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stalin

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 52

									(r. 1924-1953)
•   1878 –1953
•   Joseph Dzhugashvili
•   Gori, Georgia
•   Peasant – Father Bootmaker
•   “Pocky” (Age 7)
•   1899 expelled from Seminary School
•   1902 imprisoned – exiled to Siberia
•   1904 – Escaped Siberia
•   1905 met Lenin
•   1911 editor of Pravda
•   1917 – Commissar of Nationalities
• 1878 –1953
• “Man of Steel”
• “Socialism in One Country”
• General Secretary of the Communist
  Party (1922)
• Power – command of bureaucratic and
  administrative control
• Admission to the party and promotion
  within it
• 10,000 appointments – regional, district,
  city , and town party secretaries
  “WE ARE FIFTY OR ONE
 HUNDRED YEARS BEHIND
THE ADVANCE COUNTRIES.
WE MUST MAKE GOOD THIS
 DISTANCE IN TEN YEARS”
         - Stalin
• Lev Davidovich Bronshtein
• Trotsky (1879 – 1940)
• Commissar for War
• Leader of the Red Army
• “Permanent Revolution”
• World Revolution
• Left wing Bolsheviks
• 1927 expelled from the
  Communist party
• 1929 exiled from Russia
• Revokes the NEP
• Five-Year Plans – Rapid
  Industrialization
• “Collectivization” - Agricultural
• “Revolution from above”
• Cultural Revolution
• Worker/Police State
• Totalitarian Dictatorship
• Cult of Personality
•   Stalin’s Constitution (1936)

• Federation of states (11-15)
• Supreme Soviet (Parliament) Soviet of the Union
  and Soviet of Nationalities
• Suffrage 18 years old
• The Council of People’s Commissars (executive
  authority)
• Bill of Rights – right to employment, right of elderly
  and disabled to care
• Political Bureau (Politburo) – seven members
  dominated
• 5 YEAR PLANS (1928) – first of many
• Economic, social, and political revolution
• Rapid Industrialization
• Revoked the NEP (too capitalistic)
• Iron, Steel, machines, electric, transportation
• Economic Growth – Heavy Industry
• 111% coal, 200% iron, 335% electric
  production
• Increased output – higher wages, better housing
• 2nd only to the U.S
•   25 million migrated to cities
•   Production = 1928-1937 – 4x’s
•   Hired Foreign Engineers
•   Unemployment unknown
•   Women worked in factories
•   Personal Advancement –
    incentives, pensions, education,
    medical services
• 1928-1937
•   Steel production 4 million to 18 million tons
•   Coal output 36 to 128 million tons
•   Production of capital goods and armaments
•   Quadrupled production of heavy machinery
•   Doubled oil production
•   Weapons increase tenfold or more
•   Real wages declined 43% b/w 1928-1940
•   Housing and consumer goods declined
•   Human cost?
• “WORKER STATE” – right to
  employment, leisure time, annual
  paid vacations, social security,
  old-age, accident, sickness
  insurance, medical and hospital
  care
• Labor Conditions? – lateness,
  absence, fined sent to Labor
  Camps
• GULAG
• Glavnoe Upravlenie ispravitel’no-trudovykh LAGerei
• Main administration of Corrective Labor Camps
• Soviet system of forced labor camps
• Origins 1917 Revolution
• Height during the reign of Stalin
• White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal (1931-33) – 141 mile canal
• 100,000 prisoners – pickaxes, shovels, wheel barrels
  created in just 20 months – SUCCESS?
• Kolyma - harshest of all the camps “means death”
• Arctic region – harsh temperatures, insufficient rations,
  sleep, and clothing – 12-16 hour work day
• More people passed through the GULAG than the
  Nazi concentration camps; yet, the GULAG is still
  not nearly as well know. WHY?
• Nazi camps used to “exterminate”
• GULAG – weapon of ongoing political control over
  one country
• “trials” – 5 minutes – sentences 8-10 years
• Article 58 – (1928) – anti-Soviet activity
• 25% “political prisoners”
• Mining, rail construction, arms & chemical
  factories, electricity plants, fish canning, airport,
  apartment, and sewage construction
• Collective Farms or “Collectivization” (1929)
• Agricultural output
• 25 Million Farmers
• Forced farmers to pool their land, livestock, equipment
• Lenin’s NEP produced Kulaks – well-to-do peasants –
  peasant capitalists - or anyone who resisted collectivization
• refused – 1932 entire class eliminated – forced labor camps,
  or killed
• ‘liquidation” of the entire class
• Artificial famine – 10 million died
• Peasants “cursed problem”
• War against peasants
• New socialist state
• 1929 forced consolidation
  peasant farms = state
  controlled
• Kulaks refused – 5 million –
  liquidated
• Output 1928-38 identical to
  1913
• Wide spread famine
• Ukraine 1932-33 –
  approximately 6 million
  died
• Millions migrated to cities
• Overcrowding, sewage,
  housing
• OUTCOME – Production of
  food did not increase
“Annihilate the Kulaks
as a class!”
         c. 1929
• Secret Police (NKDV), Purge
  Trials (1936-1939) – accused of
  disloyalty – enemies
• 1937-1938 – “Great Terror”
• Shot 1500 people a day
• Eliminate opposition - - high
  Soviet leaders, civilian party
  members, major party leaders,
  army officers, diplomats,
  intellectuals, Old Bolsheviks
• Mid 1930’s
• Officials, workers, peasants,
  intellectuals, military
• Sergei Kirov (1888-1934)- #2
  man assassinated
• Millions killed, exiled, sent to
  labor camps
• OUTCOME – consolidation
  of power – new Communists
  loyal to Stalin
• “What role did Stalin play in the history of our
  country?”
• POSITIVE 53%
• NEGATIVE 33%
• Had difficulty answering the question
     14%

2003 – 50th anniversary of Stalin’s death
BBC World News Service
• 1878 –1953
• Preserved some
  revolutionary goals
• No hereditary Czar, no
  privileged class, improved
  standard of living
• New upper class –
  professionals, factory
  managers
• Single leader
• Revolutionary transformation
• Treated as a benevolent "guide"
  for the nation
• Transformation to a better future
  cannot occur without him
• Superman
• Propaganda
• Hero Worship – “Uncle Joe”
“”A single death is a tragedy,
a million is a statistic” -
STALIN
“Ideas are far more powerful than
guns. We don't allow our enemies
to have guns, why should we allow
them to have ideas?” - STALIN
20+ Million Deaths = Starvation, Forced
Labor Camps, Purges

								
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