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					State Skills Test Review – Retailing
                Test date ______________________

  1. Define Retailing.

     It is the selling of goods or services to the customer.

  2. What is the difference between goods and services?

     Goods are tangible items, but services are intangible

  3. Name some types of retailers.

     Catalog, internet, goods and services retailers, etc.

  4. What is the most important characteristic that all retailers share?

     All retailers want to make their products available to customers when they
want them and where they want them.

  5. What are three benefits of retailing?

     Retailing benefits customers, the community and the local and national

  6. Describe at least three tasks that retailers perform.

      Some tasks include: buying merchandise and products, determing sales
price, inventory, promotion, display, selling and service of goods.

  7. Why is the NAICS Codes important?

      NAICS is important because it enables nations to compare business
statistics by industy and get some idea about their competition.

  8. How many NAICS categories are there for the retail industry?

  9. What are the three types of business organizations?

     single proprietorship, partnerships and corporations

  10.      Identify a store based retailer.

      A store based retailer operates and conducts business from a fixed
location including general merchandise retailers, department stores, specialty
stored, discount stores, outlet stores, etc.

  11.        Name the nine categories of service retailers.

     Financial, hospitality & lodging, maintenance and repair, personal services,
recreation & tourism, rental, restaurant and food services, security services &
transportation services.

  12.      Explain multichannel retailing & e-tailing.

     Multichannel retailing is the use of more than one method for reaching
  customers. E-tailing is the selling of goods or services to customers by means
  of the internet.

  13.      Identify elements to include on a retail website.

     Store’s name, address, phone and fax numbers, hours of operation,
directions to store, and email contact info as well as catalogs of products.

  14.     What is non-store selling and identify types of non-store

     Non store selling is any form of retailing that takes place in areas other
than a fixed location for example, direct selling, vending machine, direct mail,
telephone sales, infomercials, street vendors

  15.      Why is determining a target market important?
     Retailers can focus on the needs of their specific customers

  16.     What are the four major categories of market segmentation?

     demographics, psychographics, geographics & product benefits.

  17.    Why is it important for retailers to develop a competitive

     It makes one retail establishment more desirable to customers than
another that is offering the same merchandise.

  18.    Why is business credit important for retailers and what are the
    5 C’s of credit?

     Credit is importand when making purchases for businesses. It allows them
     to pay at a later time.

     The 5 c’s are
     Capacity – ability to pay
     Character – reliability
     Credit history – amount of past debt and record of payment
     Capital – assets owned after debt
     Collateral – property or valuables pledged as security

  19.     What are three types of business expenses?

     Operating expenses, interest expenses and cost of goods sold

  20.     What are the three categories of business risk?

     economic, natural and human

  21.     Explain a merchandise plan.
     A merchandise plan is a basic budgeting tool that assists the retailer in
meeting department goals. It uses figures from previous years to create a plan
for the current year.

  22.      What are the components of a merchandise plan?

     Planned sales
     Planned stock
     Planned reductions
     Planed purchases

  23.      Identify the four stages of the merchandise life cycle.

     Introduction, growth, acceptance and decline

  24.      What are the four steps in the merchandise receiving process?

      Receive the merchandise, check the merchandise for correct quantity &
quality, mark prices, move it to selling area.

  25.      What are two types of inventory control methods.

     Physical inventory – count products manually
     Perpetual inventory – computer tracks it

  26.      Why is stock turnover important?

      Stock-turnover rates tell the retailer if his or her merchandise is selling
at a reasonable rate, and it is a tool for comparing to competition.

  27.      What are the five characteristics of the buyer’s job?

      A buyer determines the money available for purchases, what merchandise
the customers will want, the best vendors, negotiates the best terms and
delivery times.

  28.      How does a buy determine what to buy?
    A buyer uses target market information, sales records, customer
  preferences and customers requests and often shops the competition to
  determine what to buy.

  29.      Define markup and markdown.

     Markup is the term used to express the difference between the cost of
the merchandise or service and the selling price. Markdown is a reduction in
the original selling price.

  30.      Name three factors that affect the selling price.

     Competition, supply & demand, customer acceptance.

  31.      What are two differences between strip centers and malls?

     Strip centers are connected by walkways or sidewalks and parking is in the
front. Malls are enclosed and parking is around the mall building.

  32.      Explain the importance of traffic for a retail business.

      Traffic refers to the number of people who pass a retail location during a
given period of time.

  33.      What is a business’s trade area?

     It is the geographic area from which a store draws most of its customers.

  34.      What are nine site selection criteria?

     Trade area, traffic, ease of access, parking, visibility, competition, zoning,
  lease terms and merchandise sold.

  35.      Explain the importance of store image.
    Store image can be described as the personality of the store. It affects
  how customers feel about the store.

  36.     Why is store design so important?

     Store design is so important that may hire professionals. It creates the
impression that their customers have.

  37.     What is store layout.

     Store layout is the arrangement of the stores merchandise, fixtures and

  38.     What are the goals of an effective store layout?

     To present the store’s merchandise to its best advantage and to help sell
the merchandise.

  39.     Define visual merchandising.

    Visual merchandising is the integrated look of the entire store and is
composed of all the visual aspects of the store.

  40.     What are the five styles of interior store display.

     Open display – setting which allows customers to touch and handle product
     Closed display – product is in closed case and need to ask for assistance
     Room setting display – items are assembled to allow customers to see how
           certain merchandise will look in their homes.
     Point- of – sale display – used for impulse buying near the cash register
     Store decoration display- used to promote seasonal or holiday items

  41.     What are the four types of promotion?

     sales promotion, public relations, advertising & personal selling

  42.     Define promotional mix.
     Promotional mix is the way the retailer combines the four types of

  43.     What are five SALES promotion techniques a retailer might use?

     contests, sales events, premiums, free samples & email

  44.     What is publicity?

     Publicity is any unpaid mention of a retail business

  45.     What are the two major categories of advertising?

     Product advertising – is a paid message used by business to promote a
           product or group of products.
     Institutional advertising – is a paid message used to promote the
           business’s image or to create goodwill for the business.

  46.     What are the three types of advertising?

     retail, vendor & cooperative

  47.     What are the four types of advertising media?

     print media, broadcast media, online media & specialty media

  48.     Identify characteristics of an effective retail sales associate.

     Must have good people skills, want to help customers, have good personal

  49.     What are the two categories of a sales associates job tasks?

     Non selling tasks – straightening stock, restock of selves
     Selling tasks – handles merchandise returns, service to customers
  50.    Why is it important for sales associates to have good product

      A knowledgeable sales associate can provide the information a customer
     needs to make an informed buying decision.

  51.      What are two types of customer buying motives?

     rational & emotional

  52.      What are the seven steps of a sale?

     Open the sale
     determine customer needs
     present the merchandise
     overcome objection
     close the sale
     perform suggestion selling
     follow up

  53.      What are the three types of customer greetings?

     social – “Hello, or good afternoon”
     service – “May I help you”
     merchandise – “Have you seen our new DVD players?”

  54.      What are four ways a sales associate can use suggestion selling?

     Suggest a greater quantity, suggest new merchandise or new product,
  inform customers about special sales in store.

  55.      Define customer service.

      Customer service is the set of enhancements that retailers offer
customers to make shopping more convenient or more rewarding. (Ex. child
care, coat check, bridal registry, credit terms, lay away, extended store hours,
dressing rooms, gift certificates.
  56.      Why is word-of-mouth communication so important?

     Positve word of mouth communication means customers will keep coming
back and encourage friends and relative to frequent store.

  57.      What is the most important part of a sales associates job?

     Providing customer service

  58.    Why is employee retention important in the delivery of
    outstanding customer service?

      Long-term employees are happy and happy employees pass along their good
feelings to customers.

  59.    What are two ways management can help employees provide
    excellent customer service.

     training and empowerment

  60.      What are some important characteristics of a store manager.

      delegating, mulit-tasking, ability to get along with people, responsible,
reliable, trustworthiness, punctual, leadership potential

  61.    What are the three areas in which a store manager can control

      Watching for waste, managing selling expenses, minimizing losses due to
shoplifting and employee pilferage.

  62.    What are four parts of a store managers job of managing store

     Hiring, training, supervising and evaluating personnel
  63.    What are some questions you should answer when gathering
    career information?

     Ask about education required, job forecast, work day hours, salary range.

  64.      What are two things to keep in mind when making a career plan?

     Be realistic & specific

  65.      What type of information should be included on your resume?

     contact information, objectives, skills, education, activities & honors

  66.    Why is it important to list offices and memberships on your

     To demonstrate leadership & teamwork ability

  67.    What are three things you should remember when completing a
    job application?

     use blue or black ink, answer completely and truthfully, write neatly and

  68.     What are the two purposes of a follow-up letter after a job

      To say thank you for the interview and to restate your interest and

  69.      Why is punctuality important at work?

     Employers need to make schedule to ensure adequate coverage.

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