attitude and job satisfaction 2

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It is not the colour of the balloon, it
  is what is inside that makes it go
    The same thing applies to our
     lives. It is what is inside that
      The things that go up is our
  Attitude and Job Satisfaction
• We have to answer six questions about
  attitude to understand them
• What are the main components of
• How consistent are attitudes?
• Does behaviour always follow from
• What are the major job attitudes?
• How are employee attitudes measured?
• What is the importance of attitudes to
   workplace diversity?
• Job satisfaction –Measuring job
• How satisfied are people in their jobs
• What causes job satisfaction
• The impact of Dissatisfied and satisfied
   employee on the workplace
  Attitude and Job Satisfaction
What is Attitude ?
Attitudes represent beliefs feelings and
action tendencies towards objects –ideas or
This simple meaning has important
implication for managers
•Attitudes are learned

•Attitudes refer to feelings and beliefs of an
individual or groups of people

•The term attitude is in general terms the
positive or negative orientation of a person

   Attitude and Job Satisfaction
•The term attitude is being used quite
frequently nowadays in describing people’s

•There are two main senses in which it is

•One in general terms meaning the positive
or negative orientation of a person

  Attitude and Job Satisfaction
 For example when it is said that Mala has
  a positive attitude or that Geeta has a
  negative attitude
 - What is probably meant is that Mala’s
  general attitude orientation towards most
  things is positive
 -Whereas Geeta’s general orientation is
 -However this is not a correct usage of the
  term attitude

• Attitude always has a referent –an object
  towards which positive or negative
  orientation is implied
   Attitude and Job Satisfaction
• The term attitude is frequently used in
  describing people and explaining their
  behaviour. More precisely, an attitude can
  be defined as a persistent tendency to
  feel and behave in a particular way
  towards some object. For example,
  George does not like working in the night
  shift. He has negative attitude towards his
  work assignment.

   Attitude and Job Satisfaction
Sources of Attitudes
• Attitudes are basically learned
• People are not born with specific attitudes
  rather they acquire them through a
  process of learning –especially from the
1.Experience:Previous work experience can
  account for the individual differences in
  attitudes such as loyalty/commitment and

2. Association: People are highly influenced
   by the major groups or associations to
   which they belong
- Our geographic region, religion,
   educational background, race ,age and
   income /class –all strongly influence our
   Attitude and Job Satisfaction
3. Family : Family exerts influence on the
   initial core of attitudes held by an
    -individuals develop certain attitudes from
   their family
   members-parents,brothers,sisters etc
    -The family characteristics influence the
   individual’s attitude patterns to which he is
   initially exposed
    -Family is primary to the group which an
   individual belongs to
4.Peer group:As people approach their
   adulthood they increasingly rely on their
  peer groups for approval/attitude
   -How others judge an individual largely
  determines his self image and
  approval-seeking behaviour
   -We often seek out others who share
  attitudes similar to our own,or else we
  change our attitudes to conform to the
  attitudes of those in the group whose
  approval is important
   Attitude and Job Satisfaction
5.Society;Social class and religious
  affiliation also play a vital role in forming
  attitudes of an individual
   -The culture,language,and structure of
  society all provide an individual with the
  boundaries of his initial attitudes

6.Personality factors: Personality
  differences between individuals play a
  major role in the formation of attitudes.
   -This particular area has been the subject
  matter of great interest and it carries a
  great deal of weight in organisational
  Attitude and Job Satisfaction
• To understand attitudes we need to
  consider their fundamental properties
• We will answer six question about
  attitudes that will help us understand them
• 1.What are the main components of
• 2.How consistent are attitudes?
• 3.Does behavior always follow from
• 4.What are the major job attitudes?
• 5.How are employee attitudes measured?
• 6.What is the importance of attitudes to
  workplace diversity?
    Work Related Components of
       Attitude(ABC Model)
   Attitude and Job Satisfaction
• In organizations attitudes are important
  because of their behavioral component

• If workers believe for example-that
  supervisors –auditors-bosses are all in
  conspiracy to make employees work
  harder for same or less money

• We have to understand how these
  attitudes were formed-their relationship to
  actual job behavior-and how they might
  be changed

   Attitude and Job Satisfaction
How consistent are attitudes?
• Did you ever notice how people change
  what they say so it doesn’t contradict what
  they do ?-Indian cars isn’t up to that of the
  import brands –but changes when dad
  buys Scorpio Mahindra
• Research has generally concluded that
  people seek consistency among their
  attitudes and between their attitudes and
  their behavior

• This means that individuals seek to
  reconcile divergent attitudes and align
  their attitudes and behavior so they
  appear rational and consistent
• Alter either attitude and behavior or
  develop rationalization for the
  Attitude and Job Satisfaction
How consistent are attitudes?
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
• Festinger’s theory of cognitive
  dissonance is one of the best known and
  most researched frameworks pertaining
  to attitude change

• According to this theory attitude change is
  caused by conflict among beliefs
       The Theory of Cognitive
• Dissonance normally occurs when a
  person perceives a logical inconsistency
  among his or her cognitions. This
  happens when one idea implies the
  opposite of another.

-    For example, a belief in animal rights
    could be interpreted as inconsistent with
    eating meat or wearing fur. Noticing the
    contradiction would lead to dissonance,
    which could be experienced as anxiety,
    guilt, shame, anger, embarrassment,
    stress, and other negative emotional
    states. When people's ideas are
    consistent with each other, they are in a
    state of harmony, or consonance.
-    If cognitions are unrelated, they are
    categorized as irrelevant to each other
    and do not lead to dissonance.
• Examples
• The classical version of this idea is
  expressed in the Aesop fable, The Fox
  and the Grapes, in which a fox sees some
  high-hanging grapes and wishes to eat

•    However, unable to think of a way to
    reach them, he surmises that the grapes
    are probably not worth eating anyway
    (that they are not yet ripe or that they are
    too sour). In the story, the dissonance of
    the desire for something unattainable (the
    desire versus the un fulfillment) is
    reduced by irrationally deciding that
    which is desired must be flawed (Sour
• Smoking is often postulated as an
  example of cognitive dissonance because
  it is widely accepted that cigarettes cause
  lung cancer, yet virtually everyone wants
  to live a long and healthy life.

-     In terms of the theory, the desire to live a
    long life is dissonant with the activity of
    doing something that will most likely
    shorten one's life. The tension produced
    by these contradictory ideas can be
    reduced by quitting smoking, denying the
    evidence of lung cancer, or justifying
    one's smoking.
• For example, smokers could rationalize
  their behavior by concluding that only a
  few smokers become ill, that it only
  happens to very heavy smokers, or that if
  smoking does not kill them, something
  else will.
    Attitudes and job satisfaction
Does Behavior always follow attitudes?
• Early research on attitudes assumed that
  attitudes were related to
  behavior-attitudes that people hold
  determine what they do

• Common sense too suggests a
- Logical that people watch television
  programs that thy say they like
- employees try to avoid assignments they
  find distasteful
Measuring the A-B Relationship
• Recent research indicates that
  attitudes (A) significantly predict
  behaviors (B) when moderating
  variables are taken into account.
Self-Perception Theory
      Self-Perception Theory
Self-perception theory is an account of
  attitude change developed by
  psychologist, Daryl Bem. It asserts that
  we develop our attitudes by observing our
  own behavior and concluding what
  attitudes must have caused them

• Self-Perception Theory provides an
  alternative explanation for cognitive
  dissonance effects. For example
  Festinger and Carlsmith's experiment
  where people were paid $1 or $20 to lie.
  Cognitive dissonance says that people
  felt bad about lying for $1 because they
  could not justify the act.
• Self-perception takes an 'observer's
  view, concluding that those who were
  paid $1 must have really enjoyed it
  (because $1 does not justify the act)
  whilst those who were paid $20 were just
  doing it for the money.

       Contd-Self perception
• When your attitudes have been
  established for a while and are well
  defined those attitudes are likely to guide

   Attitude and Job Satisfaction
Work Attitudes

• In relation to organisations the general
  meaning of attitude is applied to work
• Work attitudes are reflected in job
  satisfaction and in organisational

Job satisfaction
• Job satisfaction includes various aspects-
  the nature of the job itself ,the
  compensation a person gets by working
  on the ,growth opportunities,opportunities
  for career advancement,the
  organisational climate,the behaviour of
  the superior and co-workers and so on
  Attitude and Job Satisfaction
• Job satisfaction leads to improved
  performance and retention of personnel in
  the organisation
• Recruitment policies,placement practices
  ,development schemes etc contribute to
  job satisfaction
             Job Attitudes
• A person can have thousands of attitudes
  but OB focuses on a very limited number
  of work related attitudes
• These work related attitudes tap positive
  or negative evaluation that employees
  hold about aspects of their work
• Most of the research in OB has been
  concerned with three attitudes
• Job Satisfaction
• Job involvement
• Organizational commitment

   Types of Attitudes
  Other Job Attitudes
An Application: Attitude
Sample Attitude Survey
Attitudes and Workforce
• Training activities that can
  reshape employee attitudes
  concerning diversity:
   – Participating in diversity training
     that provides for self-evaluation
     and group discussions.
  – Volunteer work in community and
    social serve centers with
    individuals of diverse
  – Exploring print and visual media
    that recount and portray diversity
     Job Satisfaction
• Measuring Job Satisfaction
  – Single global rating-1-5 scale
  – Summation score-key elements
    in job/pay promotion,
    opportunities, relations with co
• How Satisfied Are People in
  Their Jobs?
  – Job satisfaction declined to
    50.4% in 2002
  – Decline attributed to:
      • Pressures to increase productivity
        and meet tighter deadlines
      • Less control over work
 How Employees Can
Express Dissatisfaction
  Responses to Job
  The Effect of Job
   Satisfaction on
Employee Performance
• Satisfaction and Productivity
   – Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily
     more productive.
   – Worker productivity is higher in
     organizations with more satisfied
• Satisfaction and Absenteeism
   – Satisfied employees have fewer
     avoidable absences.
• Satisfaction and Turnover
   – Satisfied employees are less likely to
   – Organizations take actions to retain
     high performers and to weed out lower
   Job Satisfaction and
• Satisfaction and Organizational
  Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
   – Satisfied employees who feel
     fairly treated by and are trusting
     of the organization are more
     willing to engage in behaviors
     that go beyond the normal
     expectations of their job.
   Job Satisfaction and
 Customer Satisfaction
• Satisfied employees increase
  customer satisfaction because:
  – They are more friendly, upbeat,
    and responsive.
  – They are less likely to turnover
    which helps build long-term
    customer relationships.
• Dissatisfied customers
  increase employee job
• Leads to unionization ,stealing
- Undue socializing

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