining used in customer relationship management          searchCRM.com
                                                                (CRM), takes advantage of the huge amount of information gathered by a Web
                                                                site to look for patterns in user behavior.
25   E-BUSINESS        "New economy"                            The "new economy" refers to the electronic method by which companies conduct        ACC 655
                                                                business, such as via the internet.
26   E-BUSINESS        ACH                                      Automated Clearing House (ACH) is a secure payment transfer system that             searchsecurity.com
                                                                connects all U.S. financial institutions. The ACH network acts as the central
                                                                clearing facility for all Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT) transactions that occur
                                                                nationwide, representing a crucial link in the national banking system.
27   E-BUSINESS        aggregation                              An aggregation is an e-business model in which the main value is selection and      Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt
                                                                convenience (e.g. Amazon.com).
28   E-BUSINESS        agora                                    An agora is an e-business model characterized as a marketplace, like e-Bay,         Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt
                                                                where buyers and sellers come together to execute transactions. The main
                                                                theme of agoras is dynamic pricing.
29   E-BUSINESS        alliance                                 An alliance is an e-business model characterized as a creative, collaborative       Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt
                                                                enterprise involving consumers who are also producers. Alliance members work
                                                                together to achieve a common goal.
30   E-BUSINESS        Application Service Provider (ASP)       An application service provider (ASP) is a company that offers individuals or       searchwebservices.com
                                                                enterprises access over the Internet to applications and related services that
                                                                would otherwise have to be located in their own personal or enterprise
31   E-BUSINESS        B2B                                      On the Internet, B2B (business-to-business), also known as e-biz, is the            searchCIO.com
                                                                exchange of products, services, or information between businesses rather than
                                                                between businesses and consumers.
32   E-BUSINESS        B2C                                      B2C is short for business-to-consumer , or the retailing part of e-commerce on      searchCIO.com
                                                                the Internet. It is often contrasted to B2B or business-to-business.
33   E-BUSINESS        Banner ad                                Depending on how it's used, a banner is either a graphic image that announces       searchwebservices.com
                                                                the name or identity of a site (and often is spread across the width of the Web
                                                                page) or is an advertising image. Advertisers sometimes count banner "views,"
                                                                or the number of times a banner graphic image was downloaded over a period of
34   E-BUSINESS        brick and mortar                         This phrase refers to the traditional physical location of a business (a store).    ACC 655
35   E-BUSINESS        C2C                                      A subset of the B2C category, C2C allows individuals to buy and sell items in the   Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt
                                                    INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                            Dr. McKinney
                                                             April 2004

No. CATEGORY      TERM                                                                            DEFINITION                                           SOURCE
36   E-BUSINESS   clicks and mortar                             This phrase refers to a business whose business model uses a combination of            ACC 655
                                                                both an online and a physical presence.
37   E-BUSINESS   content aggregator                            A content aggregator is an individual or organization that gathers Web content         searchwebservices.com
                                                                (and/or sometimes applications) from different online sources for reuse or resale.
                                                                There are two kinds of content aggregators: (1) those who simply gather material
                                                                from various sources for their Web sites, and (2) those who gather and distribute
                                                                content to suit their customer's needs.
38   E-BUSINESS   content provider                              Any firm that provides information on the web.                                         Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt
39   E-BUSINESS   cryptography                                  Cryptography is the science of information security. The word is derived from the      searchsecurity.com
                                                                Greek kryptos , meaning hidden.
40   E-BUSINESS   Digital wallet                                A wallet is a small software program used for online purchase transactions.            searchcio.com
                                                                Many payment solution companies, such as CyberCase, offer free Wallet
                                                                software that allows several methods of payment to be defined within the wallet
                                                                (for example, several different credit cards).
41   E-BUSINESS   Disruptive technology                         In the "new economy" of e-business, a disruptive technology is a technology that       ACC 655
                                                                arises from innovation and replaces an existing technology by providing a better
                                                                value to the consumer.
42   E-BUSINESS   Distributive network                          In the context of e-business, a distributive network performs the role of allocating   Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt
                                                                and distributing, rather than producing or consuming goods, services, and
                                                                information (e.g. UPS).
43   E-BUSINESS   e-Business                                    E-business (electronic business), derived from such terms as "e-mail" and "e-          searchCIO.com
                                                                commerce," is the conduct of business on the Internet, not only buying and
                                                                selling but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners.

44   E-BUSINESS   e-Commerce                                    E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and          searchCIO.com
                                                                services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term
                                                                and a newer term, e-business, are often used interchangeably. For online retail
                                                                selling, the term e-tailing is sometimes used.

45   E-BUSINESS   Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment       On the Internet, electronic bill presentment and payment (EBPP) is a process           searchcio.com
                  (EBPP)                                        that enables bills to be created, delivered, and paid over the Internet.

46   E-BUSINESS   electronic data interchange (EDI)             Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is a standard format for exchanging business         searchcio.com
47   E-BUSINESS   electronic funds transfer (EFT)               Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) is a system of transferring money from one             searchwin2000.com
                                                                bank account directly to another without any paper money changing hands. One
                                                                of the most widely-used EFT programs is Direct Deposit, in which payroll is
                                                                deposited straight into an employee's bank account, although EFT refers to any
                                                                transfer of funds initiated through an electronic terminal, including credit card,
                                                                ATM, Fedwire and point-of-sale (POS) transactions. It is used for both credit
                                                                transfers, such as payroll payments, and for debit transfers, such as mortgage
48   E-BUSINESS   Electronic Payment                            See Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment (EBPP)
                                                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                             Dr. McKinney
                                                              April 2004

No. CATEGORY      TERM                                                                              DEFINITION                                            SOURCE
49   E-BUSINESS   encryption                                     Encryption is the conversion of data into a form, called a ciphertext, that cannot       searchsecurity.com
                                                                 be easily understood by unauthorized people. Decryption is the process of
                                                                 converting encrypted data back into its original form, so it can be understood.

50   E-BUSINESS   Enterprise Resource Planning System            ERP (Enterprise resource planning) is an industry term for the broad set of              searchSAP.com
                  (ERP)                                          activities supported by multi-module application software that helps a
                                                                 manufacturer or other business manage the important parts of its business,
                                                                 including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting
                                                                 with suppliers, providing customer service, and tracking orders.
51   E-BUSINESS   e-tailing                                      E-tailing (less frequently: etailing ) is the selling of retail goods on the Internet.   searchCIO.com
                                                                 Short for "electronic retailing," and used in Internet discussions as early as 1995,
                                                                 the term seems an almost inevitable addition to e-mail, e-business, and e-
                                                                 commerce. E-tailing is synonymous with business-to-consumer (B2C)
52   E-BUSINESS   Hosting (web hosting / web site hosting)       Web hosting (also known as Webhosting, Web site hosting, and hosting) is the             searchwebservices.com
                                                                 business of housing, serving, and maintaining files for one or more web sites.

53   E-BUSINESS   infomediary                                    An infomediary is a website that provides specialized information on behalf of           searchwebservices.com
                                                                 producers of goods and services and their potential customers. The term is a
                                                                 composite of information and intermediary .
54   E-BUSINESS   intermediary                                   In general, an intermediary is a person or service that is involved as a third party     searchwebservices.com
                                                                 between two or more end points in a communication or transaction. On the
                                                                 World Wide Web, the role of an intermediary is sometimes said to be no longer
55   E-BUSINESS   internet commerce provider (ICP)               An ICP (Internet commerce provider) is a company that sells software and                 searchwebservices.com
                                                                 services that enable a merchant with a Web site to build an online store on the
                                                                 merchant's own site or on the provider's site.
56   E-BUSINESS   micropayment                                   On the Web, micropayment is a business concept whose goal is to generate                 searchcio.com
                                                                 revenue by offering pay-per-view Web pages, Web links, or Web services for
                                                                 small amounts of money called "microcents". Since it is not practical for
                                                                 individual users to charge small amounts of money (such as a penny or a
                                                                 fraction of a penny) to a major charge card, a different method of payment is
                                                                 needed for sites that wish to go "micro".
57   E-BUSINESS   mobile commerce (m-commerce)                   M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services             searchmobilecomputing.com
                                                                 through wireless handheld devices such as cellular telephone and personal
                                                                 digital assistants (PDAs). Known as next-generation e-commerce, m-commerce
                                                                 enables users to access the Internet without needing to find a place to plug in.

58   E-BUSINESS   Network effect                                 A network effect (or positive network effect) refers to a condition in which a           ACC 655
                                                                 technology increases in value as more people use it (e.g. e-mail).
59   E-BUSINESS   Pop-up ad                                      A pop-up ad is a pop-up window used for advertising. When the program is                 whatis.com
                                                                 initiated by some user action, such as a mouse click or a mouseover, a window
                                                                 containing an offer for some product or service appears in the foreground of the
                                                                 visual interface.
                                                INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                     Dr. McKinney
                                                      April 2004

No. CATEGORY      TERM                                                                     DEFINITION                                          SOURCE
60   E-BUSINESS   portal                                 Portal is a term, generally synonymous with gateway , for a World Wide Web            whatis.com
                                                         site that is or proposes to be a major starting site for users when they get
                                                         connected to the Web or that users tend to visit as an anchor site. There are
                                                         general portals and specialized or niche portals. Some major general portals
                                                         include Yahoo, Excite, Netscape, Lycos, CNET, Microsoft Network, and America
                                                         Online's AOL.com.
61   E-BUSINESS   private key                            In cryptography, a private or secret key is an encryption/decryption key known        searchsecurity.com
                                                         only to the party or parties that exchange secret messages.
62   E-BUSINESS   public key                             In cryptography, a public key is a value provided by some designated authority        searchsecurity.com
                                                         as an encryption key that, combined with a private key derived from the public
                                                         key, can be used to effectively encrypt messages and digital signatures.

63   E-BUSINESS   pure play                              An internet pure play is a company whose business model is designed to                ACC 655
                                                         generate all customer transactions online (no physical presence).
64   E-BUSINESS   Smart card                             A smart card is a plastic card about the size of a credit card, with an embedded      searchsecurity.com
                                                         microchip that can be loaded with data, used for telephone calling, electronic
                                                         cash payments, and other applications, and then periodically refreshed for
                                                         additional use.
65   E-BUSINESS   stored account payment system          A stored account payment system is an electronic payment process which is             Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt
                                                         executed by means of a check, credit card, debit card, or the like.
66   E-BUSINESS   stored value payment system            A stored value payment system is an electronic payment process which is               Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt
                                                         executed by means of a defined-value exchange medium such as cash or
                                                         certain e-cash technologies (digital tokens or coins).
67   E-BUSINESS   storefront                             A storefront refers to the appearance of the home page of a business on its web       ACC 655
68   E-BUSINESS   Sustaining technology                  In the "new economy" of e-business, a sustaining technology is a technology that      ACC 655
                                                         enhances an existing technology by providing improved features.
69   E-BUSINESS   Value chain                            A value chain is an e-business model that is characterized by vertically              Glover, Liddle, and Prawitt
                                                         integrated processes that add significant value to raw material inputs (e.g. Dell
70   E-BUSINESS   value-added network                    A value-added network (VAN) is a private network provider (sometimes called a         searchnetworking.com
                                                         turnkey communications line) that is hired by a company to facilitate electronic
                                                         data interchange (EDI) or provide other network services. Before the arrival of
                                                         the World Wide Web, some companies hired value-added networks to move
                                                         data from their company to other companies. With the arrival of the World Wide
                                                         Web, many companies found it more cost-efficient to move their data over the
                                                         Internet instead of paying the minimum monthly fees and per-character charges
                                                         found in typical VAN contracts.
71   E-BUSINESS   Virtual hosting                        On the Internet, virtual hosting is the provision of Web server hosting services so   searchwebservices.com
                                                         that a company (or individual) doesn't have to purchase and maintain its own
                                                         Web server and connections to the Internet. A virtual hosting provider is
                                                         sometimes called a Web or Internet "space provider."
                                                  INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                       Dr. McKinney
                                                        April 2004

No. CATEGORY      TERM                                                                       DEFINITION                                           SOURCE
72   E-BUSINESS   virtual private network (VPN)            A virtual private network (VPN) is a way to use a public telecommunication             searchnetworking.com
                                                           infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users
                                                           with secure access to their organization's network. A virtual private network can
                                                           be contrasted with an expensive system of owned or leased lines that can only
                                                           be used by one organization. The goal of a VPN is to provide the organization
                                                           with the same capabilities, but at a much lower cost.

73   GENERAL      aggregator                               an aggregator is any device that serves multiple other devices or users either         searchnetworking.com
                                                           with its own capabilities or by forwarding transmissions in a more concentrated
                                                           and economical way. A remote access hub is sometimes referred to as an
74   GENERAL      authentication                           Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or something is,          searchsecurity.com
                                                           in fact, who or what it is declared to be. In private and public computer networks
                                                           (including the Internet), authentication is commonly done through the use of
                                                           logon passwords.
75   GENERAL      bit                                      A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer.             whatis.com
76   GENERAL      bitmap                                   A bit map (often spelled "bitmap") defines a display space and the color for each      whatis.com
                                                           pixel or "bit" in the display space. A Graphics Interchange Format and a JPEG
                                                           are examples of graphic image file types that contain bit maps.
77   GENERAL      boot                                     To boot (also "to boot up") a computer is to load an operating system into the         searchwin2000.com
                                                           computer's main memory or random access memory (RAM). Once the operating
                                                           system is loaded (and, for example, on a PC, you see the initial Windows or Mac
                                                           desktop screen), it's ready for users to run applications.
78   GENERAL      byte                                     In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long.   whatis.com
                                                           A byte is the unit most computers use to represent a character such as a letter,
                                                           number, or typographic symbol (for example, "g", "5", or "?").
79   GENERAL      CPU                                      CPU (central processing unit) is an older term for processor and microprocessor,       whatis.com
                                                           the central unit in a computer containing the logic circuitry that performs the
                                                           instructions of a computer's programs.
80   GENERAL      download                                 Downloading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another,         searchnetworking.com
                                                           usually smaller computer system. From the Internet user's point-of-view, to
                                                           download a file is to request it from another computer (or from a Web page on
                                                           another computer) and to receive it.
81   GENERAL      downtime                                 Downtime is a computer industry term for the time during which a computer is           whatis.com
                                                           not operational.
82   GENERAL      dynamic                                  In computer terminology, dynamic usually means capable of action and/or                searchnetworking.com
                                                           change. This term can be applied to a number of different types of things, such
                                                           as programming languages (or components of programming languages), Web
                                                           pages, and application programs.
83   GENERAL      email                                    E-mail (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by                searchmobilecomputing.com
84   GENERAL      End user                                 In information technology, the term end user is used to distinguish the person for     whatis.com
                                                           whom a hardware or software product is designed from the developers,
                                                           installers, and servicers of the product.
                                          INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                               Dr. McKinney
                                                April 2004

No. CATEGORY   TERM                                                                   DEFINITION                                             SOURCE
85   GENERAL   flat file                           A flat file is a file containing records that have no structured interrelationship. The   searchdatabase.com
                                                   term is frequently used to describe a textual document from which all word
                                                   processing or other structure characters or markup have been removed.

86   GENERAL   floppy disk                         A diskette is a random access, removable data storage medium that can be                  searchstorage.com
                                                   used with personal computers. The term usually refers to the magnetic medium
                                                   housed in a rigid plastic cartridge measuring 3.5 inches square and about 2
                                                   millimeters thick. Also called a "3.5-inch diskette," it can store up to 1.44
                                                   megabytes (MB) of data.
87   GENERAL   graphical user interface            A GUI (usually pronounced GOO-ee) is a graphical (rather than purely textual)             searchwebservices.com
                                                   user interface to a computer. As you look at your computer screen, you see the
                                                   GUI of your particular web browser.
88   GENERAL   groupware                           Groupware refers to programs that help people work together collectively while            searchDomino.com
                                                   located remotely from each other. Groupware services can include the sharing of
                                                   calendars, collective writing, e-mail handling, shared database access, electronic
                                                   meetings with each person able to see and display information to others, and
                                                   other activities. Some product examples of groupware include Lotus Notes and
                                                   Microsoft Exchange.
89   GENERAL   information technology              On the Web or other hypertext systems, hyperlink is a synonym for both link and           search390.com
                                                   hypertext link.
90   GENERAL   interface                           As a noun, an interface is either: 1) A user interface, consisting of the set of          whatis.com
                                                   dials, knobs, operating system commands, graphical display formats, and other
                                                   devices provided by a computer or a program to allow the user to communicate
                                                   and use the computer or program, 2) A programming interface, consisting of the
                                                   set of statements, functions, options, and other ways of expressing program
                                                   instructions and data provided by a program or language for a programmer to
                                                   use, or 3) the physical and logical arrangement supporting the attachment of any
                                                   device to a connector or to another device. As a verb, to interface means to
                                                   communicate with another person or object. With hardware equipment, to
                                                   interface means making an appropriate physical connection so that two pieces of
                                                   equipment can communicate or work together effectively.

91   GENERAL   legacy application                  In information technology, legacy applications and data are those that have been          search390.com
                                                   inherited from languages, platforms, and techniques earlier than current
92   GENERAL   logon                               In general computer usage, logon is the procedure used to get access to an                searchsecurity.com
                                                   operating system or application, usually in a remote computer. Almost always a
                                                   logon requires that the user have (1) a user ID and (2) a password.
93   GENERAL   machine code                        Machine code is the elemental language of computers, consisting of a stream of            whatis.com
                                                   0's and 1's. Ultimately, the output of any programming language analysis and
                                                   processing is machine code.
                                INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                     Dr. McKinney
                                      April 2004

No. CATEGORY    TERM                                                        DEFINITION                                            SOURCE
94    GENERAL   migration                In information technology, migration is the process of moving from the use of one        searchcio.com
                                         operating environment to another operating environment that is, in most cases,
                                         is thought to be a better one. For example, moving from Windows NT Server to
                                         Windows 2000 Server would usually be considered a migration because it
                                         involves making sure that new features are exploited, old settings do not require
                                         changing, and taking steps to ensure that current applications continue to work in
                                         the new environment.
95    GENERAL   object code              Source code and object code refer to the "before" and "after" versions of a              searchwebservices.com
                                         computer program that is compiled (see compiler) before it is ready to run in a
96    GENERAL   queue                    In general, a queue is a line of people or things waiting to be handled, usually in      whatis.com
                                         sequential order starting at the beginning or top of the line or sequence. In
                                         computer technology, a queue is a sequence of work objects that are waiting to
                                         be processed.
97    GENERAL   RAM                      RAM (random access memory) is the place in a computer where the operating                searchmobilecomputing.com
                                         system, application programs, and data in current use are kept so that they can
                                         be quickly reached by the computer's processor. RAM is much faster to read
                                         from and write to than the other kinds of storage in a computer, the hard disk,
                                         floppy disk, and CD-ROM. However, the data in RAM stays there only as long as
                                         your computer is running. When you turn the computer off, RAM loses its data.
                                         When you turn your computer on again, your operating system and other files
                                         are once again loaded into RAM, usually from your hard disk.

98    GENERAL   real-time                Real time is a level of computer responsiveness that a user senses as                    whatis.com
                                         sufficiently immediate or that enables the computer to keep up with some
                                         external process (for example, to present visualizations of the weather as it
                                         constantly changes). Real-time is an adjective pertaining to computers or
                                         processes that operate in real time. Real time describes a human rather than a
                                         machine sense of time.
99    GENERAL   ROM                      ROM (read-only memory) is "built-in" computer memory containing data that                whatis.com
                                         normally can only be read, not written to. ROM contains the programming that
                                         allows your computer to be "booted up" or regenerated each time you turn it on.

100   GENERAL   semiconductor            A semiconductor is a substance, usually a solid chemical element or compound,            whatis.com
                                         that can conduct electricity under some conditions but not others, making it a
                                         good medium for the control of electrical current. Its conductance varies
                                         depending on the current or voltage applied to a control electrode, or on the
                                         intensity of irradiation by infrared (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), or X rays.

101   GENERAL   source code              Source code and object code refer to the "before" and "after" versions of a              searchwebservices.com
                                         computer program that is compiled (see compiler) before it is ready to run in a
102   GENERAL   static                   In computer terminology, static means fixed. This term can be applied to a               searchnetworking.com
                                         number of different types of things, such as programming languages (or
                                         components of programming languages), Web pages, and application programs.
                                          INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                               Dr. McKinney
                                                April 2004

No. CATEGORY     TERM                                                                 DEFINITION                                            SOURCE
103   GENERAL    storage                           Computer storage is the holding of data in an electromagnetic form for access by         searchstorage.com
                                                   a computer processor. Primary storage is data in random access memory (RAM)
                                                   and other "built-in" devices. Secondary storage is data on hard disks, tapes, and
                                                   other external devices.
104   GENERAL    upload                            Uploading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another,             derived from "download"
                                                   usually larger computer system. From the Internet user's point-of-view, to upload
                                                   a file is to send it to another computer.
105   GENERAL    user interface                    In information technology, the user interface (UI) is everything designed into an        searchwebservices.com
                                                   information device with which a human being may interact -- including display
                                                   screen, keyboard, mouse, light pen, the appearance of a desktop, illuminated
                                                   characters, help messages, and how an application program or a Web site
                                                   invites interaction and responds to it.
106   GENERAL    virus                             A virus is a piece of programming code usually disguised as something else that          searchsecurity.com
                                                   causes some unexpected and usually undesirable event. A virus is often
                                                   designed so that it is automatically spread to other computer users. Viruses can
                                                   be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail note, as downloads, or be present on
                                                   a diskette or CD.
107   GENERAL    workstation                       A workstation is a computer intended for individual use that is faster and more          searchmobilecomputing.com
                                                   capable than a personal computer. It's intended for business or professional use
                                                   (rather than home or recreational use).
108   HARDWARE   application server                An application server is a server program in a computer in a distributed network         searchdatabase.com
                                                   that provides the business logic for an application program.
109   HARDWARE   black box                         A black box is any device, sometimes highly important, whose workings are not            whatis.com
                                                   understood by or accessible to its user.
110   HARDWARE   Bridge                            In telecommunication networks, a bridge is a product that connects a local area          searchsecurity.com
                                                   network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol (for
                                                   example, Ethernet or Token Ring).
111   HARDWARE   Circuit-switched                  Contrasted with packet-switched is circuit-switched, a type of network such as           searchnetworking.com
                                                   the regular voice telephone network in which the communication circuit (path) for
                                                   the call is set up and dedicated to the participants in that call. For the duration of
                                                   the connection, all resources on that circuit are unavailable for other users. Voice
                                                   calls using the Internet's packet-switched system are possible. Each end of the
                                                   conversation is broken down into packets that are reassembled at the other end.

112   HARDWARE   hard disk (hard drive)            In a personal computer, a hard disk drive (HDD) is the mechanism that controls           searchstorage.com
                                                   the positioning, reading, and writing of the hard disk, which furnishes the largest
                                                   amount of data storage for the PC. Although the hard disk drive (often shortened
                                                   to "hard drive") and the hard disk are not the same thing, they are packaged as a
                                                   unit and so either term is sometimes used to refer to the whole unit.

113   HARDWARE   Hardware                          Hardware is the physical aspect of computers, telecommunications, and other              whatis.com
                                                   information technology devices. The term arose as a way to distinguish the "box"
                                                   and the electronic circuitry and components of a computer from the program you
                                                   put in it to make it do things. Hardware can be thought of as the invariable part
                                                   of the computer.
                                      INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                           Dr. McKinney
                                            April 2004

No. CATEGORY     TERM                                                            DEFINITION                                            SOURCE
114   HARDWARE   Hub                           In data communications, a hub is a place of convergence where data arrives              searchnetworking.com
                                               from one or more directions and is forwarded out in one or more other directions.
                                               A hub usually includes a switch of some kind. (And a product that is called a
                                               "switch" could usually be considered a hub as well.) The distinction seems to be
                                               that the hub is the place where data comes together and the switch is what
                                               determines how and where data is forwarded from the place where data comes
                                               together. Regarded in its switching aspects, a hub can also include a router.

115   HARDWARE   Integrated Circuit            An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a                  whatis.com
                                               semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors,
                                               and transistors are fabricated. An IC can function as an amplifier, oscillator,
                                               timer, counter, computer memory, or microprocessor. A particular IC is
                                               categorized as either linear (analog) or digital, depending on its intended
116   HARDWARE   intelligent device            An intelligent device is any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that has its     whatis.com
                                               own computing capability. As computing technology becomes more advanced
                                               and less expensive, it can be built into an increasing number of devices of all
117   HARDWARE   mainframe                     Mainframe is an industry term for a large computer, typically manufactured by a         search390.com
                                               large company such as IBM for the commercial applications of Fortune 1000
                                               businesses and other large-scale computing purposes. Historically, a mainframe
                                               is associated with centralized rather than distributed computing.
118   HARDWARE   microchip                     A microchip (sometimes just called a "chip") is a unit of packaged computer             whatis.com
                                               circuitry (usually called an integrated circuit) that is manufactured from a material
                                               such as silicon at a very small scale. Microchips are made for program logic
                                               (logic or microprocessor chips) and for computer memory (memory or RAM
                                               chips). Microchips are also made that include both logic and memory and for
                                               special purposes such as analog-to-digital conversion, bit slicing, and gateways.

119   HARDWARE   microprocessor                A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip. It's sometimes called          whatis.com
                                               a logic chip . It is the "engine" that goes into motion when you turn your computer
                                               on. A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that
                                               make use of small number-holding areas called registers .

120   HARDWARE   Middleware                    In the computer industry, middleware is a general term for any programming that         searchwebservices.com
                                               serves to "glue together" or mediate between two separate and often already
                                               existing programs. A common application of middleware is to allow programs
                                               written for access to a particular database to access other databases. The term
                                               middleware is sometimes used to describe programming that mediates between
                                               application and system software or between two different kinds of application
                                               software (for example, sending a remote work request from an application in a
                                               computer that has one kind of operating system to an application in a computer
                                               with a different operating system).
                                                INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                     Dr. McKinney
                                                      April 2004

No. CATEGORY     TERM                                                                      DEFINITION                                           SOURCE
121   HARDWARE   mouse                                   A mouse is a small device that a computer user pushes across a desk surface in         searchexchange.com
                                                         order to point to a place on a display screen and to select one or more actions to
                                                         take from that position.
122   HARDWARE   network                                 In information technology, a network is a series of points or nodes                    searchnetworking.com
                                                         interconnected by communication paths. Networks can interconnect with other
                                                         networks and contain subnetworks.
123   HARDWARE   Network Interface Card (NIC)            A network interface card (NIC) is a computer circuit board or card that is installed   searchnetworking.com
                                                         in a computer so that it can be connected to a network. Personal computers and
                                                         workstations on a local area network (LAN) typically contain a network interface
                                                         card specifically designed for the LAN transmission technology, such as Ethernet
                                                         or Token Ring.
124   HARDWARE   Node                                    In a network, a node is a connection point, either a redistribution point or an end    searchnetworking.com
                                                         point for data transmissions.
125   HARDWARE   Packet                                  A packet is the unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on     searchnetworking.com
                                                         the Internet or any other packet-switched network. When any file (e-mail
                                                         message, HTML file, Graphics Interchange Format file, Uniform Resource
                                                         Locator request, and so forth) is sent from one place to another on the Internet,
                                                         the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer of TCP/IP divides the file into
                                                         "chunks" of an efficient size for routing. Each of these packets is separately
                                                         numbered and includes the Internet address of the destination.
126   HARDWARE   Packet-switched                         Packet-switched describes the type of network in which relatively small units of       searchnetworking.com
                                                         data called are routed through a network based on the destination address
                                                         contained within each packet. Breaking communication down into packets allows
                                                         the same data path to be shared among many users in the network. This type of
                                                         communication between sender and receiver is known as connectionless (rather
                                                         than dedicated ). Most traffic over the Internet uses packet switching and the
                                                         Internet is basically a connectionless network.
127   HARDWARE   Router                                  In packet-switched networks such as the Internet, a router is a device or, in some     searchnetworking.com
                                                         cases, software in a computer, that determines the next network point to which a
                                                         packet should be forwarded toward its destination. The router is connected to at
                                                         least two networks and decides which way to send each information packet
                                                         based on its current understanding of the state of the networks it is connected to.

128   HARDWARE   Secondary Storage                       Secondary storage is all addressable data storage that is not currently in the         searchstorage.com
                                                         computer's main storage or memory. Synonyms are external storage and
                                                         auxiliary storage.
129   HARDWARE   server                                  In information technology, a server is a computer program that provides services       searchwin2000.com
                                                         to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers.
                                                         The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a
                                                         server (though it may be used for other purposes as well).
130   HARDWARE   server farm                             A server farm is a group of computers acting as servers and housed together in         whatis.com
                                                         a single location. A server farm is sometimes called a server cluster. A Web
                                                         server farm can be either (1) a Web site that has more than one server, or (2) an
                                                         Internet service provider (ISP) that provides Web hosting services using multiple
                                                   INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                        Dr. McKinney
                                                         April 2004

No. CATEGORY     TERM                                                                          DEFINITION                                            SOURCE
131   HARDWARE   Switch                                     In a telecommunications network, a switch is a device that channels incoming             searchnetworking.com
                                                            data from any of multiple input ports to the specific output port that will take the
                                                            data toward its intended destination.
132   INTERNET   Backbone                                   A backbone is a larger transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller         whatis.com
                                                            lines that interconnect with it. 1) At the local level, a backbone is a line or set of
                                                            lines that local area networks connect to for a wide area network connection or
                                                            within a local area network to span distances efficiently (for example, between
                                                            buildings). 2) On the Internet or other wide area network, a backbone is a set of
                                                            paths that local or regional networks connect to for long-distance
                                                            interconnection. The connection points are known as network nodes or
                                                            telecommunication data switching exchanges (DSEs).

133   INTERNET   Bridge                                     In telecommunication networks, a bridge is a product that connects a local area          searchsecurity.com
                                                            network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol.

134   INTERNET   Extranet                                   An extranet is a private network that uses the Internet protocol and the public          searchsecurity.com
                                                            telecommunication system to securely share part of a business's information or
                                                            operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses. An
                                                            extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users
                                                            outside the company.
135   INTERNET   Gateway                                    A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the         searchnetworking.com
                                                            Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-
                                                            point) node.
136   INTERNET   HTML                                       HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the set of markup symbols or codes                   searchwebservices.com
                                                            inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page.
137   INTERNET   identity theft                             Identity theft is a crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of personal            searchsecurity.com
                                                            information, such as Social Security or driver's license numbers, in order to
                                                            impersonate someone else. The information can be used to obtain credit,
                                                            merchandise, and services in the name of the victim, or to provide the thief with
                                                            false credentials. In addition to running up debt, an imposter might provide false
                                                            identification to police, creating a criminal record or leaving outstanding arrest
                                                            warrants for the person whose identity has been stolen.
138   INTERNET   Internet                                   The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of                searchwebservices.com
                                                            computer networks - a network of networks in which users at any one computer
                                                            can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and
                                                            sometimes talk directly to users at other computers).
139   INTERNET   Internet Service Provider (ISP)            An ISP (Internet service provider) is a company that provides individuals and            searchwebservices.com
                                                            other companies access to the Internet and other related services such as Web
                                                            site building and virtual hosting.
140   INTERNET   Intranet                                   An intranet is a private network that is contained within an enterprise. It may          searchwebservices.com
                                                            consist of many interlinked local area networks and also use leased lines in the
                                                            wide area network. Typically, an intranet includes connections through one or
                                                            more gateway computers to the outside Internet. The main purpose of an
                                                            intranet is to share company information and computing resources among
                                                            employees. An intranet can also be used to facilitate working in groups and for
                                  INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                       Dr. McKinney
                                        April 2004

No. CATEGORY     TERM                                                       DEFINITION                                           SOURCE
141   INTERNET   Java                      Java is a programming language expressly designed for use in the distributed          searchwebservices.com
                                           environment of the Internet. It was designed to have the "look and feel" of the
                                           C++ language, but it is simpler to use than C++ and enforces an object-oriented
                                           programming model. Java can be used to create complete applications that may
                                           run on a single computer or be distributed among servers and clients in a
                                           network. It can also be used to build a small application module or applet for use
                                           as part of a Web page. Applets make it possible for a Web page user to interact
                                           with the page.
142   INTERNET   opt-in                    In the context of e-business communication or advertising, an "opt-in" feature        ACC 655
                                           requires that the recipient of the message take action in order to be included in
                                           the distribution list.
143   INTERNET   opt-out                   In the context of e-business communication or advertising, an "opt-out" feature       ACC 655
                                           requires that the recipient of the message take action in order to be excluded
                                           from the distribution list.
144   INTERNET   POP                       On the Internet, a point-of-presence (POP) is an access point from one place to       searchnetworking.com
                                           the rest of the Internet.
145   INTERNET   search engine             On the Internet, a search engine is a coordinated set of programs that includes:      searchwebservices.com
                                           1) a spider (also called a "crawler" or a "bot") that goes to every page or
                                           representative pages on every Web site that wants to be searchable and reads
                                           it, using hypertext links on each page to discover and read a site's other pages 2)
                                           a program that creates a huge index (sometimes called a "catalog") from the
                                           pages that have been read, and 3) a program that receives your search request,
                                           compares it to the entries in the index, and returns results to you.

146   INTERNET   SMTP                      SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and         searchexchange.com
                                           receiving e-mail.
147   INTERNET   spam                      Spam is unsolicited e-mail on the Internet.                                           searchmobilecomputing.com
148   INTERNET   spyware                   Spyware is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or        searchCRM.com
                                           organization without their knowledge. On the Internet (where it is sometimes
                                           called a spybot or tracking software ), spyware is programming that is put in
                                           someone's computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to
                                           advertisers or other interested parties.
149   INTERNET   usenet                    Usenet is a collection of user-submitted notes or messages on various subjects        searchnetworking.com
                                           that are posted to servers on a worldwide network. Each subject collection of
                                           posted notes is known as a newsgroup.
150   NETWORK    ad hoc network            An ad-hoc (or "spontaneous") network is a local area network or other small           searchmobilecomputing.com
                                           network, especially one with wireless or temporary plug-in connections, in which
                                           some of the network devices are part of the network only for the duration of a
                                           communications session or, in the case of mobile or portable devices, while in
                                           some close proximity to the rest of the network.
151   NETWORK    client                    A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server relationship. For       searchwin2000.com
                                           example, the user of a Web browser is effectively making client requests for
                                           pages from servers all over the Web. The browser itself is a client in its
                                           relationship with the computer that is getting and returning the requested HTML
                                           file. The computer handling the request and sending back the HTML file is a
                                                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                      Dr. McKinney
                                                       April 2004

No. CATEGORY        TERM                                                                    DEFINITION                                          SOURCE
152   NETWORK       Client-server system                  Client/server describes the relationship between two computer programs in             searchnetworking.com
                                                          which one program, the client, makes a service request from another program,
                                                          the server, which fulfills the request.
153   NETWORK       ethernet                              Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology.            searchnetworking.com
154   NETWORK       File-server system                    In the client/server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central   searchnetworking.com
                                                          storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same
                                                          network can access the files.
155   NETWORK       firewall                              A firewall is a set of related programs, located at a network gateway server, that    searchsecurity.com
                                                          protects the resources of a private network from users from other networks.

156   NETWORK       Local Area Network (LAN)              A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that        searchnetworking.com
                                                          share a common communications line or wireless link and typically share the
                                                          resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (for
                                                          example, within an office building).
157   NETWORK       Network Information System            NIS (Network Information System) is a network naming and administration               searchnetworking.com
                                                          system for smaller networks that was developed by Sun Microsystems. NIS+ is a
                                                          later version that provides additional security and other facilities. Using NIS,
                                                          each host client or server computer in the system has knowledge about the
                                                          entire system.
158   NETWORK       online                                Online is the condition of being connected to a network of computers or other         searchnetworking.com
                                                          devices. The term is frequently used to describe someone who is currently
                                                          connected to the Internet.
159   NETWORK       P2P distributed computing             Peer-to-peer is a communications model in which each party has the same               searchnetworking.com
                                                          capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session.
160   NETWORK       token ring                            A Token Ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which all computers are         searchnetworking.com
                                                          connected in a ring or star topology and a bit- or token-passing scheme is used
                                                          in order to prevent the collision of data between two computers that want to send
                                                          messages at the same time.
161   NETWORK       topology                              A topology (from Greek topos meaning place) is a description of any kind of           searchnetworking.com
                                                          locality in terms of its layout. In communication networks, a topology is a usually
                                                          schematic description of the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and
                                                          connecting lines. There are two ways of defining network geometry: the physical
                                                          topology and the logical (or signal) topology.
162   NETWORK       Wide Area Network (WAN)               A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications            searchnetworking.com
                                                          network. The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a
                                                          local area network.
163   PROGRAMMING   algorithm                             The term algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for           searchVB.com
                                                          solving a problem.
164   PROGRAMMING   ANSI                                  ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the primary organization for          searchcio.com
                                                          fostering the development of technology standards in the United States. ANSI
                                                          works with industry groups and is the U.S. member of the International
                                                          Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical
                                                          Commission (IEC).
                                              INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                   Dr. McKinney
                                                    April 2004

No. CATEGORY        TERM                                                                 DEFINITION                                           SOURCE
165   PROGRAMMING   application program                An application program (sometimes shortened to application ) is any program            searchwebservices.com
                                                       designed to perform a specific function directly for the user or, in some cases, for
                                                       another application program. Examples of application programs include word
                                                       processors; database programs; Web browsers; development tools; drawing,
                                                       paint, and image editing programs; and communication programs.

166   PROGRAMMING   artificial intelligence            AI (pronounced AYE-EYE) or artificial intelligence is the simulation of human          searchcio.com
                                                       intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These
                                                       processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the
                                                       information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite
                                                       conclusions), and self-correction.
167   PROGRAMMING   ASCII                              ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most                 whatis.com
                                                       common format for text files in computers and on the Internet. In an ASCII file,
                                                       each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary
                                                       number (a string of seven 0s or 1s). 128 possible characters are defined.

168   PROGRAMMING   assembler                          An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts          search390.com
                                                       them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its
                                                       basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and
                                                       others use the term assembly language .
169   PROGRAMMING   assembly language                  see "assembler"                                                                        search390.com
170   PROGRAMMING   batch processing                   In a computer, a batch job is a program that is assigned to the computer to run        search390.com
                                                       without further user interaction. In larger commercial computers or servers,
                                                       batch jobs are usually initiated by a system user. Some are defined to run
                                                       automatically at a certain time.
                                                       In some computer systems, batch jobs are said to run in the background and
                                                       interactive programs run in the foreground. In general, interactive programs are
                                                       given priority over batch programs, which run during the time intervals when the
                                                       interactive programs are waiting for user requests.
171   PROGRAMMING   C                                  C is a structured, procedural programming language that has been widely used           searchwin2000.com
                                                       both for operating systems and applications and that has had a wide following in
                                                       the academic community. Many versions of Unix-based operating systems are
                                                       written in C. C has been standardized as part of the Portable Operating System
                                                       Interface (POSIX).
172   PROGRAMMING   C++                                C++ is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is viewed by many            searchdatabase.com
                                                       as the best language for creating large-scale applications. C++ is a superset of
                                                       the C language.
173   PROGRAMMING   COBOL                              COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) was the first widely-used high-              search390.com
                                                       level programming language for business applications. Many payroll, accounting,
                                                       and other business application programs written in COBOL over the past 35
                                                       years are still in use and it is possible that there are more existing lines of
                                                       programming code in COBOL than in any other programming language. While
                                                       the language has been updated over the years, it is generally perceived as out-of-
                                                       date and COBOL programs are generally viewed as legacy applications.
                                                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                      Dr. McKinney
                                                       April 2004

No. CATEGORY        TERM                                                                    DEFINITION                                           SOURCE
174   PROGRAMMING   compiler                              A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular      searchwin2000.com
                                                          programming language and turns them into machine language or "code" that a
                                                          computer's processor uses.
175   PROGRAMMING   debugging                             In computers, debugging is the process of locating and fixing or bypassing bugs        searchsecurity.com
                                                          (errors) in computer program code or the engineering of a hardware device.

176   PROGRAMMING   distributed computing                 In general, distributed computing is any computing that involves multiple              whatis.com
                                                          computers remote from each other that each have a role in a computation
                                                          problem or information processing.
177   PROGRAMMING   DOS                                   DOS (Disk Operating System) was the first widely-installed operating system for        searchsecurity.com
                                                          personal computers.
178   PROGRAMMING   FORTRAN                               FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) is a third-generation (3GL) programming                  whatis.com
                                                          language that was designed for use by engineers, mathematicians, and other
                                                          users and creators of scientific algorithms. It has a very succinct and spartan
                                                          syntax. Today, the C language has largely displaced FORTRAN.

179   PROGRAMMING   Freeware                              Freeware (not to be confused with free software) is programming that is offered        searchEnterpriseLinux.com
                                                          at no cost and is a common class of small applications available for downloading
                                                          and use in most operating systems. Because it may be copyrighted, you may or
                                                          may not be able to reuse it in programming you are developing.

180   PROGRAMMING   hypermedia                            Hypermedia, a term derived from hypertext, extends the notion of the hypertext         searchwebservices.com
                                                          link to include links among any set of multimedia objects, including sound,
                                                          motion video, and virtual reality. It can also connote a higher level of
                                                          user/network interactivity than the interactivity already implicit in hypertext.
181   PROGRAMMING   hypertext                             Hypertext is the organization of information units into connected associations         searchwebservices.com
                                                          that a user can choose to make. An instance of such an association is called a
                                                          link or hypertext link.
182   PROGRAMMING   Input/Output                          I/O (input/output), pronounced "eye-oh," describes any operation, program, or          whatis.com
                                                          device that transfers data to or from a computer. Typical I/O devices are printers,
                                                          hard disks, keyboards, and mouses. In fact, some devices are basically input-
                                                          only devices (keyboards and mouses); others are primarily output-only devices
                                                          (printers); and others provide both input and output of data (hard disks, diskettes,
                                                          writable CD-ROMs).
183   PROGRAMMING   job control language (JCL)            JCL (job control language) is a language for describing jobs (units of work) to the    search390.com
                                                          MVS, OS/390, and VSE operating systems, which run on IBM's S/390 large
                                                          server (mainframe) computers. These operating systems allocate their time and
                                                          space resources among the total number of jobs that have been started in the
184   PROGRAMMING   MS-DOS                                MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) was the Microsoft-marketed version            searchwin2000.com
                                                          of the first widely-installed operating system in personal computers.
185   PROGRAMMING   multimedia                            Multimedia is more than one concurrent presentation medium (for example, on            searchwebservices.com
                                                          CD-ROM or a Web site). Although still images are a different medium than text,
                                                          multimedia is typically used to mean the combination of text, sound, and/or
                                                          motion video.
                                                  INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                          Dr. McKinney
                                                           April 2004

No. CATEGORY        TERM                                                                       DEFINITION                                          SOURCE
186   PROGRAMMING   online analytical processing (OLAP)       Online analytical processing (OLAP) is computer processing that enables a user       searchdatabase.com
                                                              to easily and selectively extract and view data from different points-of-view.

187   PROGRAMMING   operating system                          An operating system (sometimes abbreviated as "OS") is the program that, after       whatis.com
                                                              being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other
                                                              programs in a computer. The other programs are called applications or
                                                              application programs.
188   PROGRAMMING   parallel processing                       In computers, parallel processing is the processing of program instructions by       search390.com
                                                              dividing them among multiple processors with the objective of running a program
                                                              in less time.
189   PROGRAMMING   program                                   In computing, a program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to    whatis.com
190   PROGRAMMING   schema                                    In computer programming, a schema (pronounced SKEE-mah) is the                       searchdatabase.com
                                                              organization or structure for a database. The activity of data modeling leads to a
191   PROGRAMMING   text editor                               A text editor is a computer program that lets a user enter, change, store, and       whatis.com
                                                              usually print text (characters and numbers, each encoded by the computer and
                                                              its input and output devices, arranged to have meaning to users or to other
192   PROGRAMMING   text file                                 In information technology, text is a human-readable sequence of characters and       whatis.com
                                                              the words they form that can be encoded into computer-readable formats such
                                                              as ASCII. Text is usually distinguished from non-character encoded data, such
                                                              as graphic images in the form of bitmaps and program code, which is sometimes
                                                              referred to as being in "binary" (but is actually in its own computer-readable
193   PROGRAMMING   Unix                                      Unix (often spelled "UNIX," especially as an official trademark) is an operating     searchEnterpriseLinux.com
                                                              system that originated at Bell Labs in 1969 as an interactive time-sharing
                                                              system. Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie are considered the inventors of Unix.
                                                              The name (pronounced YEW-nihks) was a pun based on an earlier system,
                                                              Multics. In 1974, Unix became the first operating system written in the C
                                                              language. Unix has evolved as a kind of large freeware product, with many
                                                              extensions and new ideas provided in a variety of versions of Unix by different
                                                              companies, universities, and individuals.
194   PROGRAMMING   windows                                   Windows is a personal computer operating system from Microsoft that, together        searchwin2000.com
                                                              with some commonly used business applications such as Microsoft Word and
                                                              Excel, has become a de facto "standard" for individual users in most
                                                              corporations as well as in most homes.
195   PROGRAMMING   XBRL                                      XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language) is an XML-based language               searchwebservices.com
                                                              being developed specifically for the automation of business information
                                                              requirements, such as the preparation, sharing, and analysis of financial reports,
                                                              statements, and audit schedules.
196   PROGRAMMING   XML                                       XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a flexible way to create common                  searchwebservices.com
                                                              information formats and share both the format and the data on the world wide
                                                              web, intranets, and elsewhere.
                                                    INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                         Dr. McKinney
                                                          April 2004

No. CATEGORY               TERM                                                                DEFINITION                                          SOURCE
197   SOFTWARE             CD-ROM                            CD-ROM (Compact Disc, read-only-memory) is an adaptation of the CD that is            whatis.com
                                                             designed to store computer data in the form of text and graphics, as well as hi-fi
                                                             stereo sound.
198   SOFTWARE             EDGAR                             EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval) is the software used         ACC 655
                                                             by companies to file documents electronically with the Securities and Exchange
199   SOFTWARE             public domain software            Programs that are uncopyrighted because their authors intended to share them          whatis.com
                                                             with everyone else are in the public domain. The UNIX community has
                                                             developed a number of such programs over the years. Programs in the public
                                                             domain can be used without restriction as components of other programs. When
                                                             reusing such code, it is good to understand its history so that you can be sure it
                                                             really is in the public domain.
200   SOFTWARE             shareware                         Shareware is software that is distributed free on a trial basis with the              searchVB.com
                                                             understanding that the user may need or want to pay for it later. Some software
                                                             developers offer a shareware version of their program with a built-in expiration
                                                             date (after 30 days, the user can no longer get access to the program).

201   SOFTWARE             Software                          Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate          searchwebservices.com
                                                             computers and related devices. Software can be thought of as the variable part
                                                             of a computer. Software is often divided into application software (programs that
                                                             do work users are directly interested in) and system software (which includes
                                                             operating systems and any program that supports application software).

202   TELECOM / WIRELESS   analog signals                    In telecommunications, an analog signal is one in which a base carrier's              whatis.com
      COMMUNICATION                                          alternating current frequency is modified in some way, such as by amplifying the
                                                             strength of the signal or varying the frequency, in order to add information to the
                                                             signal. Broadcast and telephone transmission have conventionally used analog
203   TELECOM / WIRELESS   Bandwidth                         Bandwidth has a general meaning of how much information can be carried in a           searchnetworking.com
      COMMUNICATION                                          given time period (usually a second) over a wired or wireless communications
204   TELECOM / WIRELESS   Bluetooth                         Bluetooth is a telecommunications industry specification that describes how           searchmobilecomputing.com
      COMMUNICATION                                          mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can be easily
                                                             interconnected using a short-range wireless connection.
205   TELECOM / WIRELESS   Broadband                         In general, broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of             searchnetworking.com
      COMMUNICATION                                          frequencies is available to transmit information.
206   TELECOM / WIRELESS   dedicated line                    A dedicated line is a telecommunications path between two points that is              searchnetworking.com
      COMMUNICATION                                          available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (individual or company). It
                                                             is not shared in common among multiple users as dial-up lines are. A dedicated
                                                             line can be a physical path owned by the user or rented from a telephone
                                                             company, in which case it is called a leased line. A synonym is nonswitched line
                                                             (as opposed to a switched or dial-up line).
207   TELECOM / WIRELESS   dial-up                           Dial-up (sometimes called "switched" lines) pertains to a telephone connection in     searchnetworking.com
      COMMUNICATION                                          a system of many lines shared by many users. A dial-up connection is
                                                             established and maintained for a limited time duration. The alternative is a
                                                             dedicated connection, which is continuously in place.
                                                            INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                                 Dr. McKinney
                                                                  April 2004

No. CATEGORY               TERM                                                                        DEFINITION                                           SOURCE
208   TELECOM / WIRELESS   digital                                   Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes          whatis.com
      COMMUNICATION                                                  data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive. Positive is expressed or
                                                                     represented by the number 1 and non-positive by the number 0. Thus, data
                                                                     transmitted or stored with digital technology is expressed as a string of 0's and
                                                                     1's. Each of these state digits is referred to as a bit (and a string of bits that a
                                                                     computer can address individually as a group is a byte).
209   TELECOM / WIRELESS   Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)             DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth              searchnetworking.com
      COMMUNICATION                                                  information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone
210   TELECOM / WIRELESS   Distance learning (E-learning)            Distance learning, sometimes called e-learning, is a formalized teaching and
      COMMUNICATION                                                  learning system specifically designed to be carried out remotely by using
                                                                     electronic communication.
211   TELECOM / WIRELESS   modem                                     A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital            searchmobilecomputing.com
      COMMUNICATION                                                  device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line
                                                                     and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for
                                                                     the digital device.
212   TELECOM / WIRELESS   Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)          Personal digital assistant (PDA) is a term for any small mobile hand-held device       searchmobilecomputing.com
      COMMUNICATION                                                  that provides computing and information storage and retrieval capabilities for
                                                                     personal or business use, often for keeping schedule calendars and address
                                                                     book information handy.
213   TELECOM / WIRELESS   twisted pair telephone lines              Twisted pair is the ordinary copper wire that connects home and many business          searchnetworking.com
      COMMUNICATION                                                  computers to the telephone company. To reduce crosstalk or electromagnetic
                                                                     induction between pairs of wires, two insulated copper wires are twisted around
                                                                     each other. Each connection on twisted pair requires both wires. Since some
                                                                     telephone sets or desktop locations require multiple connections, twisted pair is
                                                                     sometimes installed in two or more pairs, all within a single cable. For some
                                                                     business locations, twisted pair is enclosed in a shield that functions as a
                                                                     ground. This is known as shielded twisted pair (STP). Ordinary wire to the home
                                                                     is unshielded twisted pair (UTP).

214   TELECOM / WIRELESS   wireless                                  Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which                        searchmobilecomputing.com
      COMMUNICATION                                                  electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal over part
                                                                     or all of the communication path.
215   WEB                  Automated agent                           See "bot"
216   WEB                  Bot                                       A bot (short for "robot") is a program that operates as an agent for a user or         searchwebservices.com
                                                                     another program or simulates a human activity. On the Internet, the most
                                                                     ubiquitous bots are the programs, also called spiders or crawlers, that access
                                                                     Web sites and gather their content for search engine indexes.
217   WEB                  Cookies                                   A cookie is information that a Web site puts on your hard disk so that it can          searchsecurity.com
                                                                     remember something about you at a later time. (More technically, it is information
                                                                     for future use that is stored by the server on the client side of a client/server
218   WEB                  crawler                                   See "bot"
                                          INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                               Dr. McKinney
                                                April 2004

No. CATEGORY   TERM                                                                  DEFINITION                                           SOURCE
219   WEB      Directory                           On the World Wide Web, a directory is a subject guide, typically organized by          searchwebservices.com
                                                   major topics and subtopics. The best-known directory is the one at Yahoo
                                                   (http://www.yahoo.com). Many other sites now use a Yahoo-like directory
                                                   including major portal sites.
220   WEB      Domain name (DNS also)              A domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. (In the         searchwebservices.com /
                                                   internet address www.bgsu.edu, "bgsu" is the domain name.) The domain name             searchnetworking.com
                                                   system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are located and translated
                                                   into internet protocol (IP) addresses.
221   WEB      Domain Name System (DNS)            The domain name system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are                 searchnetworking.com
                                                   located and translated into Internet Protocol addresses. A domain name is a
                                                   meaningful and easy-to-remember "handle" for an Internet address.
222   WEB      FTP                                 File Transfer Protocol (FTP), a standard Internet protocol, is the simplest way to     searchnetworking.com
                                                   exchange files between computers on the Internet. Like the Hypertext Transfer
                                                   Protocol (HTTP), which transfers displayable Web pages and related files, and
                                                   the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers e-mail, FTP is an
                                                   application protocol that uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols. FTP is commonly
                                                   used to transfer Web page files from their creator to the computer that acts as
                                                   their server for everyone on the Internet.
223   WEB      GIF                                 The GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is one of the two most common file               searchwebservices.com
                                                   formats for graphic images on the World Wide Web. The other is the JPEG.
224   WEB      hit                                 A hit is a single file request in the access log of a Web server. A request for an     searchcio.com
                                                   HTML page with three graphic images will result in four hits in the log: one for the
                                                   HTML text file and one for each of the graphic image files. While a hit is a
                                                   meaningful measure of how much traffic a server handles, it can be a misleading
                                                   indicator of how many pages are being looked at. Instead, advertising agencies
                                                   and their clients look at the number of pages delivered and ad impressions or
225   WEB      home page                           For a Web user, the home page is the first Web page that is displayed after            searchwebservices.com
                                                   starting a Web browser like Netscape's Navigator or Microsoft's Internet
226   WEB      HTTP                                HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the set of rules for transferring files (text,   searchwebservices.com
                                                   graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the world wide web.

227   WEB      HTTPS                               HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over              searchsecurity.com
                                                   SSL) is a Web protocol developed by Netscape and built into its browser that
                                                   encrypts and decrypts user page requests as well as the pages that are returned
                                                   by the Web server.
228   WEB      Hyperlink                           On the Web or other hypertext systems, hyperlink is a synonym for both link and        searchwebservices.com
                                                   hypertext link.
229   WEB      ICANN                               ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is the private             searchwebservices.com
                                                   (non-government) non-profit corporation with responsibility for IP address space
                                                   allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management,
                                                   and root-server system management functions.
                                                INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                     Dr. McKinney
                                                      April 2004

No. CATEGORY   TERM                                                                        DEFINITION                                           SOURCE
230   WEB      IP Address                                In the most widely installed level of the Internet Protocol (IP) today, an IP          searchwebservices.com
                                                         address is a 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information
                                                         that is sent in packets across the Internet. When you request an HTML page or
                                                         send e-mail, the Internet Protocol part of TCP/IP includes your IP address in the
                                                         message (actually, in each of the packets if more than one is required) and
                                                         sends it to the IP address that is obtained by looking up the domain name in the
                                                         Uniform Resource Locator you requested or in the e-mail address you're sending
                                                         a note to. At the other end, the recipient can see the IP address of the Web page
                                                         requestor or the e-mail sender and can respond by sending another message
                                                         using the IP address it received.
231   WEB      JPEG                                      JPEG (usually pronounced JAY-pehg) is also a term for any graphic image file           searchwebservices.com
                                                         produced by using a JPEG standard.
232   WEB      Protocol                                  In information technology, a protocol is the special set of rules that end points in   Searchnetworking.com
                                                         a telecommunication connection use when they communicate.
233   WEB      Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)                The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a commonly-used protocol for managing the            searchsecurity.com
                                                         security of a message transmission on the Internet. SSL has recently been
                                                         succeeded by Transport Layer Security (TLS), which is based on SSL.

234   WEB      spider                                    See "bot"
235   WEB      TCP/IP                                    TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic                  searchnetworking.com
                                                         communication language or protocol of the Internet.
236   WEB      Transport Layer Security (TLS)            Transport Layer Security (TLS) is a protocol that ensures privacy between              searchsecurity.com
                                                         communicating applications and their users on the Internet. When a server and
                                                         client communicate, TLS ensures that no third party may eavesdrop or tamper
                                                         with any message. TLS is the successor to the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

237   WEB      URL                                       A URL (Uniform Resource Locator, previously Universal Resource Locator) -              Searchnetworking.com
                                                         usually pronounced by sounding out each letter but, in some quarters,
                                                         pronounced "Earl" - is the unique address for a file that is accessible on the
238   WEB      W3C                                       The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) exists to realize the full potential of the        searchwebservices.com
                                                         Web. The W3C is an industry consortium which seeks to promote standards for
                                                         the evolution of the Web and interoperability between WWW products by
                                                         producing specifications and reference software.
239   WEB      Web browser                               A browser is an application program that provides a way to look at and interact        webservices.com
                                                         with all the information on the World Wide Web. The word "browser" seems to
                                                         have originated prior to the Web as a generic term for user interfaces that let you
                                                         browse (navigate through and read) text files online. Common browsers include
                                                         Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape's Navigator.

240   WEB      web bug                                   A Web bug, also known as a Web beacon, is a file object (usually a graphic             searchwebservices.com
                                                         image such as a transparent GIF) that is placed on a Web page or in an e-mail
                                                         message to monitor user behavior, functioning as a kind of spyware.
241   WEB      Web server                                A web server is a program that, using the client-server model and HTTP, serves         searchwebservices.com
                                                         the files that form web pages to web users (whose computers contain HTTP
                                                         clients that forward their requests).
                                         INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                              Dr. McKinney
                                               April 2004

No. CATEGORY   TERM                                                                DEFINITION                                        SOURCE
242   WEB      Web-based application              A web-based application is a truly changed software that is designed to take       ACC 655
                                                  advantage of web interface and capabilities.
243   WEB      Web-enabled application            A web-enabled application is an improved version of application software that      ACC 655
                                                  works with web browsers in some way.
244   WEB      World Wide Web (WWW or W3)         A technical definition of the World Wide Web is: all the resources and users on    searchCRM.com
                                                  the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). According to
                                                  Tim Berners-Lee, co-founder of the W3C, "The World Wide Web is the universe
                                                  of network-accessible information, an embodiment of human knowledge."

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