Chapter 1: Out of the Ice: The Peopling of the Earth by I66t2H


									Farming, Herding and the Neolithic Revolution

OVERVIEW 2.1 Pre-agricultural Society Characteristics

  Time Period/Place→           Food Sources→                                      Buildings & Artifacts→                   Lifestyle & Family →

  15,000 B.C.E.; Middle East   nuts (acorns, almonds, pistachios), nut flours,    wood, stone dwellings, jewelry           foraging, semi-sedentary; extended
                               small & large mammals (fox, rabbit, gazelle),      made from animal bones, teeth            families, clans, permanent villages
                               wild grasses, edible seeds
  13,000 B.C.E., Central       nuts (acorns, chestnuts), fish, small animals      caves, pit houses, wood houses;          skilled hunters & fishermen, semi-
  Japan                                                                           decorated pottery, chipped &             sedendary
                                                                                  ground stone tools
  10,000 B.C.E. Egypt (Nabta animals (hare, gazelles); sorghum & millet; 40       pit houses, tombs, megaliths, stone      initially, a ceremonial site for migratory
  Playa)                     other plant species, cattle herders                  circles; simple ceramic vessels,         peoples, then small village community
                                                                                  hearths, pit-ovens, wells
  10,000 B.C.E. Turkey         animals (birds, oxen, snakes, wild boar, fox) &    stone, mud-plaster houses, carved        families, clans in permanent villages
  (Gobelki Tepi)               wild plants (including wheat)                      columns depicting animals &

OVERVIEW 2.2: Foragers and Farmers: Comparisons

Foragers ↓                                   Advantages                                                                    Disadvantages
             Hunting, gathering—few tools, mobile lifestyle                              dependence on seasonal abundance of animals & plants—unpredictable

             Little environmental impact, population stability                           limited capacity for population growth

             Stable, low-density, less overall labor required                            occasional famines and droughts lead to small decline in overall populations

             Low density minimizes epidemic disease, mobility accelerates trade          small scale conflicts, banditry

Farmers ↓                                    Advantages                                                                    Disadvantages
             Husbandry—breeding animals, cultivating crops → more complex tools          massive impact on environment

             Increased food supply → growth of population                                crop failures, plagues, droughts, epidemic disease → population crashes

             Larger population → social complexity → labor specialization                surplus food → wealth accumulation → class system → social inequality

             New Technology & tools → higher productivity                                new weaponry → large scale conflict, war
OVERVIEW 2.3: Characteristics of Herding and Agricultural Societies

 Type of Husbandry    Environment                  Region                          Time Period             Animals or Crops
 Herding              tundra, evergreen forests;    Scandinavia, North America,      5,000 B.C.E.            reindeer, seal, walrus, horses, sheep, cattle
                      grasslands, steppe regions    Eurasian & African grasslands
 Agriculture          small-scale alluvial plains   Jericho on River Jordan,         8,000-7000 B.C.E.       einkorn, wheat, pulses (peas, beans), fruits, nuts
                                                    Catalhuyuk in Anatolia
 Agriculture          large alluvial plains         Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Indus   5,000 B.C.E.            grains, pulses, rice, millet, fruits, nuts
                                                    & Yangtse River valleys
 Agriculture          uplands                       Andes, Peru; Mexico; Old         12, 000-5,000 B.C.E.    maize (Mexico), beans, squash (Mexico) potatoes, quinoa (Andes);
                                                    World (Eurasia, Africa)                                  tef, rye, barley (Old World)
 Agriculture          swamps                        Yangtse Valley, Ganges           9,000-1,500 years ago   rice (China, S.E. Asia, Ganges Valley); yams, oil palm dates (West
                                                    Valley,. S.E. Asia; West                                 Africa); bitter manioc (Amazon)
                                                    Africa; Amazon

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