Manipulation

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					  Manipulation
  of Words and
the Stroop Effect



              Chelsey Sullivan
   Haymon-Morris Middle School




                             1
Table of Contents:

Page 1…………………………..Topic

Page 2…………………………..Table of Contents

Page 3…………………………...Purpose, Hypothesis, and
                   Materials

Page 4…………………………..Variables

Page 5…………………………..Procedure

Page 6…………………………..Data

Page 7…………………………..Data (continued)

Page 8…………………………..Conclusion and
                  Background Information

Page 9………………………….. Bibliography




                                              2
Purpose:

The purpose of this experiment is to determine if the

manipulation of words eliminates the Stroop Effect.




Hypothesis:

If I bend colored words into circles, then it will eliminate

the Stroop Effect.




Materials:

  o Computer with a colored printer

  o Stopwatch

  o 12 Volunteers




                                                               3
Variables:

Manipulated Variables-
 o Direction of words (clockwise or counter-clockwise)

  o Ink color (same as word, or different from word)



Controlled Variables-
  o Order that the tests are given in

  o General age group of volunteers

  o Same time of day

  o Tests are taken in the same room

  o Same amount of lighting

  o Same stopwatch is used for every volunteer on each
    test




                                                         4
Procedure:

1. Print out the 6 color word charts.

2. Tell the volunteer what they are supposed to do.

3. Time how long it takes for the volunteer to read the
matching ink color, clockwise color words.

4. Time how long it takes for the volunteer to read the non-
matching ink color, clockwise color words.

5. Time how long it takes for the volunteer to read the
matching ink color, counter-clockwise color words.

6. Time how long it takes for the volunteer to read the non-
matching ink color, counter-clockwise color words.

7. Time how long it takes for the volunteer to read the
matching ink color, regular (line) color words.

8. Time how long it takes for the volunteer to read the non-
matching ink color, counter-clockwise color words.

9. Calculate the average time to read each chart.

                                                           5
10. Calculate the time difference between each of the
related averages (ex. non-matching ink color, clockwise
color words -minus- matching ink color, clockwise color
words).

Data:

Volunteer   C (same ink)     C (diff. ink)
   1        1 min. 15 sec.   1 min. 31 sec.
   2         1 min. 6 sec.   1 min. 25 sec.
   3         1 min. 4 sec.   1 min. 11 sec.
   4        0 min. 58 sec.   1 min. 10 sec.
   5        0 min. 50 sec.    1 min. 6 sec.
   6         1 min. 6 sec.   1 min. 22 sec.
   7        0 min. 54 sec.   1 min. 20 sec.
   8        0 min. 54 sec.    1 min. 8 sec.
   9         1 min. 2 sec.   1 min. 10 sec.
   10        1 min. 0 sec.   1 min. 13 sec.
   11       0 min. 53 sec.    1 min. 6 sec.
   12       0 min. 53 sec.    1 min. 0 sec.

Volunteer CC (same ink)      CC (diff. ink)
   1         1 min.              2 min.
   2         1 min.           2 min. 8 sec.
   3         1 min.          1 min. 41 sec.
   4         1 min.          2 min. 48 sec.
   5         0 min.          1 min. 53 sec.
   6      1 min. 10 sec.     1 min. 34 sec.
   7      0 min. 58 sec.     1 min. 39 sec.

                                                          6
   8        1 min. 18 sec.   2 min. 24 sec.
   9        1 min. 12 sec.    4 min 1 sec.
   10       1 min. 13 sec.   1 min 33 sec.
   11       1 min. 21 sec.   1 min. 51 sec.
   12       1 min. 0 sec.    1 min. 22 sec.

Volunteer    Line (same         Line (diff.
                ink)               ink)
   1        1 min. 6 sec.     1 min. 10 sec.
   2        0 min. 47 sec.    0 min. 52 sec.
   3        0 min. 49 sec.    0 min. 50 sec.
   4        0 min. 47 sec.    0 min. 52 sec.
   5        0 min. 41 sec.    0 min. 40 sec.
   6        0 min. 54 sec.    0 min. 55 sec.
   7        0 min. 47 sec.    0 min. 50 sec.
   8        0 min. 48 sec.    0 min. 52 sec.
   9        0 min. 44 sec.    0 min. 43 sec.
   10       0 min. 55 sec.    0 min. 59 sec.
   11       0 min. 44 sec.    0 min. 43 sec.
   12       0 min. 41 sec.    0 min. 46 sec.




                                               7
Conclusion:

     The Stroop Effect was not eliminated because when

the volunteers were reading the words, some of them

unknowingly said the ink color instead of the word.




Background Information:

     Will the manipulation of words eliminate the Stroop

Effect? Before we can answer that question, there are some

terms we need to know: Stroop Effect, attention,

perception, anterior cingulated gyrus, cognitive

psychology, and interference.

     The Stroop Effect was first determined by John Ridley

Stroop (thus the name Stroop Effect). Stroop published the

                                                             8
effect in 1935 in English (it had previously been published

only in German). The Stroop Effect refers to the process in

which ink color interferes with naming color-words.

     Attention is the process of focusing on one aspect of

the environment while ignoring others. In this experiment,

it’s hard to pay attention to pay attention to the word

instead of the ink color. Interference plays a role in this.

What is interference? It is when our ability to remember is

interrupted by what we have learned in the past. For

example, when you are trying to read the word “red” but

it’s printed in purple ink, your brain tell s you to read it as

“purple”. This is because the ink color “purple” is

processed by your eyes before you read the actual word

“red”.

     The anterior cingulated gyrus is the part of the brain

that processes emotions, learning, and memory. If you did

                                                                  9
not have this section of your brain, you would have no

emotions, you would do horribly in




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posted:4/24/2012
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