final report_.docx - Wikispaces by huangyuarong

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									Eco-Tourism at the
Norah Head Lighthouse
Precinct

  Prepared for: -   Norah Head Lighthouse Trust
                    Members


  Prepared by: -    Eco-Tourism Consultants
                    Vanessa Harrison & Peggy Traill




                    E.T.CONSULTANTS
                     Treading Lightly on the Earth”




                                        November 2011
                                                                                                                 E.T.CONSULTANTS
                                                                                                                  Treading Lightly on the Earth”




Contents
Acknowledgement .................................................................................................................................. 2
Executive summary ................................................................................................................................. 3
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 4
Background Information ......................................................................................................................... 4
Project Brief ............................................................................................................................................ 5
   Project Main Purpose: ........................................................................................................................ 6
   Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 6
   Objectives ........................................................................................................................................... 6
   Target Audience .................................................................................................................................. 7
Primary Research .................................................................................................................................... 8
Survey Collation and Results ................................................................................................................... 8
Summary of the Primary Research ....................................................................................................... 16
Summary of the Secondary Research ................................................................................................... 17
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 18
Recommendations ................................................................................................................................ 21
Appendices............................................................................................................................................ 24
   APPENDIX 1 Survey ........................................................................................................................... 25
   APPENDIX 2 Survey Permission letter ............................................................................................... 26
   APPENDIX 3 SWOT Analysis .............................................................................................................. 27
       SWOT Analysis Eco-tourism at Norah Head Lighthouse Precinct ................................................. 27
       SWOT Analysis Tours at Norah Head Lighthouse Precinct ........................................................... 28
   APPENDIX 4 Eco Certification Costs .................................................................................................. 29
   APPENDIX 5 K6 Board of Studies Syllibus.......................................................................................... 30
   APPENDIX 6 Lighthouse Models ....................................................................................................... 31
   APPENDIX 7 Secondary Research...................................................................................................... 33
   APPENDIX 8 Eco Certification Steps .................................................................................................. 36
Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................... 50




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                                                                   E.T.CONSULTANTS
                                                                    Treading Lightly on the Earth”

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank the following people for their help and contribution made available
to us whilst working on our project.

Norah Head Lighthouse Trust Members
We thank Joy Groves and Ron Stevens for their assistance throughout the project. For their
input and the information provided to us during our initial client meeting at the beginning of
the project.

Teachers
A big thank you to our teachers; Nicholle Henry, Jane Mylan and Leanne Nicholson for their
contribution, support and ideas throughout the project.

Volunteer at Norah Head Lighthouse
Thank you to the volunteer at the Lighthouse who shared information with us when we
visited the precinct at the beginning of our project.

General Public
Thank you to the General Public who completed our survey.




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                                                                    E.T.CONSULTANTS
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Executive summary


Background: - The intention of this project is to provide the Norah Head Lighthouse Trust
with information on the viability of Ecotourism at the Lighthouse Precinct. The Lighthouse
itself is heritage listed and the precinct contains great potential for Eco-tourism. Ecotourism
at the present is not an initiative attached to many attractions currently on the coast. Up-to-
date the Trust has received a number of grants for items such as public amenities and a
general clean-up of the area, however with Ecotourism the trust hope to move forward in
securing further grants for the precincts upkeep and development.

Purpose and Objectives of the Project: - The main purpose of the project is to come up with
ways of incorporating Ecotourism into the Lighthouse precinct to bring in revenue. The
objectives were also to incorporate environmentally sustainable activities to the Lighthouse
Precinct.

Surveys: - Previous projects for the Trust have focused on the development of the
Lighthouse and so we were able to focus our efforts on Ecotourism viability with our
surveying. Our results and charts show that what we propose in our recommendations for
both initial action and long-term is going to be revenue draws at the Lighthouse.

Primary Research:- Our primary research helped to identify areas of the precinct that can be
successfully developed and that although Ecotourism is important to people they do not
necessarily go looking specifically for Eco attractions and are not necessarily willing to pay
more for that attraction.

Secondary Research: - Our secondary research was very helpful in regards to innovations
for our recommendations with activities that are already successful at other Lighthouses
with similar setup. We also found a lot of information on Eco Certification and the processes
required to make it viable.

Recommendations: - Our recommendations come from both the primary and secondary
research conducted. They consist of ideas that can be initiated almost immediately, with
very little money spent. They have proved to be very successful at other Lighthouses in
drawing revenue. We also have ideas that can be developed once revenue begins to come
in, that we hope will, over a longer period provide the Lighthouse with larger amounts of
revenue.




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Introduction


The purpose of this project is to research Ecotourism ideas for the Norah Head Lighthouse
Trust which will increase revenue for the maintenance and upkeep of the Lighthouse.

We will investigate the Precinct of the Lighthouse through the conduction of primary and
secondary research in order to generate ideas for the Norah Head Lighthouse Trust to use.

Throughout the project, we will obtain assistance from our teachers, Trust Representatives
and secondary research sources such as internet websites and published works.

During the project, we will use the Project Objectives as a guideline and will suggest
recommendations at the end for the Norah Head Lighthouse Trust.




Background Information


Norah Head Lighthouse was opened on the 15th November 1903 by the Department of
Harbours and Rivers Superintendent. The Lighthouse is located halfway between The
Entrance and Budgewoi on the Central Coast, New South Wales. Norah Head Lighthouse
was the last manned Lighthouse built in New South Wales and the last major colonial
Lighthouse constructed in NSW.

The Lighthouse and the Lighthouse Keepers Cottages are heritage listed with tours of the
Lighthouse running every day except Friday.

Ecotourism in Australia is a growing trend with many certifications and awards being
presented to companies who fulfil certain criteria with their attractions. However, on the
central coast there are very few Ecotourism Certified attractions and very little competition.

Previous reports for the trust have focused on marketing and developing the Lighthouse
only as a way of bringing in revenue. They have focused on tours and the accommodation
available at the Lighthouse. They provide basic statistics for our project to develop further
into Ecotourism.

As a result of tireless work from the Trust and help from the past projects, the Trust has
recently managed to secure grants for public amenities on site and a clean-up of the
precinct.




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Project Brief
Client Name: Norah Head Light House Trust


Key Contacts: Joy Groves
              Ron Stevens



Background to project:

The inaugural meeting of the Trust was held on the 29 th October 2002, the New South Wales
minister for lands appointed the Norah Head Lighthouse Reserve Trust to manage the
community facilities and crown reserve. Community members are appointed to the reserve
trust board and are responsible for decisions and the implementation regarding the
management of the land.



The main aims of the Trust are:

    Conserve and manage the cultural significance of the place and in doing so enhance
     that significance;
    Conserve the setting and landscape of the place;
    Conserve the ecology of the place;
    Conserve the archaeological and Aboriginal value of the place;
    Conserve the significant built fabric of the place;
    Conserve the significant interior fabric of the place;
    Conserve the movable heritage of the place;
    As a place of significant environmental and cultural heritage, retain the site in public
     ownership;
    Optimise public access and land use consistent with the conservation of the place;
    Encourage tourism, cultural and recreational uses of the site having due regard to
     the conservation of the place.


The NHLHT has recently received grants to be used in preserving the area, and to provide
public amenities for visitors. The area covered by the trust contains a number of rare
species of flora and fauna, which are potential draw cards for both School and University
studies. The area also has a number of unique natural landmarks as well as The Lighthouse
and identified Aboriginal heritage sites.




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There are a number of plans to bring walking/cycle paths that connect the Light House to
the rest of the local region from The Entrance in the South to Budgewoi in the North.

The NHLHT needs to capitalise on this increased traffic to the site, which will result from the
building of these paths. The development of Ecotourism activities is one way of doing this.

Project Main Purpose:

Research and develop ideas that can be used to raise revenue, using Ecotourism for the
Norah Head Lighthouse Trust.

Scope

We are aware that NHLT has already received a couple of grants to be used to build public
amenities and clear the area of noxious plants. The recommendations we are looking for will
add to the value of these grants in developing the area as a place for visitors to enjoy the
Environment and the History for a fun day out. In the process of the project we will identify
potential projects that incorporate Ecotourism to bring revenue to the Lighthouse Trust. We
will investigate Eco Certification of the area, with ideas both for the short and long term.
Our ideas will stem from immediate revenue projects that through several phases the Trust
can put forward for funding for larger projects in time.

Objectives


       Identify ways of increasing revenue for the Lighthouse Trust in order to expand the
        prospects of Ecotourism as an option for future visitors to the site.


       Identify methods of incorporating Ecotourism/Sustainability activities into the
        features of the Lighthouse Precinct.


       Make recommendations in regard to Eco Certification of the Lighthouse.




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Target Audience


We have decided that the audiences we are going to target are:

      Central Coast Primary Schools
      Walkers
      Nature Lovers/Eco Minded Travellers
      Seniors
      Families




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     Primary Research

Survey Collation and Results




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                       Q1] Have you visited Norah Head Lighthouse?




                                 44%
                                                                   yes
                                                     56%
                                                                   no




As from previous groups results where they surveyed predominantly at the Lighthouse and
received a 95% YES to this question. Our results show an almost 50/50 result as we surveyed
not near the Lighthouse but different areas on the Central Coast.


                           Q2] What was the highlight of your visit?


                                       7%
                                            20%            Lighthouse
                           13%
                                                           Scenery

                      7%
                                                           Beach

                                                           Lighthouse Tour
                                              30%
                            23%
                                                           Rock Platform

                                                           Forest Walk



This chart shows the areas of the Precinct that are most enjoyed by the general public. This
information could be used to do one of two things:-

       1) Promote the areas that people enjoy the most.
       2) Come up with new activities to highlight or promote the areas that are not
          favoured by visitors.



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                     Q3] Do you belong to a Conservation Orientated
                                     Organisation?


                                           8%



                                                               Yes
                                                               No


                                    92%




This chart shows that not many people belong to an organisation that concerns itself with
conservation. However, the chart below shows that a large portion of people surveyed
believe that Ecotourism is important.

                      Q4] How important is Eco-tourism to you at the
                                       present?


                                   5%
                                          13%


                         29%                                  V.important

                                                              important

                                                              not vey

                                                53%           not at all




This chart supports the move to Ecotourism by the Trust because it shows that a lot of
people feel that it is important to be Eco wise in tourism.



However as the chart shows, only a smaller portion of people have actually visited an
Ecotourism attraction, but our research shows this could be due to the fact that there are
not a huge number of Eco-tourist attractions, especially on the Central Coast.


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                           Q5] Have you visited any Ecotourism
                                      attractions?




                                                    37%         Yes



                             63%                                no




Of the 37% of people who have visited an Eco-tourist attraction 60% did not choose the
attraction because it was Eco. This could be due to the marketing of the attraction as people
today are environmentally orientated. (Chart Q4)




                  Q5i] If yes, did you specifically choose to go because it
                                was an Ecotourism attraction?




                                                    40%         Yes
                                                                no

                             60%




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                       Q6] Would you be willing to pay more for an
                                Ecotourism attraction?




                                                              yes
                                                      50%
                             50%

                                                              no




Only 50% of people would be willing to pay more for an Eco Certified attraction rather than
a non-certified attraction.

                      Q7] What activities would you expect to have at
                                an Ecotourism attraction?



                                15%                                 Nature base
                                              24%
                                                                    Kayaking

                         16%                                        Diving
                                                                    culture
                                                13%
                                                                    Hiking
                               17%                                  Conservation
                                        15%




If the Lighthouse was to go Eco, these are the activities people would expect/want it to
have, all of which are achievable at the Lighthouse Precinct. Some such as Nature, Cultural
and Hiking activities are attractions that could be implemented almost instantly with little
money spent. Diving and Kayaking could be used to bring in revenue from a third party
company.




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                        Q8] If offered , which of the following tours
                                     would interest you?


                                10%
                                                               Ghost
                                                24%
                                                               Flora/Fauna
                       15%
                                                               Twilight
                                                               Aboriginal
                      8%                             14%       White settlement
                                                               Board-walk
                           9%
                                                               Bush Tucker
                                        20%




As shown in previous survey results, night tours are very popular and can be initiated almost
immediately with little money or changes required.



                    Q9] In your opinion, what is a suitable length of
                            time to participate in the tours?

                                         3%

                                              11%               30mins
                                  14%
                                                                1 hour
                                                                1.5 hour
                                25%
                                                                2 hour
                                                    47%
                                                                2+ hour




Most participants would like the tours to be about an hour in length which would mean that
there is plenty of time to have a number of tours in one day. This means that visitors will be
more likely to participate in a number of tours, spend longer at the area and spend more
money. These could be included in Central Coast day tours.


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                       Q10] What would your preferred method of
                               conducting the tour be?




                                            30%              Self-guided


                                                             Electronic. Self-
                                                             guided
                      54%
                                                             Tour guided

                                           16%




Over 50% of people would like a tour-guide to conduct the tours which would also help with
the Eco Certification steps.




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                          Q11] Would you utilise a purpose built
                               function/education centre?




                          47%

                                                     53%     Yes       No




One of our recommendations for the long term, is to have a function/education centre built
on the old quarry site. If this went ahead, 53% of people said they would utilise the
function/education centre for:



                         Q11i] If yes, what would you use it for?

                                   2%



                         23%

                                                                    Wedding
                                                   46%              Education
                                                                    Conference
                                                                    Other


                          29%




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Summary of the Primary Research


As part of our Primary Research, we visited the Lighthouse and the surrounding area where
we were able to survey the area and speak to one of the volunteer Lighthouse tour guides.

Our main source of Primary Research are our surveys. (Appendix 4) This research was
conducted at a broad number of locations on the Central Coast such as train stations, coffee
shops and Wyong hospital, to engage a large number of our target audiences.



    Out of the 135 people surveyed, over 50% said that they had visited the Lighthouse
     precinct and the two most popular highlights for people were the scenery and the
     beach.

    Although 2/3 of people surveyed think that Ecotourism is important, only 8% of
     people belong to a Conservation Orientated Organisation.

    Of the 37% of people who had visited an Eco attraction, only 40% of people visited
     because it was an Eco attraction.

    In ways of Ecotourism bringing in revenue, only 50% of people would be willing to
     pay more for a certified attraction compared to a non-certified attraction.

    Charts Q7] and Q8] show the activities people would expect the Lighthouse to have if
     it were to go Eco and the popularity of the tours we have suggested. Chart Q9]
     shows the general opinion of 1 hour to 1.5 hours long for the length of tours.

    Our primary results also show that a tour guide would be the preferred method of
     conducting the tours.




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Summary of the Secondary Research

Our main source of Secondary Research has come from researching additional Lighthouses
in New South Wales. The research was conducted over the internet from a variety of
websites that are listed in the bibliography.

Through conducting secondary research we have established who Norah Head Lighthouse’
competitors are in Australia; with the most popular Lighthouse being Cape Byron Lighthouse
and Cape Otway Light Station. We can see from this research what other Lighthouses are
currently accomplishing and gives a comparison of the different areas relevant to the Norah
Head Lighthouse.

We have looked at all areas of Lighthouses in Australia such as;

    Tours
    Prices
    Picnic areas
    Events: weddings, parties, conferences
    Educational / School programs
    Cafes
From this research we can see that Lighthouses with a café are much more popular than
those without. Lighthouses with a café obviously bring in more revenue than those without
one. Visitors to these Lighthouses are much more pleased with their visit when they can sit
down and have a coffee.

In order to increase revenue, we have researched urban gardening to expand the prospects
of Ecotourism as an option for future visitors to the Lighthouse. Urban gardening supports
growers from the local area and reduces the food mileage effect. Urban gardening for the
sites café will reduce the amount of waste that will be taken to the landfill sites and also
cuts pollution. From research undertaken, we can see that urban gardening is a proactive
approach to Ecotourism.

From this research we can see what facilities and programs could be applied to Norah Head
Lighthouse and how these short term and long term ways of updating the Lighthouse can
bring in revenue.

(Refer to Appendix 6 and 7 for more information)




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Eco Certification Program




The Eco Certification logo is a worldwide recognised brand which supports travellers to
choose and experience an authentic tour, attraction, cruise or accommodation that is
environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. The Eco Certification program
guarantees travellers that certified products are supported by a strong, well-managed
commitment to sustainable practices and supplies high quality nature based tourism
experiences.

Eco Certification has three levels of achievement. To apply for Eco Certification you will
need to obtain all core criteria.

Eco Certification fees:

Gross Annual Turnover is under $250,000.00
The once only application fee is $345.00
Ongoing annual fee is $410.00

Eco Certification – 3 Levels

Nature Tourism

Nature Tourism is tourism in a natural area that leaves minimal impact on the environment.

Norah Head Lighthouse has met all core criteria which covers business and environmental
principles. This means that Norah Head Lighthouse already qualifies to apply for the Nature
Tourism Certification.




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Ecotourism

 Ecotourism is tourism in a natural area that offers interesting ways to learn about the
environment with an operator that uses resources wisely, contributes to the conservation of
the environment and helps local communities.

Norah Head Lighthouse still needs to meet some core criteria in order to qualify for
Ecotourism Certification.




Advanced Ecotourism

Australia’s leading and most innovative ecotourism products, providing an opportunity to
learn about the environment with an operator who is committed to achieving best practices
when using resources wisely, contributing to the conservation of the environment and
helping local communities.

In order to obtain Advanced Ecotourism Certification, Norah Head Lighthouse needs to
complete all core criteria and at least 75% of advanced criteria applicable to the products.




Please refer to Appendix 7 to see how the core criteria can be met in order to obtain the
Ecotourism Certification.




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Conclusion


Through the conduction of Primary and Secondary research, we can conclude that the ideas
we have come up with and put forward in our recommendations. The primary research
supports the developments of new tours and methods of conduction at the Lighthouse as
ways of bringing people to the Lighthouse and revenue to the Trust.

Through Secondary research we have discovered several other Lighthouses (APPENDIX 5)
whom we have used ideas from in our recommendations such as the tours that can be
conducted along with picnic ideas. The results from the surveys support the use of ideas
from these Lighthouse models as ways of bringing people and revenue to the Lighthouse at
Norah Head.

Through research and discussion we have found that Ecotourism and environmentally
sustainable activities will need to be incorporated slowly at the Lighthouse. Initial steps will
need to be put into place before other ideas can be found. In regards to Eco Certification,
this will be a process that will need to be taken by the Trust through initial steps in order to
fulfil Certification requirements, which are included in our recommendations and APPENDIX
7 Eco Certification summary.




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Recommendation’s


We suggest the trust take immediate steps to bring in revenue to innate the process of Eco
Certification. Once the steps have been taken we then have follow on recommendations to
increase the Eco activities that the Lighthouse precinct can offer. By initiating our
Ecotourism recommendations, we believe, based on the results of our primary research and
the success of other Lighthouse models, they will result in an increase of visitation to the
site, in turn a greater annual revenue turnover.

From the Objectives laid out in the Brief, our suggestions are as follows:

Initially:

     Promote the areas of the Lighthouse that people most enjoy
          The Lighthouse
          The Scenery
          The Beach

We can promote the Lighthouse, Scenery and the Beach by:

            Advertising Norah Head Lighthouse with signs around the Central Coast
            Distributing brochures to information centres on the Central Coast, Newcastle
             and Sydney to increase visitation.
            Advertise the potential tours that could be at the Lighthouse
             ( the general public have supported the ideas of new tours to be implemented )

             o    Ghost Tours
             o   Twilight Tours
             o   Flora and Fauna Tours
             o   Aboriginal Tours
             o   Bush Tucker Tours

These tours are extremely successful at the other Lighthouses we have researched in New
South Wales. Our survey shows the popularity of tours at the Lighthouse with Ghost,
Twilight and Flora/Fauna Tours being the highest recommendation with the length of the
tours to be one (1) hours or under. Over 50% of surveyors liked the idea of their tours to be
guided by a tour guide.




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    Come up with new ideas for the areas of Norah Head Lighthouse that the general
     public do not favour as a highlight to their visit.

   From our research conducted, the following areas were not an exciting highlight for their
   visit to Norah Head Lighthouse


          The Forest Walk
          The Lighthouse Tour
          The Rock Platform


To increase the visitation of the Lighthouse and the areas that are less interesting to the
public, we suggest;

    The Forest Walk -
     Acquiring a tour guide to take visitors on the walk
     Advertising the walk ensuring people that the walk is easy and quick, with lovely
     views and scenery

    The Lighthouse Tour -
     Taking visitors around the entire Lighthouse grounds to experience all areas whilst
     on the tour
     Implementing new tours such as; ghost, twilight, flora and fauna, aboriginal and bush
     tucker tours, as the general public are most interested in these tour ideas.

    The Rock Platform -
     For the Rock Platform to become one of the highlights of people’s visits to Norah
     Head Lighthouse, we suggest signs about history, shipwrecks and sea life to be
     placed around the platform.
     Advertising the Rock Platform as a place for fishing, whale watching, photography
     and scenic views to increase visitation.



    From our survey, we can see that if Ecotourism was to be implemented into the
     Lighthouse, some activities such as nature, culture and hiking tours could be
     implemented almost instantly. As well as diving and kayaking, this could be used to
     bring in revenue from a third party company. This would promote Norah Head
     Lighthouse in other businesses, while at the same time Norah Head Lighthouse could
     become a more popular attraction.


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 A recommendation for the long term is a purpose built function/education centre
  built on the quarry. In our survey, 53% of people said that they would use this
  centre, with 43% of people saying they would use this centre for weddings. This
  could bring in more visitors to the Lighthouse and therefore increase the revenue.

 We highly recommend a café being implemented on the site with an urban garden
  and worm farm on site as an Ecotourism strategy. A café will be one of the most
  popular aspects of the Lighthouse.




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Appendices




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APPENDIX 1 Survey




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APPENDIX 2 Survey Permission letter


                                                               Thursday, 15th September 2011




To whom it may concern,

As students of the Tourism Diploma at Ourimbah TAFE, we are conducting a survey to be
distributed within the community. We hope to collect feedback in regards to the
development of the Norah Head Lighthouse precinct as an eco-tourism attraction. From our
research we hope to establish if Eco-Tourism is a growing trend within our region. We also
want to determine how this will benefit the trust.

 The research we are conducting is on behalf of the Lighthouse trust and is purely for
research purposes only, and the information we receive will be private and confidential.

The survey outcomes will hopefully play an important role in supporting development ideas
that we hope to put forward to the trust.

If you require more information regarding the survey please do not hesitate to contact:

Vanessa Harrison             Peggy Traill          Nicholle Henry
0440927313                   0426824598

                                                   (TAFE Project Teacher)



Regards,

Vanessa Harrison + Peggy Traill
Tourism Diploma Students
Ourimbah TAFE




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APPENDIX 3 SWOT Analysis


SWOT Analysis Eco-tourism at Norah Head Lighthouse Precinct

Strength’s                                     Opportunities
     As there, are only a small number of         New and imaginative experiences not
       eco-tourist attraction on the Central         offered in the local and wider area.
       Coast, it would be a unique aspect to       Both initial opportunities and long
       the attraction with the right                 term opportunities that can flow in
       marketing and promotion.                      steps.
     As some people are willing to pay            New advertising opportunities.
       more for Eco-attractions, it could          More way ward for receiving grants.
       earn more revenue.                          Gives a direction to move into that is
     Many people at present are very                up and coming.
       environmentally minded.                     New tour package opportunities.
     Government are pushing                       Joining and creating new agreements
       environmental thinking and so                 with other eco attractions.
       grants maybe easier to receive.             Conservation initiatives
     As the precinct is very                      Ideas and activities are required that
       environmentally diverse area the              can be initiated into eco-activities
       opportunities could eventually be             eventually.
       very great.
Weakness                                       Threats
     Money required straight up for Eco           Cost more to initiate than brings in.
       Certification.                              The weather and extreme conditions
     Tour-guides need to be paid.                    experienced by the area.
     Not going to bring in a huge amount          People living in the Norah Head area
       of revenue on its own.                         could bring opposition to ideas.
     Going to mean a lot of money for             Maintaining Eco Certification
       ideas.
     Some people are not going to pay
       more whether it is Eco Certified or
       not.
     At present it is a long way to go for
       some people for what is available.




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SWOT Analysis Tours at Norah Head Lighthouse Precinct



Strength’s                                      Opportunities
     A wide variety of tours to choose from        The Central Coast does not have
       – ghost, flora/fauna, twilight, board-         many tourist attractions, by having
       walk, white settlement, aboriginal,            a wide range of tours at the
       bush tucker.                                   Lighthouse, it can promote Norah
     Prices will be affordable                       Head as a key tourist attraction on
     Student, concession, family rates               the Central Coast
                                                    Bring in more revenue


Weakness                                        Threats
   No bathrooms
   Advertising of tours – we need more               The weather at the Lighthouse and
     promotion of tours                                surrounding area.
   Need more tour guides                             The people who live in the Norah
   Need more funding support                          Head area.
   Paying wages to tour guide




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APPENDIX 4 Eco Certification Costs


How much will Eco Certification cost?

All applications are subject to an upfront assessment fee (based on the gross annual turnover
of the products you are certifying). Once certification has been granted, an ongoing annual
fee will be applicable each year to retain your certification. A signed declaration will also be
required with your annual fee payment to ensure that the standards committed to in your
application have not been altered by changes in the business.

                                ECO Certification Fees
                                                               Ongoing Annual Fee*^
Your Gross Annual Turnover Once-only Application Fee
                                                            (includes membership to EA)
         < $250,000                        345                            410
   $250,001 - $1,000,000                   395                            605
  $1,000,001 - $5,000,000                  495                            845
 $5,000,001 - $10,000,000                  595                           1005
       > $10,000,001                       795                           1115
      *Due when certification has been granted, then each year on the anniversary
                                     of this date.
         ^Discounted annual fees apply for those with multiple certifications.

             All workbook applications will be subject to an additional cost
              to cover the production and postage of the workbook ($75).


* Turnover will be required to be substantiated on audit.

Note: a small fee may be applicable to applications containing 10 or more products in order
to cover assessor’s costs (for companies with turnovers less than $250,000)




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APPENDIX 5 K6 Board of Studies Syllabus
http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/files/hsie/k6hsie_stg2_unitsofwork.pdf

Page 27




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APPENDIX 6 Lighthouse Models


Lighthouse Tours of New South Wales



Lighthouse Norah                Cape             Cape              Smoky                 Barranjoey
           Head                 Otway            Byron             Cape                  at Palm
                                                                                         Beach
Type of        Light Keeper     Light Keeper’s   Historic Cape     Smoky Cape            Barranjoey
               Lighthouse       Shipwreck        Byron             Lighthouse            Lighthouse
tour           Tour             Discovery Tour   Lighthouse        Tour                  Tour

Price of       Adults $10       Adults $39.95    Adults $8         Adults $8             Adults $3
               Child $6         Child $19.95     Child $6          Child $6              Child $2
tour           Concession $6    Concession       Family $25
               Family $26       $35.95
Times of       10am,10.10am,    10am-12pm        11am, 12pm,       Monday,               Every Sunday
               11am,11.30am,    2pm-4pm          2pm               Wednesday,            weather
tour           12pm,12.30pm,                     Tues-Thurs        Friday at 1pm         permitting
               1pm,1.30pm                        10am, 11pm,
                                                 12.30pm
                                                 Saturday
                                                 3.30pm




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Lighthouse Accommodation of New South Wales



Lighthouse Norah             Cape               Cape              Smoky                Barrenjoey
           Head              Otway              Byron             Cape                 at Palm
                                                                                       Beach
Type         2 Self-         6 houses           2 cottages        2 cottages           Accommodation
             contained       ranging from       available up to   available            not available at
             cottages        2-16 guests        6 people                               Lighthouse.
             Max 8 people                                                              Accommodation
                                                                                       avail in Palm
                                                                                       Beach
Price        Cottages        Head Light         Assistant        Price on             Accommodation
             Approx. $200-   Keepers House       Lighthouse       request              starting from
             $300 p/n        (whole house        Keepers                               around $225
                             or main             Cottages                              and ranges up
                             section)-           June/July                             to around
                             $350 p/n mid        holidays:                             $1500 a night
                             week 2 guests       $2400 per                             for up to 8
                                                 week                                  people in most
                             Head Light         Sept/Oct                              places.
                             Keepers B&B         holidays:
                             $225 p/n mid        $2500 per
                             week 2 guests       week
                                                Easter:
                             Managers            $3700 per
                             House (whole        week
                             house or main      Christmas
                             section)            week: $3600
                             $350 p/n mid       New year
                             week 2 guests       week: $3850
                                                2nd week
                             Managers B&B        January:
                             $225 p/n mid        $3100
                             week 2 guests      3rd and 4th
                                                 week
                                                 January:
                                                 $2600 per
                                                 week




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APPENDIX 7 Secondary Research
Secondary research was conducted on Lighthouses in New South Wales to find new ideas
and show a comparison for Norah Head Lighthouse.

Lighthouse Competitors in New South Wales –

Fingal Head Lighthouse, Cape Byron Lighthouse, Richmond River Lighthouse, Clarence River
Lighthouse, South Solitary Lighthouse, Smokey Cape Lighthouse, Port Stephens Lighthouse,
Nelson Head Lighthouse, Cape Otway Light Station.

These Lighthouses situated between Eden and Byron Bay, offer various events, tours and
programs to a diverse range of tourists.



                            Lighthouse’s in New South Wales

Cape Otway Lighthouse

             The most significant, oldest and surviving lighthouse in Australia since 1848.
              The lighthouse offers different types of tours from guided to self-guided, the
              Light Keeper’s Shipwreck Discovery Tours and The Great Ocean Walk.

             Cape Otway offers special events for tourists with pervious events including;
              Apollo Bay Music Festival, Lorne Sculpture Exhibition, Halloween and the
              International Lighthouse Weekend.

             Cape Otway also offers educational learning for primary and secondary
              schools. Students are taken on a camping tour around the lighthouse which
              help the students engage with the culture and history of the surrounding
              environment.

             Accommodation is offered at Cape Otway as well a café for the comfort and
              ease of visitors.

             Café is open from 930am-430pm every day. The produce is fresh e.g: eggs
              laid by hens on the property. Cape Otway strives to source all food locally.

             Historic Light Keeper’s Cottage Lunch – homemade hearty food served



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Cape Byron Lighthouse

           Cape Byron is the most easterly mainland point of Australia. With a beam
            equivalent to 2,200,000 candles, the light is one of the most powerful
            lighthouses in the southern hemisphere.

           Cape Byron Reserve is managed by the Cape Byron Trust which is a voluntary,
            not for profit, community body.

           Services offered at Cape Byron include;

            - National Parks and Wildlife Service – Cape Byron Trust – Lighthouse Tour.
            This is a 40 minute guided tour of the historic lighthouse, maritime history of
            the surrounding area, and a walk up the lighthouse.

            - Cape Byron State Conservation Area Walking Track – 3.7km loop taking in the
            Captain Cook Lookout, Palm Valley, Wategos Beach and the Lighthouse.

            - Cape Byron Café: offers spectacular views of the whole of Byron Bay, Julian
            Rocks, and Mt Warning. Food is local from restaurants and cafés in Byron Bay.

           Accommodation is offered at the lighthouse in the Assistant Keepers Cottages
            which are provided by the National Parks Wildlife Service.




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As part of our secondary research, we researched ways to bring in revenue to Norah Head
Lighthouse. A Lighthouse in Canada named ‘Lighthouse Picnics’, offer picnics at the
Lighthouse provided by the Lighthouse itself. This Lighthouse is very well known and has
become extremely successful.

From family picnics, to romantic picnics, lunch, afternoon and children’s picnics, they will
provide you with blankets, pillows and the menu.


One of our objectives for this project is to

       Identify ways of increasing revenue for the Lighthouse Trust in order to expand the
       prospects of Ecotourism as an option for future visitors to the site.

To increase revenue for Norah Head Lighthouse, we have researched ways to implement
Ecotourism to the site. Through our research we have found that urban gardening will
promote an Eco-friendly environment to the Lighthouse.

Urban gardening brings sustainable food production, processing and distribution back into
urban areas. The benefits that urban gardening can have for Norah Head Lighthouse are;

   -   Encouraging towards the community and educational involvement
   -   Supports local growers
   -   Fresh produce
   -   Reduces “food mileage” effect
   -   Composting packaging reduces environmental effects of food
   -   Reduces the amount of waste that needs to be taken to the landfill sites and cuts
       pollution
   -   Contributes to the health and well-being of people, animals and the environment




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APPENDIX 8 Eco Certification Steps


Summary of ECO Certification 2009

Background

ECO Certification was designed and developed for the Australian tourism industry and the
first step is a self-assessment model.

ECO Certification includes comprehensive coverage of the triple-bottom line Sustainability
method: economic, environmental and social/cultural sustainability.

ECO Certification is product-specific – this means that you will need to answer the criteria as
it applies specifically to each of your products. This also means that you are able to apply for
ECO Certification even if not all of your products are nature-based.

The credibility of the program is maintained through a comprehensive, third party,
independent audit process.

ECO Certification - 3 Levels

ECO Certification has three levels of achievement. Three levels of certification were
developed to accommodate for a range of businesses and their level of commitment to
sustainability, dedication/applicability to social and cultural responsibilities and the level of
interpretation and education involved in the product/s.

Nature Tourism

o To apply for Nature Tourism Certification you will need to complete all core criteria in
sections 1-6, covering business and environmental principles only

o This level is most suited to accommodation products that do not incorporate any
interpretation/education

Ecotourism

o To apply for Ecotourism Certification, you will need to complete all core criteria for all
sections, covering business, environmental, social/cultural and interpretation/education
principles.

Advanced Ecotourism

o To apply for Advanced Ecotourism Certification, you will need to complete all core criteria
and at least 75% of advanced criteria applicable to your product/s. This level also covers
business, environmental, social/cultural and interpretation/education principles.
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o Those businesses that achieve Advanced Ecotourism Certification and have cultural
content and/or enter into lands significant to Indigenous people are automatically eligible
for ROC accreditation (only available in a workbook version – contact Ecotourism Australia
for further information).

**Exemptions to core criteria are permitted where the criteria are deemed inappropriate
(evidence from you is required) **

Summary of ECO Certification 2009

How do I go about getting certified?

1. Contact Ecotourism Australia to order a workbook, or register to apply online by clicking
here

2. Complete the self-assessment criteria

3. Submit your application to Ecotourism Australia for independent assessment

4. An onsite audit will be conducted within the first 3 years of applying to ensure the
standards are being maintained. The audit may be within weeks after gaining certification or
any time up to 3 years thereafter.

NB. If you already have ATAP or TAAL business accreditation, then you will receive credit for
section 1 – you won’t have to fill out this section, just provide us a copy of your certificate.

The fees below are based on the turnover of your business and the table below details the
cost for each level Gross Turnover Once-only Assessment Fee Annual Fee < $250,000 $385
$335 $250,001 - $1,000,000 $445 $530 $1,000,001 - $5,000,000 $550 $770 $5,000,001 -
$10,000,000 $645 $930 > $10,000,000 $850 $1040

Prerequisites for Certification

All necessary licences, permits and approvals have been obtained, including rezoning
applications, development consents, building approvals, tour operator’s permits and vessel
surveys. The regulations, licences and permits table supplied has been filled in correctly.

The 10 Sections of ECO Certification…

1. Business Management and Operational Planning

If the business has an existing Business and Marketing Plan and Operational Strategies it is
not necessary to redo these, as long as the existing plan and operational policies and
procedures meets the criteria.



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If the business does not have the documentation in place, blank electronic templates are
available for use by the business.

If the business is currently accredited under one of the ATAA national tourism accreditation
programs, and is already using the logo (green circle with gold tick), the Business
Management and Operational Planning section does not need to be completed.

1.1 Legal Compliance

There are a number of regulations, licences and permits including vessel surveys that are
required to operate a nature tourism or ecotourism business

Summary of ECO Certification 2009

1.2 Insurance Details Public Liability Insurance, and other business insurance provide the
nature tourism and ecotourism business with necessary security in the event of an accident
affecting the business operation

1.3 Business Plan

A Business Plan helps set out a vision for the nature tourism and ecotourism business and
facilitates sound future decision making. Ecotourism Australia has a template that you can
use if you need to develop a Business Plan.

1.4 Marketing Plan

A Marketing Plan helps the nature tourism and ecotourism businesses identify where its
visitors are coming from and how to best access and communicate with those visitors.
Ecotourism Australia has a template that you can use if you need to develop a Business Plan.

1.5 Human Resources

Effective management policies for staff, combined with staff training, will result in more
motivated and loyal staff.

1.6 Operational Management and Business Systems

The operational management of nature tourism and ecotourism businesses is documented
to ensure consistent standards and service quality outcomes.

1.7 Customer Service

Established customer service standards set by the nature tourism and ecotourism
businesses lead to greater customer satisfaction and consistency of service.

1.8 Risk Management

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The nature and ecotourism business is committed to providing a safe workplace, providing
safe experiences to all customers and has documented risk management and emergency
procedures accessible to staff and customers.

2. Business Ethics

The business and all its personnel adopt and follow ethical business practices such as:

• accepts a commitment to best practice ecological sustainability, natural area
management, and the provision of quality ecotourism experiences;

• works through ecotourism to protect and preserve the natural and cultural heritage and
Indigenous relationship to land;

• values the social, cultural and natural heritage diversity of Australia;

• values cultural and natural integrity and authenticity in business;

• will eliminate any practice that is unacceptably damaging the environment, heritage or
Indigenous culture and beliefs;

• will eliminate any practice that could be damaging to trade or consumers or to the dignity
of the ecotourism industry;

• acknowledges its responsibilities in meeting the reasonable expectations of all customers
to the best of its ability. Customers include any individual or business wishing to use or
receive the goods or services of the business;

• is committed to complying with the National Privacy Principles contained in the Privacy
Act.

• shall endeavour to treat all customers equally;

• reserves the right to change its goods and services to meet the expectations of its
customers;

• is responsible for all of its advertising and promotional activities, which accurately reflect
the activities of the business;

• will inform direct customers of all the terms and conditions of the contract including the
terms of payment and any cancellation conditions. We will do this prior to or at the time of
entering the transaction or purchase of our goods and/or services. This business will adhere
to those terms and conditions;

• will ensure that all monies received from a customer are receipted and an authentic copy
will be provided to the customer;
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• will fairly and amicably deal with all reasonable customer concerns and queries. The
decision of any mediator who may be employed will be final and binding

• will present its goods and services in the best possible way;

Summary of ECO Certification 2009

• will exercise all reasonable care to address customers’ safety and comfort;

• will take all reasonable measures to ensure that all plant, equipment and products are in
good working order. We will, under duty of care, list potential hazards and risks that exist
within the business and implement methods to regularly assess and minimise them;

• will where possible inform customers of pertinent facts concerning other tours,
transportation, accommodation or other tourist services available to our customers; and

• will adhere to industry codes of practice where they apply.

3. Responsible Marketing

Marketing provides clients with information that increases respect for the natural and
cultural environments visited. Operators provide clients with an accurate and responsible
depiction of what to expect from the product.

Nature tourism and ecotourism marketing and supplementary information provide
customers with an accurate and responsible depiction of what to expect from the product
and how to respect the natural and cultural environments visited.

4. Customer Satisfaction

Customer satisfaction is achieved when the experience offered consistently meets or
exceeds the realistic expectations of customers. Ecotourism operations monitor and act
upon customer feedback.

5. Natural Area and/ or Cultural Focus

Applicants need to complete this section to determine which program they wish to qualify
for. If you have both a nature and cultural tourism focus, you may wish to apply for both
ECO and ROC Certification.

5.1 Natural Area Focus

Nature tourism and ecotourism occurs in and relies on, the use of the natural environment.
It includes a focus on its biological, physical and cultural features. Nature tourism and
ecotourism focuses on directly and personally experiencing nature.


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5.2 Indigenous Cultural Focus

Tourism is sensitive to the value of interpretation and involves different cultures,
particularly Indigenous culture. Many tourism areas have significant cultural values and
tourism should embrace the cultural aspects of an area visited.

6. Environmental Management

Nature tourism and ecotourism activities should not degrade the natural environment.
Ecotourism operations are developed and managed to conserve and enhance the natural
and cultural environments in which they operate in, through the recognition and application
of ecologically sustainable practices.

6.1 Environmental Planning and Impact Assessment

Operations have been established on the basis of understanding potential environmental
impacts and are consistent with local and regional environmental planning.

6.2 Operational Environmental Management

All operations have considered their environmental aspects and the management of such
are documented.

Summary of ECO Certification 2009

6.3 Location

Operations are only undertaken in locations where nature tourism and ecotourism is an
appropriate use and impacts are minimised.

6.4 Construction Methods and Materials

Construction has maximised the use of renewable and recycled materials and has involved
practices to minimise environmental impacts.

6.5 Site Disturbance, Landscaping and Rehabilitation

The operation involves minimal disturbance; any areas disturbed are rehabilitated to restore
ecological processes.

6.6 Drainage, Soil and Water Management

Site drainage reflects the natural site topography and the operation does not cause soil loss,
or impacts such as erosion and sediment pollution to down slope lands and waterways.




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6.7 Visual Impacts

Nature tourism and ecotourism operations are not visually dominant.

6.8 Biodiversity Conservation

Provide evidence that the nature tourism and ecotourism products’ biodiversity impacts
have been minimised.

6.9 Lighting

Where natural lighting is inadequate, lighting is minimised to a level where the visibility of
signs and displays is still clear, and to also provide for safety and security.

6.10 Water Supply and Conservation

Operations involve minimal use of an ecologically sustainable supply of water.

6.11 Waste Water

Sewage and effluent is minimised and has no significant environmental impact.

6.12 Noise

Nature tourism and ecotourism operations enable customers to experience the natural
sound-scape.

6.13 Air Quality

Nature tourism and ecotourism operations involve minimal air pollution.

6.14 Waste Minimisation and Management

The waste minimisation policy of reduce, reuse, and recycle underpins the operation of the
product.

6.15 Energy Use and Minimisation: buildings

6.16 Energy Use and Minimisation: transport

6.17 Minimal Disturbance to Wildlife

6.18 Minimal Impact Nocturnal Wildlife Viewing

6.19 Minimal Impact Marine Animal and Mega Fauna Viewing

6.20 Minimal Impact Walking

6.21 Minimal Impact Camping
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6.22 Minimal Impact Vehicle Use

6.23 Minimal Impact Power Boat Use

6.24 Minimal Impact Non-powered Boat Use

6.25 Minimal Impact Aircraft Use

6.26 Minimal Impact Rock Climbing and Abseiling

6.27 Minimal Impact Caving (show caves)

6.28 Minimal Impact Caving (wild caves)

6.29 Minimal Impact Snorkelling and SCUBA Diving

6.30 Minimal Impact Trail Riding and Animal Tours

6.31 Minimal Impact Fishing

6.32 Minimal Impact Houseboat Use (inland waters)

6.33 Minimal Impact Houseboat Use (marine)

6.34 Minimal Impact Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP)

Summary of ECO Certification 2009

7. Interpretation and Education

Ecotourism products attract customers who wish to interact with the natural environment
and, in varying degrees, develop their knowledge, awareness, appreciation and enjoyment
of it. Ecotourism operators provide an appropriate level of interpretation about the natural
and cultural heritage of the areas visited, through the employment of appropriately
qualified guides and the provision of accurate information both prior to and during the
experience. The level and type of interpretation is planned, designed and delivered to meet
the interests, needs and expectations of the customer and includes a broad range of
interpretive opportunities, both personal and non-personal.

7.1 Interpretive Services

7.2 Content of interpretation and educational information

7.3 Interpretive planning

7.4 Staff training, awareness and understanding

8. Contribution to Conservation

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Ecotourism involves active participation in the conservation and enhancement of the
natural area visited. In particular, ecotourism products provide constructive contributions to
the management and conservation of natural areas. This contribution may include the
provision of physical, financial or in-kind assistance.

8.1 Conservation initiatives - local

8.2 Conservation initiatives - global

9. Working with Local Communities

In many situations the local community is integral to the ecotourism product. The benefits
of ecotourism should be distributed to the local community. Benefits may include
employment of local guides, the purchase of provisions and services and the use of local
facilities.

9.1 Provision of local benefits

9.2 Minimal impact on local communities

9.3 Community involvement

10. Cultural Respect and Sensitivity

Although the focus of ecotourism is primarily on the natural values of an area, many of
these areas have significant cultural values, especially Indigenous values. Hence, ecotourism
should also embrace the cultural aspects of an area visited.

10.1 Consultation and Training

10.2 Visitor Information

10.3 Indigenous Arts, Crafts & Goods

Summary of ECO Certification 2009

Examples of Best Practice

Responsible marketing

• The operator uses only Eco Certification Program accredited accommodation, carriers or
principals.

• The operator’s web site is hot linked to another operator’s web site that offers Eco
Certification Program accredited products.



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• The operator promotes another operator’s Eco Certification Program accredited products
in his/her own marketing material.

• The operator takes bookings for Eco Certification Program accredited products on behalf
of another operator.

Natural area focus

• The acquisition of land for conservation purposes.

• The registration of property on the Register of the National Estate.

• Become a part of Australia’s National Reserve System.

• No more than five customers per guide.

• A tour guarantees that a group will not encounter another operation’s tour throughout
the experience in the natural area.

• The overall environment is dominated by the sounds of the natural environment. To meet
this, all audible tonal and impulsive noises and maximum sound pressure levels must come
from background sources, as measured at key visitor areas on the site.

Environmental sustainability - impact assessment

• Remove vessel from the river each night via a fixed crane to: reduce stress to the
riverbank; reduce marine growth on the bottom of the vessel, which reduces the need to
anti-foul; and eliminate the need for anchoring or mooring in the river.

• The operation and management of the structures and facilities are undertaken in
accordance with an environmental management plan, which meets the requirements of the
International Environmental Management Standards in the ISO 14000 series or equivalent.


• A study has been undertaken to determine limits of acceptable change, or the social and
environmental carrying capacity, of the tour site.

• An ongoing, independent monitoring program assessing environmental impact has been
established.

Environmental sustainability - site location

• Development of the ecotourism facility has occurred on a degraded site that is restored
and rehabilitated with local native species.

Environmental sustainability - energy consumption

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• Using vegetable based oil for engines.

• The operation uses solar powered vehicles that are either directly charged by the sun or
via an electricity supply sourced from renewable energy.

• The operation sources part or all of its energy from a methane-based composting system.

• The operation runs a program that rewards customers who choose to use less energy,
water and resources during their experience.

Environmental sustainability – waste minimisation

• The operation recycles waste paper into products for customers to purchase.

Summary of ECO Certification 2009

Interpretation

• Tours are filmed to provide further feedback and interpretation on the trip, as the guide
can further explain and point out things that guests may have missed. These videos are for
sale to the group as an ongoing conservation resource and memento of the trip.

• Customers are encouraged to provide constructive written feedback about their
interpretive or educational experience so that quality can be further improved.

• Interpretive material promotes concepts of ecotourism beyond the area of operation.

• The operator shares best practice ideas with other operators through publications,
training programs, workshops and influence in professional organisations.

• The operator commits resources to regular community service aimed at educating the
local community

• The operator commits resources to regular community service aimed at educating the
local community on ecotourism and sustainable practices.

• Interpretation promotes tangible environmental actions.

• The operator demonstrates a significant commitment to upgrading the skills and training
of guides and interpretive personnel.

Contributions to conservation

• Funding of fauna and flora research.

• Offering guests the opportunity to participate in conversation activities, such as
monitoring the flora and fauna, and research/regeneration projects.

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• Provide information on wildlife to Parks and Wildlife services about nesting and hatching
sightings to monitor changes in population numbers.

• Setting aside land for conservation/research and to use it as a control area to monitor
visitor impacts.

• Long-term partnerships with local conservation groups are formed which provide mutual,
tangible benefits.

• The operator and/or staff are involved with a formal scientific research project aimed at
measuring and understanding environmental impacts.

• The operator and/or staff formally contribute to, or are members of, a scientific advisory
committee.

• Financial support is provided to research initiatives and public land management projects
beyond normal permit/licensing fee arrangements.

• A full-time qualified environmental management officer(s) is employed.

• Customers spend more than a third of their time participating in research, management or
rehabilitation of the natural area.

• A privately managed area for nature conservation is created and developed.

• Significant infrastructure/site hardening is developed to protect an area and is provided
for all visitors to help protect/minimise damage to an area.

• The operation has entered into a voluntary conservation agreement with a protected area
manager or private landowner.

• The operator contributes to the further professional development of ecotourism through
active involvement in a relevant professional association eg. Ecotourism Australia,
Australian Tourism Operators Network, Interpretation Australia Association, Inbound
Tourism Organisation of Australia, Tourism Council of Australia.

Summary of ECO Certification 2009

Working with local communities

• Operators should encourage local and regional tourism bodies to experience all of their
products.

• The operator offers a permanent discount off fares/entry for locals.



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                                                                  E.T.CONSULTANTS
                                                                   Treading Lightly on the Earth”

• The operator has identified how to minimise negative social impacts through discussions
with specialists and has acted according to information gathered.

• The operator has been involved in a social impact study undertaken on the local
community.

• The operator is assisting to implement the recommendations of a social impact study
undertaken on the local community.

• The operator has a contract with a community-based food cooperative to purchase food in
bulk on a regular basis.

For further information on ECO Certification, please contact: 07 3252 1530 or
Amy@ecotourism.org.au

For a full copy of the program, please contact the National Office on 07 3252 1530.




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                                                                          Treading Lightly on the Earth”

Bibliography


Websites

Lighthouses of New South Wales            http://www.Lighthouse.net.au/lights/NSW/Index%20NSW.asp

Cape Otway                                http://www.lightstation.com/

Cape Byron                                http://www.Lighthouse.net.au

Smokey Cape                                http://www.smokeycapeLighthouse.com

Norah Head Lighthouse                      http://www.norahheadLighthouse.com.au/

Board of Studies            http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/files/hsie/k6hsie_stg2_unitsofwork.pdf

Activity Tours                             http://www.activitytours.com.au

Eco Certification                          http://www.ecotourism.org.au/eco_certification.asp

http://www.ozeco.com.au/Tours-
Packages.html#ecwid:category=143239&mode=category&offset=0&sort=normal



Jenny Dixon Story                          http://markhall.hubpages.com/hub/ghostofjennydixon

                                       http://www.norahheadLighthouse.com.au/environment2009.htm

Newspapers

Express Advocate

Books

Marketing reports from previous years 2006 and 2010




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