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					• Communication: sending and receiving information with the aim of
    creating an understanding.
• There are three types of communication:
1. Oral communication: oral communication is when you are speaking to
      someone verbally
Examples: Meetings, Interviews, Telephone
2. written communication - communication by means of written symbols
      (either printed or handwritten)
      Examples: Reports , Memoranda, letters, Faxes, Emails
3. Visual communication: communication that relies on vision
Examples: TV, Internet
4. Nonverbal Communication :includes the overall body language of the
      person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand
      gestures, and overall body movements. The facial expressions also play
      a major role while communication since the expressions on a person’s
      face say a lot about his/her mood. On the other hand gestures like a
      handshake, a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions. Non
      verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial
      representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and
Communication has the following features:
• sender and receiver of information: information must be received and understood
   by the person or group of person to whom it was sent.
• The message that is being communicated :for communication to be effective, the
   correct message must be sent and received .
• Communication channel: the medium used to convey information from a sender
   (or transmitter) to a receiver.
• Example : internet, telephone cables
• Medium: Information can be communicated in a variety of ways or through
   different communication media .These vary from written methods such as annual
   reports to oral method such as discussions, to the use of information technology
   such as fax, email.
• Feedback: The response of a receiver to sender’s message is called Feedback. It
   enables the sender to evaluate the effectiveness of his message.
Formal Communication: Formal communication includes all the
   instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format.
   The style of communication in this form is very formal and official.
   Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate
   letters are used for communication. Hence formal communication is
   straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringent and
   rigid tone to it.
Informal Communication: Informal communication includes instances of
   free unrestrained communication between people who share a
   casual rapport with each other. Informal communication does not
   have any rigid rules and guidelines. Informal conversations need not
   necessarily have boundaries of time or place.

Barrier to effective communication:
• 1. Language Barrier: Different languages, vocabulary, accent, dialect represents a
   national/ regional barriers. Semantic gaps are words having similar pronunciation
   but multiple meanings like- round; badly expressed message, wrong interpretation
   and unqualified assumptions. The use of difficult or inappropriate words/ poorly
   explained or misunderstood messages can result in confusion.
• 2. Information Overload. If you receive a message with too much information, you
   may tend to put up a barrier because the amount of information is coming so fast
   that you may have difficulty comfortably interpreting that information.
3.Noise: anything that interfere with the reception of a message .
4. Emotional Distractions. If emotions interfere with the creation and transmission of a
    message, they can also disrupt reception. If you receive a report from your
    supervisor regarding proposed changes in work procedures and you do not
    particularly like your supervisor, you may have trouble even reading the report
    objectively. You may read, not objectively, but to find fault. You may misinterpret
    words and read negative impressions between the lines. Consequently, you are
    likely to misunderstand part or all of the report.
5. Lack of Sensitivity to Receiver. A breakdown in communication may result when a
    message is not adapted to its receiver. Recognizing the receiver’s needs, status,
    knowledge of the subject, and language skills assists the sender in preparing a
    successful message. If a customer is angry, for example, an effective response may
    be just to listen to the person vent for awhile.
6. Insufficient Knowledge of the Subject. If the sender lacks specific information about
    something, the receiver will likely receive an unclear or mixed message. Have you
    shopped for an item such as a computer, and experienced how some salespeople
    can explain complicated terms and ideas in a simple way? Others cannot.
7. Conflicting Messages. Messages that cause a conflict in perception for the receiver
    may result in incomplete communication.
8. Long Communication Chain. The longer the communication chain, the greater the
    chance for error. If a message is passed through too many receivers, the message
    often becomes distorted. If a person starts a message at one end of a
    communication chain of ten people, for example, the message that eventually
    returns is usually liberally altered.
9. Lack of Communication Skills. Those who have weak reading and listening skills
    make ineffective receivers. On the other hand, those who have a good professional
    vocabulary and who concentrate on listening, have less trouble hearing and
    interpreting good communication
10. Physical Distractions. If a receiver of a communication works in an area with bright
    lights, glare on computer screens, excessively hot or cold work spaces, or physical
    ailments, that receiver will probably experience communication breakdowns on a
    regular basis

Memo : is an internal document that is generally short, focuses on a
single topic, reports information, makes a request, or recommends action.
It follows specific forms, depending on the organization.
 Purpose of a Memo: memos are used to inform readers of specific
     information. also write a memo is used to persuade others to take
     action, give feedback on an issue, or react to a situation. However, most
     memos communicate basic information, such as meeting times or due
Heading of memo:

To: Santa’s Elves
From: Santa Claus
Date: 30 September 2001
Subject: Meeting to discuss shortage of toy parts
Note: To prevent confusion, a memo should address only one subject. The
subject-line title should be accurate and complete.
Body of memo:
A memo should contain three parts:
1. For the introduction, start with one clear sentence that states the
subject and provides a summary of the topic.
2. The middle may contain several sentences of explanation.
3. The ending makes a request or a recommendation
Follow the guidelines of your particular company, university, etc.
These guidelines should include:
· Heading (To, From, Date, Subject)
Most memos now use this form for the date: 17 December 2002
· Names – follow guidelines for your institution
Example: A.B. Jones or Alexander Buckson Jones
· Position or title – include if your organization requires it.
· If copies should go to more people, put “cc:” with the names at the
bottom of the memo.
Electronic Memo (e-mail):
E-mail memos serve the same purpose as paper memos but are easier to
create and store, as well as faster to distribute.
Sample Memo:
To: Santa’s Elves
From: Santa Claus
Date: 30 September 2001
Subject: Meeting to discuss shortage of toy parts
I am calling a meeting at 3 p.m. tomorrow to discuss the shortage of toy
parts for the upcoming holiday season. Some of you have already
mentioned that various widgets and snippets are hard to obtain from the
usual sources. If we cannot obtain these items soon, we will have to find
new suppliers in order to meet our holiday deadline. We do not want to
disappoint any children.
Please bring a list of the parts in short supply to the meeting so that we
can determine what to do next. If you have any additional suggestions, be
sure to contact me or Mrs. Claus.
Cc: Mrs. S. Claus
Business Reports: it is a standard form of business communication that combines
    qualitative and quantitative information in a logical format, serving as critical
    corporate documentation. Business reports present information-based views of the
    enterprise to appropriate audiences and can be automatically individualized for each
• Title Section. In a short report this may simply be the front cover. In a long one it could
    also include Terms of Reference, Table of Contents and so on.
• Executive Summary :Give a clear and very concise account of the main points, main
    conclusions and main recommendations
• Introduction: The introduction should say why the report is being written. Reports are
    nearly always written to solve a business problem. Reports maybe commissioned
    because there is a crisis or they maybe routine.
• Main Body. This is the heart of your report, the facts. It will probably have several
    sections or sub-sections each with its own subtitle.
• The conclusions should summarize the Findings section, do not include diagrams or
    graphs in this area. This area should be short, clearly follow the order of the findings
    and lead naturally into the recommendations.
• Recommendations: All reports should include recommendations or at least
• Bibliography: term of references such as books, websites and other sources.
• Appendices: details that are too bulky to be included in the main reports but can be
    referred by the reader for more information.

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