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The Legacy of War

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					The Legacy of War
          The First World War
• Known as the ‘the war to end all wars’

• Hostilities of WW1 ended with the signing of
  an armistice on Nov.11, 1918

  – Agreement amongst warring countries to stop
    fighting and move to a peace conference
                Legacy of War
• Early next year, delegates from the belligerents
  (countries who participated in the war) met in
  Paris to discuss the terms of peace

• Victors of the war set the terms of peace
              Legacy of War
• The task was daunting

• Peacemakers wanted to design an
  international system to make another war
  unlikely
            Building the Peace
• Fourteen Points
  – President Woodrow Wilson of the US, released a
    document called the fourteen points

  – Originally released to convince the American
    public that the sacrifices made during the war
    were justified
Woodrow Wilson
             Fourteen Points
• President Wilson then took these same
  fourteen points to the Paris Peace Conference.

• Tried to convince the Europeans that these
  points could be the foundation for a lasting
  peace.

• The points were in organized into two
  categories
                 Group One
• Points 1 - 5 were a new idea about how
  countries should work together.

• Idea was called Internationalism
  – For internationalism to work countries would have
    to put aside selfish feelings (nationalism)
  – Ethnic groups would be allowed to create new
    countries based on nationalist desires
                 Group 2
• Points 6 - 8 explained how the lands that
  Germany conquered should be dealt with

• Points 9 - 14 referred to the ethnic desires
  of the people living in Central and Eastern
  Europe.
   – Would give Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, and
     Poles a homeland.
   – These people given their own country, and must
     be fair to avoid more conflicts.
   – Austria-Hungary empire would no longer exist
 The Paris Peace Conferences –
    The Treaty of Versailles

• Treaty of Versailles
  – Possibly most important international
    agreement of the 20th century

  – Representatives from Allied Powers met at
    the Paris Peace Conferences to decide what
    would happen to the defeated countries

  – Very difficult to do, wanted to prevent
    another war from occurring
        Paris Peace Conference
• Realism vs. Idealism

• Realists believed Germany should be dealt
  with very harshly so they would physically not
  be able to go to war again

• Idealists argued that punishing Germany
  would cause the Germans to become bitter
  and may cause them to seek revenge
            Realism vs Idealism
• President Woodrow Wilson (US) was an idealist

• Prime Minister Georges Clemensceau (France)
  was a realist

• These two represented the two sides at the
  conference
          Realist France
• Because France was located next to
  Germany, they wanted Germany to be
  crippled/dismantled.

• France wanted Germany to pay for all the
  damage they caused during the war

• Paying for these damages was called
  reparations
              Neutral Britain
• Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Britain
  fell between idealism and realism

• Wanted revenge on Germany

• But didn’t want to cripple them because they
  wanted to trade with them in the future
        The Treaty of Versailles
• In the end, the treaty that was signed was a
  compromise between both sides.

• Arguably the worst of both

• Two very important ideas emerged
  – 1. Self-determination
  – 2. The War Guilt Clause
       Self-Determination

• Self-Determination meant that ethnic
  groups could vote on the issue of whom
  they would prefer to live with or be
  governed by

• To implement self-determination each
  ethnic group in Europe had to have their
  own homeland
           Self-Determination
• Finding land for each ethnic group was
  extremely difficult, and the borders of
  European countries already existed, making it
  much harder

• Two new states (countries) were created
  – Czechoslovakia
  – Yugoslavia
Self-Determination
           Self-Determination
• President Wilson didn’t expect that German
  people would have right to self-determination

• Many significant groups were not given a
  homeland, but were forced to live in another
  country
         Self-Determination
• Unfulfilled self-determination led to
  future conflict (as we will see)
• Some exceptions were
  – Sudetan Germans in Czechoslovakia
  – 1 million Poles in Czechoslovakia
  – Germans in Polish corridor
  – 50-50 split of Germans and French people in
    Alsace-Lorraine
  – The Irish
Polish Corridor
          The War Guilt Clause
• The War Guilt Clause stated that Germany
  alone must accept responsibility for causing
  the war

• Included to justify the punishments the allies
  wanted to place against Germany
The War Guilt Clause
           The War Guilt Clause
• Caused
  – Germans to protest
  – German Chancellor to resign
  – German sailors scuttled (sank) the German fleet
    so the Allies couldn’t have them

• No protests worked
  – Germans had to sign the Treaty of Versailles or the
    Allies would resume hostilities (fighting)
The War Guilt Clause
 Summary of Provisions of the Treaty of
              Versailles
• 1. The War Guilt Clause
• 2. Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
• 3. Poland was given a strip of land (from
  Germany) to give them access to the sea - called
  the Polish Corridor
• 4. Germans and other central powers had to
  surrender all of their colonies to the League of
  Nations
Alsace-Lorraine
Europe 1914
Europe 1919
Summary of Provisions of the Treaty of
             Versailles

• 5. German army was limited to 100,000 men,
  navy also very restricted in size

• 6. Germany also forced to surrender entire
  merchant fleet to compensate for Allies shipping
  losses during the war
Summary of Provisions of the Treaty of
             Versailles
• 7. West bank of Rhine River Valley (on border of
  France and Germany) was to be demilitarized.

• Allied armies occupied this bank for 15 years
  after WW1.

• Rhineland area known as a ‘buffer zone’ since
  Germany was not allowed to have military
  activity in this area
Europe 1919
Summary of Provisions of the Treaty of
             Versailles

• 8. Union between Austria and Germany was
  forbidden

• 9. The constitution of the League of Nations
  was to be included as part of the treaty
   Failures of the Treaty of Versailles

• Treaty of Versailles had many shortcomings

• These problems helped cause WW2
   Failures of the Treaty of Versailles
• Examples
  – groups left without a homeland kept a strong feeling
    of nationalism that can lead people to war

  – Germans were angry that they were blamed for the
    war, and left so crippled after the Treaty of Versailles.

  – Forced to pay extreme penalties for ‘starting the war’
Failures of the Treaty of Versailles

– Hitler will use his view point of the treaty to gain
  support and to get help overthrowing the German
  government.

– Treaty that ended WW1 was a major cause of WW2
Effects of the War
         International Effects
• Approximately 10 million people died in
  battle.

• An additional 20 million were casualties
  (wounded in action)
         International Effects
• The war cost $200 billion, which left most of
  Europe bankrupt.

• In today’s currency that would be well into the
  trillions
          International Effects
• The Ottoman Empire fell apart

• Austria-Hungary disintegrated
    – Created Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia
    – Made Romania and Bulgaria larger


•
Europe 1914
Europe 1919
         International Effects
• Poland became an independent nation

  – Previously under Russian and German control


• 3 governments that were ruled by kings were
  replaced with democratic governments.
  • Germany, Austria, Turkey
  • Russia first ever communist country
         International Effects
• Germany was forced to pay for all of the
  damages caused by war

• Was forced to admit that they were at blame
  for the war

• Many refugees in Europe fled their home
  countries
      Effects of WW1 in Canada
• Summarized as a nation “coming to maturity”

• Business, government, and military all
  matured (grew) rapidly

• Canada became more of an independent
  country because of their contributions to the
  Allied effort
   Changes that affected Canada
• At Paris Peace Conference Canada was given a
  separate seat and signature from Britian.

• Also eventually given separate seat in the
  League of Nations (now the United Nations)
   Changes that affected Canada
• Women were recognized as workers during
  the war, since they held positions that
  previously only men had held

• As a result Canadian women gained the right
  to vote federally in 1917
   Changes that affected Canada
• Canadian troops gained world recognition for
  battle victories (Vimy Ridge and
  Passchendaele)
   Changes that affected Canada
• After the war, Canada’s population increased
  due to immigration

• Canada also saw significant economic growth
  during and after the war
Changes that affected Canada
   Changes that affected Canada
• War cost the Canadian government $3 billion
  dollars.

• To pay off the debt, Canadian government
  introduced income tax in 1917
   Changes that affected Canada
• Over 60,000 Canadians were killed in action,
  and 178,000 were wounded

• Issue of conscription deepened (worsened)
  the difference and conflict between French
  and English Canadians
       Changing Map of Europe
• Peace agreements at Paris Peace Conference
  re-drew the map of Eastern Europe.

• The ideas that led to these changes were self-
  determination (especially Central and Eastern
  Europe), idea that territories acquired during
  the war would be returned, and the victors
  (allies) would ‘write the rules’
       Changing Map of Europe
• German interests were completely ignored
  when Poland was given access to the sea by
  creating the Polish Corridor (previously
  German territory)

• Czechoslovakia was created and held over 2.5
  million Germans

• Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
      Changing Map of Europe
• These changes were not the main cause of
  WW2
  – Did create mind set among German people that
    made a war more likely

				
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