White Racial Identity Model A White

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White Racial Identity Model A White Powered By Docstoc
					A White Perspective

      Comparative Cultures

      Jeanett Castellanos, Ph.D.
      University of California, Irvine
    Learning Objectives
   Define and critique key concepts in the literature
    about Whiteness and White Identity
   Discuss issues related to the idea of privilege and
    examine your personal experiences with privilege
   Analyze the concept of racism for Whites and
   Identify similarities and differences between the
    White experience and the experience of VREGs.
White Privilege                   (Kendall Clark)

White privilege, a social relation – a form of social privilege

   A right, advantage, or immunity granted to or enjoyed by white persons
    beyond the common advantage of all others; an exemption in many
    particular cases from certain burdens or liabilities.
      A special advantage or benefit of White persons; with reference to
        divine dispensations, natural advantages, gifts of fortune, genetic
        endowments, social relations, etc.
   A privileged position; the possession of an advantage White persons
    enjoy over non–white persons.

   The special right or immunity attaching to white persons as a social
    relation; prerogative.
      display of White privilege, a social expression of a white person or
        persons demanding to be treated as a member or members of the
        socially privileged class.
White Privilege             (Kendall Clark)

   To invest white persons with a privilege or privileges; to
    grant to White persons a particular right or immunity; to
    benefit or favor specially white persons; to invest White
    persons with special honorable distinctions.
   To avail oneself of a privilege owing to one as a White
   To authorize or license of White person or persons what
    is forbidden or wrong for non–whites; to justify, excuse.
   To give to White persons special freedom or immunity
    from some liability or burden to which non–white persons
    are subject; to exempt.
The role of invisible power                           (Kendall Clark)

   In studying historical examples and theories of
    oppression, it becomes clear that social (in)visibility is an
    important strategy.
       Early feminists make this point over and over. If men and
        women equally believe, for example, that women are by
        their very nature subordinate to men, then gender
        oppression seems natural, inevitable, timeless.
   If you can design structures of oppression which are
    invisible, which seem natural, they will be more effective
    than structures which are visible. If you can convince
    everyone, but especially members of the oppressed
    group itself, that the way things are is natural or
    inevitable or unavoidable, people will be less likely to
    challenge the way things are.
General Experience
   Because of their privilege status in society, Whites
    have not been lead or forced to examine their own
    roles in relation to race relations in the US
   The White racial identity development process
    involves coming to terms with one’s own
    unearned privilege in society, followed by an
    honest self-examination of one’s role in
    maintaining the status quo and ending with a
    balanced identity characterized by self-awareness
    and a commitment to social justice.
Assumptions to White racial
identity models Sue et al, 1998
   Racism is integral to US life and permeates all aspects of
    our institutions and culture
   Whites are socialized into society and therefore inherit the
    biases, stereotypes, and racist attitudes, beliefs and
    behaviors of the larger society.
   Whites can perceive themselves and process their
    reactions as an identifiable sequence that can occur
    progressively or in a non-progressive fashion.
   The desirable outcome of the model is that individuals
    accept their status as White persons in a racist society and
    define their identity in a non-racist manner.
Models of White Identity
    Hardiman, 1982
    Ponterotto, 1988
    Helms, 1992
    Sabnani, Ponterotto, and Borodovsky, 1991
Helm’s White
Racial Identity Model
   The process involves abandoning one’s racism
    and developing a realistic and self-affirming
    racial identity
   Because Whites are socialized in an
    environment which they are privileged relative to
    other groups, they internalize a sense of
    entitlement and learn to maintain their privilege
    by distorting race-related reality and at times, by
    aggressive actions against perceived threats to
    the racial status quo
Helm’s White Racial Identity Model
7 Ego statuses
 Contact

 Disintegration

 Reintegration

 Pseudoindependence

 Immersion

 Emmersion

 Autonomy
Helm’s White Racial Identity
    Stage I - Contact
     A  white person is in the Contact Stage the
       moment he of she first encounters the idea that
       Black people exist. There is limited social and
       occupational interaction with Blacks. Race
       focused comments - I don’t notice what race a
       person is . . . You don’t act like a Black person . .
Helm’s Model - 7 Stages
   Stage II - Disintegration
     The  individual acknowledges his/her whiteness
      and understand the benefits of being White in a
      racist society. Conflicting stage
        caught   between wanted to be accepted by the norm
         (White group), while at the same time experiencing
         a moral dilemma over treating (or considering)
         Blacks inferior than Whites.
        Emotional in-congruence because moral belief is in
         contrast to in group expectations.
        “I hate to feel this way -- that is why I minimize race
         issues and let them fade from my awareness ..”
   Stage III - Reintegration
     Person   accepts the belief in White racial
      superiority. Racist identity. Negative conditions
      associated with Black people are thought to result
      from Blacks’ inferior intellectual, moral, and social
      qualities. There is an effort to protect and reserve
      white privilege.
      Reintegration - Continued
   I’m an Italian grandmother. No one gave us welfare
    or a helping hand when we came over. My father
    worked day and night to provide us with a decent
    living and put us through school. In America, if one
    works hard, one can make it. I see the Black welfare
    mothers standing in line for food stamps. . You can’t
    convince me they are starving. . . Laziness. . Is what
    I see.
Reintegration - Continued
   So what if my grandfather owned slaves. He didn’t
    mistreat them.Besides, I wasn’t even here then. I
    never owned slaves. So, I don’t know why I am
    expected to feel guilty. Nowadays, reverse
    racism hurts more than slavery. At they they got
    three meals a day. But my brother can’t get a job
    in the police department because they have to
    hire less qualified Blacks.
Helms Continued
   Stage IV - Pseudo-Independent
     First stage of phase two - Redefining a non-racist
      white identity. Individuals begin to acknowledge
      their responsibilities of Whites for racism. They
      examine how their own actions have perpetuated
      racism and maintained the status quo. Begin to
      search for a new White identity. Still can behave in
      racist ways. In this stage, the individual is still
      thinking of the issue from an intellectual perspective
      rather than a personal responsibility.
    Helms Continued
   Stage V- Immersion
        Individuals immerse themselves in the search for accurate
         information about race and gain a deeper understanding of
         their own racist socialization.
           An individual in this stage might become involved in social
            activism to fight racism.
           Immerse oneself in biographies of Whites who have made
            similar identity journeys.
              • Myths are stereotypes are replaced. Affective and experiential
                upheaval leads to a feeling of rebirth
   Stage VI - Emersion
         There is a withdrawal from the previous frantic search and a
         new identity that is characterized of immersion and the
         embracing of a new community of reeducated Whites where
         one can be rejuvenated and empowered in continuing one’s
         identity development.
Immersion and Emersion
   I know that I did not personally participate in
    the horror of slavery, and I don’t even know
    whether my ancestors owned slaves. But I
    know that because I am White, I continue to
    benefit from a racist system that stems from
    the slavery era.
   Stage VII - Autonomy
     Cognitively  complex and flexible person opened to
      opportunities to learn about other cultural groups.
      Work toward eliminating other forms of oppression
      (e.g. sexism, ageism). Opts to not be involved in
      activities that perpetuate racial oppression.
White Racial Consciousness
Development Model Ponterotto, 1988
   Pre-exposure
   Exposure
   Zealot-Defensive
   Integration
White Racial Consciousness
Development Model
    Pre-exposure
      Individuals have given little thought to MC issues.
       Generally naive about racial issues and their
       inherited privileges as Whites in America.
      Often believe that racism no longer exists and do
       not understand or comprehend the subtle notion of
White Racial Consciousness
Development Model
   Exposure
     Individuals enter stage when first confronted with
        MC issues (generally in MC course if student).
          Begin to understand institutional issues and issues
          faced by minority-group members. Initially, students
          feel a sense of empowerment over new and accurate
          info, but begin to realize that they have been lied to
          throughout their education.
       Begin to feel angry and guilt at the same time.
White Racial Consciousness
Development Model
   Zealot-Defensive
     Some   response zealously and become pro-minority
      in philosophy, dealing with their guilt
     Some respond to their anger and guilt in a
      defensive manner taking information defensively
      and withdrawing from the topic, with students sitting
      at the back of the class, with seldom or stop of
      participation in the class, avoiding eye contact with
      professor - blaming the professor as anti-White.
White Racial Consciousness
Development Model
    Integration
      Individuals are able to process and openly discuss
       feelings, accepting realities of modern racism and
       acknowledging their own contribution to racism.
      They feel good as members of White cultural
       group, wanting to know more about other groups,
       often devoting energy to other identity
       commitments such as gender to combat sexism or
Models of White Identity
    Hardiman, 1982
    Ponterotto, 1988
    Helms, 1992
    Sabnani, Ponterotto, and Borodovsky, 1991
Integration of Models
   PreExposure/PreContact
     Person  is unaware of social expectations and roles
      with regard to race. They have not yet begun to
      explore their own racial identity. There is an
      unconsciousness of whiteness, acceptance to
   Conflict
     Race  relations knowledge, an expansion of
      knowledge about race and racial interactions,
      new information challenges individual about
     Pressure to confirm from white acquaintances,
      wishing to uphold nonracist attitudes
   ProMinority/Actiracism
     Strong  pro minority
     Self focused anger or guilt

   Retreat into White Culture
     Retreatfrom minorities, challenged by peers who
      sense a disloyalty and betrayal
     Also questioned by minorities
   Redefinition
     More  balance identity
     Recognize their responsibilities
     Non racist identity
     Healed and healthy sense of self
     Flexible and opened to cultural learning

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