Qualitative research analysis

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					Qualitative research analysis

      M.H. Forouzanfar
           A dialectic process
   Process is dialectic not linear:
    – Learn something
    – Collect data
    – Make sense
    – Go back and get new experiences
    – Refine interpretation (more analysis)
    – And …
             Steps of QA
 Is not a cookbook fashion
 Intellectual craftsmanship
 Should be done artfully, even playfully
 Translation of field work into a text
  (communicating understanding to reader)
Steps of QA, data preparation
   Data preparation
    – Transcribing data
        Type tape
        Who will transcribe

        Transcribe all data?
        Organize field notes

   Research question and theoretical framework
    – Positivist view
         Simple translation

    – Interpretive view point
         Not transparent

         Importance of researcher’s point of view
         Multiple levels of meaning

    – Feminist view point
         Listen to the data, special moments:” you know what I mean”
              Data exploration
   Read and think about texts
    –   Mark up and highlight important sentences
    –   Write down ideas
    –   Emphasize on description
    –   Code data, don’t wait for all data
        Coding and analyzing
   Open coding: finding segments in textual
    data and giving a label (code)
    – What is going on?
    – What are people doing?
    – What is the person saying?
    – What do these actions and statements take for
      granted?
    – How do structure and context serve to support,
      maintain, impede, or change these actions and
      statements?"
                        Example
I don't think that the ideal woman has to look like anything
personally. I think the ideal woman has personality and character,
its how you act. My looks don't bother me, it's just my
personality. My personality. I wanna have a good personality and
have people like me, if they don't like me for my personality, or
just because of my looks, then they must be missing out on
something. Um, when you have it [self-esteem] so much that you
don't care what people .. think about you. I man, I flaunt my self-
esteem, not like 'Oh yeah, dahdadada: I just sit up real straight
and that shows self-esteem right there.
I'm a woman, I'll wear stuff to school that's like . . . wacked.
I have earrings that are about this big, and that shows my self-
esteem, I don't care what you say. about them, , , Oh well, that's
what I think, I don't care, I don't fit in anywhere anyway, I'm my
own self so why can't I act like that, why can't I dress like that?
                                      Example
   I don't think that the ideal woman has to           Ideal woman
    look like anything personally. I think the          Importance of personality
    ideal woman has personality and character,
    its how you act.                                    Physical appearance is secondary
   My looks don't bother me, it's just my              Importance of personality
    personality. My personality. I wanna have a
                                                        Importance of personality
    good personality and have people like me, if
    they don't like me for my personality, or just      Missing out on noticing personality
    because of my looks, then they must be
    missing out on something.
   Um, when you have it [self-esteem] so much          Self-esteem
    that you don't care what people .. think            Don't: care what others say
    about you. I man, I flaunt my self-esteem,          Flaunting myself
    not like 'Oh yeah, dahdadada: I just sit up         Sits straight
    real straight and that shows self-esteem
    right there.
   I'm a woman, I'll wear stuff to school that's
    like . . . wacked.                                  Wears what she wants
   I have earrings that are about this big, and        Wears big earrings
    that shows my self-esteem, I don't care what        Doesn't care what others say
    you say. about them, , , Oh well, that's what
    I think, I don't care, I don't fit in anywhere
    anyway,                                             Internal self-assessment: own person
    I'm my own self so why can't I act like that,      Internal self-assessment:
   why can't I dress like that?                        wears what she wants
Coding
             Memo writing
 From level of code to the level of category
 Descriptive codes within one’s data and
  hoping to generate a set of key concepts
  (categories)
 Reading then marking then coding (open
  coding) segments then immersion and
  induction then look for common ways or
  patterns
                Memo writing
   "A new idea for a code.
   Just a quick hunch.
   Integrative discussion
   As a dialogue amongst researchers.
   To question the quality of the data.
   To question the original analytic framework.
   What is puzzling or surprising about a case?
   As alternative hypotheses to another memo.
   If you have no clear idea but are struggling to find
    one. To raise a general theme or metaphor.
                  Memoing
   Similar and different ways to talk about an
    idea
                Interpretation
   Data memo:
    – Integrates the theme with data and literature
    – Look like a paper
    – Positivist and interpretive framework
    – Issue of interpretation and storytelling
Data reduction and collapse
              Validity and reliability of
                   interpretation
   Validity as craftsmanship
     – Are you telling a convincing story?
     – Try theorizing from your data interpretations.
     – Have you reached your findings with integrity-have you checked your
       procedures?
     – Look for negative cases.
   Communicative validity
     – Make your interpretations available for discussion (agreement and debate)
       among "legitimate knowers"
   Pragmatic validity
     – How do your findings impact those who participated in the research,
     – How do your findings impact the wider social context in which the
     – research occurred?
   Reliability
     – Is there "internal consistency" (Neuman, 2003)? Does the data add up?
    Computer assisted software for
               QDA
   Generic software:
    – Word processors
    – Text retrievers
    – Text-base managers
   Specific softwares:
    –   Code and retrieve program
    –   Code-based theory-building programs
    –   Conceptual network building programs
    –   Textual mapping software
       Uses of computer software
   Making notes in the field
   Writing up or transcribing field notes
   Editing: correcting, extending, or revising field notes
   Coding: attaching keywords or tags to segments of text to permit later retrieval
   Storage: keeping text in an organized database
   Search and retrieval: locating relevant segments of text and making them
    available for inspection
   Data "linking": connecting relevant data segments to each other, forming
    categories, clusters, or networks of information
   Memoing: writing reflective commentaries on some aspect of the data as a basis for
    deeper analysis
   Content analysis: counting frequencies, sequence, or locations of words and
    phrases
   Data display: placing selected or reduced data in a condensed, organized format,
    such as a matrix or network, for inspection
   Conclusion-drawing and verification: aiding the analyst to interpret displayed
    data and to test or confirm findings
   Theory building: developing systematic, conceptually coherent explanations of
    findings; testing hypotheses
   Graphic mapping: creating diagrams that depict findings or theories
   Preparing interim and final reports
               Fears and critics
 Computer programs will separate the qualitative
  researcher from the creative process
 The line between quantitative and qualitative analysis will
  be blurred by imposing the logic of survey research onto
  qualitative research and by sacrificing in-depth analysis
  for a larger sample.
 Computer software programs will determine the types of
  questions asked and specific data analysis plans
 Computer programs for analyzing qualitative data require
  the researcher to be more explicit in the procedures and
  analytical processes they went through to produce their
  data and their interpretations.
 Loss of confidentiality through the use of multimedia data.
    Writing up of qualitative data
   Realist tales
    – Traditional writing
    – Take the form of a scholarly publication
    – Presentation of respondents is a “true” reflection
    – Detail about authors are absent
    – Concrete details of what, how often, what order and
      whom
    – Identify typical activities
    – members point of view and interpretation of events
    – Meaning of setting from members’ perspective
   Non-realist tales
    – Reflexive style

				
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